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The two app firmwares here are compiled using absolute ROM addresses. So how to combine bootloader. Hi Pier, These links appear to be down: www. Are there any other utilities that can merge three. Ok, found the old files, not sure they're going to be very helpful in the modern context as they are bit DOS apps that will not run on Win64 systems. Does that solve the filespace issue at all well? For a simple utility to manipulate hex files, I would go straight for writing something myself.

It should be bread an butter stuff for a seasoned development engineer. View all questions in Keil forum. Site Search User. Software Tools. Include binary files at an absolute address. I included an image. Reply Cancel Cancel. Up 0 Down Reply Accept answer Cancel. Not sure I have them to hand. If you need something that manages these types of files look at tools like SRecords.

More questions in this forum. All recent questions Unread questions Questions you've participated in Questions you've asked Unanswered questions Answered questions Questions with suggested answers Questions with no replies. Binary Value. For example, the hexadecimal number for the bit binary is. Observation: In order to maintain consistency between assembly and C programs, we will use the 0x format when writing hexadecimal numbers in this class.

You have already learned how to convert from a hexadecimal number to its decimal representation. If you want to practice, Choose an 4-digit hexadecimal number number. Try to calculate the decimal representation. Then type the number in the following field and click "convert" to check your result.

As illustrated in Figure 2. Hexadecimal representation. Computer programming environments use a wide variety of symbolic notations to specify the numbers in hexadecimal. As an example, assume we wish to represent the binary number Some assembly languages use 7AH. The C language uses 0x7A. Precision is the number of distinct or different values. We express precision in alternatives, decimal digits, bytes, or binary bits. Alternatives are defined as the total number of possibilities.

For example, an 8-bit number format can represent different numbers. Table 2. The operation [[ x ]] is defined as the greatest integer of x. The Bytes column in Table 2. Binary bits. Relationship between bits, bytes and alternatives as units of precision.

A byte contains 8 bits as shown in Figure 2. If a byte is used to represent an unsigned number, then the value of the number is. Notice that the significance of bit n is 2 n. There are different unsigned 8-bit numbers. The smallest unsigned 8-bit number is 0 and the largest is Other examples are shown in Table 2. The least significant bit can tell us if the number is even or odd.

Example conversions from unsigned 8-bit binary to hexadecimal and to decimal. The basis of a number system is a subset from which linear combinations of the basis elements can be used to construct the entire set. Each positive integer has a unique set of values such that the dot-product of the value vector times the basis vector yields that number. For the unsigned 8-bit number system, the basis elements are.

The values of a binary number system can only be 0 or 1. Even so, each 8-bit unsigned integer has a unique set of values such that the dot-product of the values times the basis yields that number. In other words, each 8-bit unsigned binary representation of the values 0 to is unique.

One way for us to convert a decimal number into binary is to use the basis elements. The overall approach is to start with the largest basis element and work towards the smallest. More precisely, we start with the most significant bit and work towards the least significant bit. One by one, we ask ourselves whether or not we need that basis element to create our number.

If we do, then we set the corresponding bit in our binary result and subtract the basis element from our number. If we do not need it, then we clear the corresponding bit in our binary result. We will work through the algorithm with the example of converting to 8-bit binary, see Table 2.

We start with the largest basis element in this case and ask whether or not we need to include it to make ? Since our number is less than , we do not need it, so bit 7 is zero. Continuing along, we do not need basis elements 16 or 8, but we do need basis element 4. Once we subtract the 4, our working result is zero, so basis elements 2 and 1 are not needed. Observation: If the least significant binary bit is zero, then the number is even. Observation: If the right-most n bits least sign.

Observation: Consider an 8-bit unsigned number system. If bit 7 is low, then the number is between 0 and , and if bit 7 is high then the number is between and Example conversion from decimal to unsigned 8-bit binary to hexadecimal. There are a few techniques for converting decimal numbers to binaries. One of them is consecutive divisions. We start by dividing the decimal number by 2. Then we iteratively divide the result the quotient by 2 until the answer is 0.

The equivalent binary is formed by the remainders of the divisions. The last remainder found is the most significant digit. Enter a number between 0 and in the following field and click convert to see an example. Try to convert a decimal number to binary.

For example, if 25 equals 2 in binary, then —25 is 2. The most significant bit is a sign bit, which is 1 if and only if the number is negative. There are different signed 8-bit numbers. The smallest signed 8-bit number is and the largest is Example conversions from signed 8-bit binary to hexadecimal and to decimal. Notice that the same binary pattern of 2 could represent either or —1.

It is very important for the software developer to keep track of the number format. You, as the programmer, will determine whether the number is signed or unsigned by the specific assembly instructions you select to operate on the number. Some operations like addition, subtraction, and shift left multiply by 2 use the same hardware instructions for both unsigned and signed operations.

On the other hand, divide, and shift right divide by 2 require separate hardware instruction for unsigned and signed operations. Similar to the unsigned algorithm, we can use the basis to convert a decimal number into signed binary. We start with the most significant bit in this case — and decide do we need to include it to make —? Yes without —, we would be unable to add the other basis elements together to get any negative result , so we set bit 7 and subtract the basis element from our value.

Our new value equals — minus —, which is Continuing along, we need basis elements 8 and 4 but not 2, 1. First we do a logic complement flip all bits to get 2. Then add one to the result to get 2. A third way to convert negative numbers into binary uses the number wheel. Let n be the number of bits in the binary representation. To convert negative numbers into binary is to first add M to the number, then convert the unsigned result to binary using the unsigned method.

This works because binary numbers with a finite n are like the minute-hand on a clock. If we add 60 minutes, the minute-hand is in the same position. Similarly if we add M to or subtract M from an n-bit number, we go around the number wheel and arrive at the same place.

In this example we have an 8-bit number so the precision is So, first we add to the number, then convert the unsigned result to binary using the unsigned method. For example, to find —, we add plus — to get Then we convert to binary resulting in 2. This method works because in 8-bit binary math adding to number does not change the value. When dealing with numbers on the computer, it will be convenient to memorize some Powers of 2 as shown in Table 2.

A halfword or double byte contains 16 bits, where each bit b 15 , If a halfword is used to represent an unsigned number, then the value of the number is. There are different unsigned bit numbers. The smallest unsigned bit number is 0 and the largest is Example conversions from unsigned bit binary to hexadecimal and to decimal.

There are also different signed bit numbers. Example conversions from signed bit binary to hexadecimal and to decimal. Common Error: An error will occur if you use bit operations on 8-bit numbers, or use 8-bit operations on bit numbers.

Maintenance Tip: To improve the clarity of your software, always specify the precision of your data when defining or accessing the data. Consider an unsigned number with 32 bits, where each bit b 31 , If a bit number is used to represent an unsigned integer, then the value of the number is.

There are 2 32 different unsigned bit numbers. The smallest unsigned bit number is 0 and the largest is 2 32 This range is 0 to about 4 billion. For the unsigned bit number system, the basis elements are. There are also 2 32 different signed bit numbers. The smallest signed bit number is -2 31 and the largest is 2 31 For the signed bit number system, the basis elements are. Maintenance Tip: When programming in C, we will use data types char short and long when we wish to explicitly specify the precision as 8-bit, bit or bit.

For most compilers for the ARM processor, int will be 32 bits. Observation: When programming in assembly, we will always explicitly specify the precision of our numbers and calculations. A fixed-point number contains two parts.

The first part is a variable integer, called I. The variable integer will be stored on the computer. The fixed constant will NOT be stored on the computer. The fixed constant is something we keep track of while designing the software operations. The value of the number is the product of the variable integer times the fixed constant.

The integer may be signed or unsigned. An unsigned fixed-point number is one that has an unsigned variable integer. A signed fixed-point number is one that has a signed variable integer. The precision of a fixed-point number is determined by the number of bits used to store the variable integer. On most microcontrollers, we can use 8, 16, or 32 bits for the integer.

An example is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Signed vs. Unsigned Numbers. The computer does not distinguish between signed and unsigned numbers in memory. The interpretation is yours to make. Enter an 8-bit binary number in the following field and press "show" to see its value if interpreted as signed or unsigned integer.

For convenience, you can also enter hexadecimal input with '0x' prefix. To better understand the expression embedded microcomputer system , consider each word separately. Systems have structure, behavior, and interconnectivity operating in a framework bound by rules and regulations.

In an embedded system, we use ROM for storing the software and fixed constant data and RAM for storing temporary information. The functionality of a digital watch is defined by the software programmed into its ROM. When you remove the batteries from a watch and insert new batteries, it still behaves like a watch because the ROM is nonvolatile storage.

As shown in Figure 2. The microcontrollers often must communicate with each other. An embedded system includes a microcomputer interfaced to external devices. A digital multimeter, as shown in Figure 2. The output is a liquid crystal display LCD showing measured parameters. The large black chip inside the box is a microcontroller. The software that defines its very specific purpose is programmed into the ROM of the microcontroller.

As you can see, there is not much else inside this box other than the microcontroller, a fuse, a rotary dial to select the mode, a few interfacing resistors, and a battery. A digital multimeter contains a microcontroller programmed to measure voltage, current and resistance. One typically restricts the term embedded to refer to systems that do not look and behave like a typical computer.

Most embedded systems do not have a keyboard, a graphics display, or secondary storage disk. There are two ways to develop embedded systems. In general, there is no operating system, so the entire software system is developed. These devices are suitable for low-cost, low-performance systems. On the other hand, one can develop a high-performance embedded system around a more powerful microcontroller such as the ARM Cortex A-series. These systems typically employ an operating system and are first designed on a development platform, and then the software and hardware are migrated to a stand-alone embedded platform.

The external devices attached to the microcontroller allow the system to interact with its environment. We must also learn how to interface a wide range of inputs and outputs that can exist in either digital or analog form.

In this class we provide an introduction to microcomputer programming, hardware interfacing, and the design of embedded systems. The book Embedded Systems: Real-Time Operating Systems for ARM Cortex-M Microcontrollers describes real-time operating systems and applies embedded system design to real-time data acquisition, digital signal processing, high-speed networks, and digital control systems.

Because of low cost, low power, and high performance, there has been and will continue to be an advantage of using time-encoded inputs and outputs. One such parallel port is Port A. Ports are a collection of pins, usually 8, which can be used for either input or output. The other general concept involved in most embedded systems is they run in real time. In a real-time computer system, we can put an upper bound on the time required to perform the input-calculation-output sequence.

A real-time system can guarantee a worst case upper bound on the response time between when the new input information becomes available and when that information is processed. This response time is called interface latency. Another real-time requirement that exists in many embedded systems is the execution of periodic tasks. A periodic task is one that must be performed at equal-time intervals. A real-time system can put a small and bounded limit on the time error between when a task should be run and when it is actually run.

Because of the real-time nature of these systems, microcontrollers have a rich set of features to handle many aspects of time. List some of the input devices available on a general purpose computer. List some of the output devices available on a general purpose computer. The embedded computer systems in this course will contain a Texas Instruments TM4C microcontroller, which will be programmed to perform a specific dedicated application. Software for embedded systems typically solves only a limited range of problems.

The microcomputer is embedded or hidden inside the device. In an embedded system, the software is usually programmed into ROM and therefore fixed. Consequently, testing must be considered in the original design, during development of intermediate components, and in the final product. Embedded Systems. The common bus in Figure 2.

Computers are not intelligent. Rather, you are the true genius. Computers are electronic idiots. They can store a lot of data, but they will only do exactly what we tell them to do. It is a set of instructions, stored in memory, that are executed in a complicated but well-defined manner. For example, a desktop PC is a microcomputer. Small in this context describes its size not its computing power. Consequently, there can be great confusion over the term microcomputer, because it can refer to a very wide range of devices from a PIC12C, which is an 8-pin chip with words of ROM and 25 bytes RAM, to the most powerful I7-based personal computer.

Ports allow information to enter and exit the system. Information enters via the input ports and exits via the output ports. A bus is a collection of wires used to pass information between modules. Because a microcomputer is a small computer, this term can be confusing because it is used to describe a wide range of systems from a 6-pin ATtiny4 running at 1 MHz with bytes of program memory to a personal computer with state-of-the-art bit multi-core processor running at multi-GHz speeds having terabytes of storage.

Four transistors are used to create two cross-coupled inverters that store the binary information, and the other two are used to read and write the bit. ROMs are nonvolatile; meaning if power is interrupted and restored the information in the ROM is retained. Some ROMs are programmed at the factory and can never be changed.

We cannot program ones into the ROM. We first erase the ROM, which puts ones into the entire memory, and then we program the zeros as needed. The input gate of one transistor is electrically isolated, so if we trap charge on this input, it will remain there for years. The other transistor is used to read the bit by sensing whether or not the other transistor has trapped charge. Flash ROM must be erased in large blocks.

On many of Stellaris family of microcontrollers, we can erase the entire ROM or just a byte block. Because flash is smaller than regular EEPROM, most microcontrollers have a large flash into which we store the software. For all the systems in this class, we will store instructions and constants in flash ROM and place variables and temporary data in static RAM. The Cortex-M instruction set combines the high performance typical of a bit processor with high code density typical of 8-bit and bit microcontrollers.

There are many sophisticated debugging features utilizing the DCode bus. The tight integration of the processor and interrupt controller provides fast execution of interrupt service routines ISRs , dramatically reducing the interrupt latency.

Even though data and instructions are fetched bits at a time, each 8-bit byte has a unique address. The processor can read or write 8-bit, bit, or bit data. Exactly how many bits are affected depends on the instruction, which we will see later in this chapter. Computer Organization. The external devices attached to the microcontroller provide functionality for the system.

A pin is one wire on the microcontroller used for input or output. A port is a collection of pins. Most of the pins shown in Figure 2. An example of an input interface is a switch, where the operator toggles the switch, and the software can recognize the switch position. An example of an output interface is a light-emitting diode LED , where the software can turn the light on and off, and the operator can see whether or not the light is shining.

There is a wide range of possible inputs and outputs, which can exist in either digital or analog form. Reading Assignment:. Registers are high-speed storage inside the processor. R0 to R12 are general purpose registers and contain either data or addresses. Register R13 also called the stack pointer, SP points to the top element of the stack.

Register R14 also called the link register, LR is used to store the return location for functions. The LR is also used in a special way during exceptions, such as interrupts. Interrupts are covered in Chapter Register R15 also called the program counter, PC points to the next instruction to be fetched from memory.

The processor fetches an instruction using the PC and then increments the PC. If this bit is 1, most interrupts and exceptions are not allowed. If the bit is 0, then interrupts are allowed. If this bit is 1, all interrupts and faults are not allowed. If the bit is 0, then interrupts and faults are allowed. The nonmaskable interrupt NMI is not affected by these mask bits. It prevents interrupts with lower or equal priority but allows higher priority interrupts.

For example if BASEPRI equals 3, then requests with level 0, 1, and 2 can interrupt, while requests at levels 3 and higher will be postponed. A lower number means a higher priority interrupt. The details of interrupt processing will be presented in subsequent chapters. This class will not describe in detail all the Thumb instructions. This subset will be functionally complete without regard to minimizing code size or optimizing for execution speed.

Furthermore, we will show general forms of instructions, but in many cases there are specific restrictions on which registers can be used and the sizes of the constants. Assembly language instructions have four fields separated by spaces or tabs. You must choose a unique name for each label. Thumb instructions have 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 operands, separated by commas. You can add optional spaces between operands in the operand field.

However, a semicolon must separate the operand and comment fields. Good programmers add comments to explain the software. Observation: A good comment explains why an operation is being performed, how it is used, how it can be changed, or how it was debugged.

A bad comment explains what the operation does. The comments in the above two assembly lines are examples of bad comments. When describing assembly instructions we will use the following list of symbols. For example, the general description of the addition instruction. CS or HS. CC or LO. This is the default when no suffix specified. Condition code suffixes used to optionally execution instruction.

It is much better to add comments to explain how or even better why we do the action. Good comments also describe how the code was tested and identify limitations. But for now we are learning what the instruction is doing, so in this chapter comments will describe what the instruction does. All object code is halfword-aligned.

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This option specifies how many application keys the device can store per network. Indeed, this value decides the number of the application keys which can be owned by a node. Indeed, this value decides the number of the Virtual Addresses can be supported by a node. This option specifies the maximum capacity of the replay protection list. It is similar to Network message cache size, but has a different purpose.

The replay protection list is used to prevent a node from replay attack, which will store the source address and sequence number of the received mesh messages. For Provisioner, the replay protection list size should not be smaller than the maximum number of nodes whose information can be stored. And the element number of each node should also be taken into consideration.

For example, if Provisioner can provision up to 20 nodes and each node contains two elements, then the replay protection list size of Provisioner should be at least Number of messages that are cached for the network. This helps prevent unnecessary decryption operations and unnecessary relays. This option is similar to Replay protection list, but has a different purpose. Number of advertising buffers available. When the IV Update state enters Normal operation or IV Update in Progress, we need to keep track of how many hours has passed in the state, since the specification requires us to remain in the state at least for 96 hours Update in Progress has an additional upper limit of hours.

In order to fulfill the above requirement, even if the node might be powered off once in a while, we need to store persistently how many hours the node has been in the state. The exact cadence will depend a lot on the ways that the node will be used and what kind of power source it has.

Since there is no single optimal answer, this configuration option allows specifying a divider, i. After each interval the duration that the node has been in the current state gets stored to flash. The default value is 1, which means the device can only send one segmented message at a time. And if another segmented message is going to be sent, it should wait for the completion of the previous one.

If users are going to send multiple segmented messages at the same time, this value should be configured properly. The default value is 1, which means the device can only receive one segmented message at a time. And if another segmented message is going to be received, it should wait for the completion of the previous one. If users are going to receive multiple segmented messages at the same time, this value should be configured properly.

Leave this to the default value, unless you really need to optimize memory usage. Maximum number of segments supported for outgoing messages. This value should typically be fine-tuned based on what models the local node supports, i. This value affects memory and call stack consumption, which is why the default is lower than the maximum that the specification would allow 32 segments.

Be sure to specify a sufficient number of advertising buffers when setting this option to a higher value. Support for acting as a Mesh Relay Node. Enabling this option will allow a node to support the Relay feature, and the Relay feature can still be enabled or disabled by proper configuration messages. Disabling this option will let a node not support the Relay feature.

When selected, self-send packets will be put in a high-priority queue and relay packets will be put in a low-priority queue. Enable this option to operate as a Low Power Node. If low power consumption is required by a node, this option should be enabled.

And once the node enters the mesh network, it will try to find a Friend node and establish a friendship. Perform the Friendship establishment using low power with the help of a reduced scan duty cycle. The downside of this is that the node may miss out on messages intended for it until it has successfully set up Friendship with a Friend node. When this option is enabled, the node will stop scanning for a period of time after a Friend Request or Friend Poll is sent, so as to reduce more power consumption.

Once provisioned, automatically enable LPN functionality and start looking for Friend nodes. When an unprovisioned device is provisioned successfully and becomes a node, enabling this option will trigger the node starts to send Friend Request at a certain period until it finds a proper Friend node. Time in seconds from the last received message, that the node waits out before starting to look for Friend nodes.

The ReceiveDelay is the time between the Low Power node sending a request and listening for a response. This delay allows the Friend node time to prepare the response. The value is in units of milliseconds. PollTimeout timer is used to measure time between two consecutive requests sent by a Low Power node. If no requests are received the Friend node before the PollTimeout timer expires, then the friendship is considered terminated. The value is in units of milliseconds, so e.

The smaller the value, the faster the Low Power node tries to get messages from corresponding Friend node and vice versa. The initial value of the PollTimeout timer when Friendship is to be established for the first time. After this, the timeout gradually grows toward the actual PollTimeout, doubling in value for each iteration. Latency in milliseconds is the time it takes to enable scanning. In practice, it means how much time in advance of the Receive Window, the request to enable scanning is made.

Minimum number of buffers available to be stored for each local Friend Queue. This option decides the size of each buffer which can be used by a Friend node to store messages for each Low Power node. A Friend node can have friendship with multiple Low Power nodes at the same time, while a Low Power node can only establish friendship with only one Friend node at the same time. In other words, this determines from how many elements can segmented messages destined for the Friend queue be received simultaneously.

Select this to save the BLE Mesh related rodata code size. Enabling this option will disable the output of BLE Mesh debug log. Timeout value used by the node to get response of the acknowledged message which is sent by the client model. This value indicates the maximum time that a client model waits for the response of the sent acknowledged messages. If a client model uses 0 as the timeout value when sending acknowledged messages, then the default value will be used which is four seconds.

This option removes the 96 hour limit of the IV Update Procedure and lets the state to be changed at any time. If IV Update test mode is going to be used, this option should be enabled. With this option enabled, an unprovisioned device can automatically enters mesh network using a specific test function without the pro- visioning procedure. And on the Provisioner side, a test function needs to be invoked to add the node information into the mesh stack. With this option enabled, users can use white list to filter mesh advertising packets while scanning.

This allows the ADC to be shut off when it is not working leading to lower power consumption. This is the default value. Name of the custom eFuse CSV filename. All read and writes operations are redirected to RAM instead of eFuse registers. If this option is set, all permanent changes via eFuse are disabled. Log output will state changes which would be applied, but they will not be. Normally, if psram initialization is enabled during compile time but not found at runtime, it is seen as an error making the ESP32 panic.

Runs a rudimentary memory test on initialization. Aborts when memory test fails. Disable this for slightly faster startop. This enables a fix in the compiler -mfix-esppsram-cache-issue that makes sure the specific code that is vulnerable to this will not be emitted.

This will also not use any bits of newlib that are located in ROM, opting for a version that is compiled with the workaround and located in flash instead. The hardware does support larger memories, but these have to be bank-switched in and out of this address space. We cannot at this moment guarantee this to exist when himem is enabled.

If spiram 2T mode is enabled, the size of 64Mbit psram will be changed as 32Mbit, so himem will be unusable. Select the amount of banks reserved for bank switching. Note that this reservation is only actually done if your program actually uses the himem API. If malloc is capable of also allocating SPI-connected ram, its allocation strategy will prefer to allocate chunks less than this size in internal memory, while allocations larger than this will be done from external RAM.

If allocation from the preferred region fails, an attempt is made to allocate from the non-preferred region instead, so malloc will not suddenly fail when either internal or external memory is full. If failed, try to allocate internal memory then. This option reserves a pool specifically for requests like that; the memory in this pool is not given out when a normal malloc is called. Note that because FreeRTOS stacks are forced to internal memory, they will also use this memory pool; be sure to keep this in mind when adjusting this value.

Note also that the DMA reserved pool may not be one single contiguous memory region, depending on the configured size and the static memory usage of the app. Because some bits of the ESP32 code environment cannot be recompiled with the cache workaround, normally tasks cannot be safely run with their stack residing in external memory; for this reason xTaskCreate and friends always allocate stack in internal memory and xTaskCreateStatic will check if the memory passed to it is in internal memory.

Select which one to use here. If user use 1. User can config it based on hardware design. The ESP32 contains a feature which allows you to trace the execution path the processor has taken through the program. Disable this if you do not know what this is. During initialisation, MAC addresses for each network interface are generated or derived from a single base MAC address.

These are generated sequentially by adding 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively to the final octet of the base MAC address. These are generated sequentially by adding 0 and 1 respectively to the base MAC address. When using the default Espressif-assigned base MAC address, either setting can be used. When using a custom universal MAC address range, the correct setting will depend on the allocation of MAC addresses in this range either 2 or 4 per device.

Configure the IPC tasks stack size. One IPC task runs on each core in dual core mode , and allows for cross-core function calls. The default stack size should be enough for most common use cases. It can be shrunk if you are sure that you do not use any custom IPC functionality. If you are seing stack overflow errors in timer task, increase this value. Three options are possible:. If this option is enabled, build system will use functions available in ROM, reducing the application binary size.

Functions available in ROM run faster than functions which run from flash. Functions available in ROM can also run when flash instruction cache is disabled. Configure the panic handlers action here. Outputs the relevant registers over the serial port and halt the processor. Needs a manual reset to restart. Invoke gdbstub on the serial port, allowing for gdb to attach to it to do a postmortem of the crash. Note that if GDB task lists were corrupted, this feature may not work.

If GDBStub fails, try disabling this feature. Debug stubs are used by OpenOCD to execute pre-compiled onboard code which does some useful debugging, e. GCOV data dump. This watchdog timer can detect if the FreeRTOS tick interrupt has not been called for a certain time, either because a task turned off interrupts and did not turn them on for a long time, or because an interrupt handler did not return. It will try to invoke the panic handler first and failing that reset the SoC. The Task Watchdog Timer can be used to make sure individual tasks are still running.

Enabling this option will cause the Task Watchdog Timer to be initialized automatically at startup. If this option is enabled, the Task Watchdog Timer will be configured to trigger the panic handler when it times out. Timeout period configuration for the Task Watchdog Timer in seconds. The ESP32 has a built-in brownout detector which can detect if the voltage is lower than a specific value. If this happens, it will reset the chip in order to prevent unintended behaviour. The brownout detector will reset the chip when the supply voltage is approximately below this level.

Note that there may be some variation of brownout voltage level between each ESP32 chip. The voltage levels here are estimates, more work needs to be done to figure out the exact voltages of the brownout threshold levels. FRC1 name in the option name is kept for compatibility. Higher numbers increase calibration precision, which may be important for applications which spend a lot of time in deep sleep.

Lower numbers reduce startup time. When this option is set to 0, clock calibration will not be performed at startup, and approximate clock frequencies will be assumed:. Increase this option if the 32k crystal oscillator does not start and switches to internal RC. To reduce the startup time of an external RTC crystal, we bootstrap it with a 32kHz square wave for a fixed number of cycles.

Setting 0 will disable bootstrapping if disabled, the crystal may take longer to start up or fail to oscillate under some conditions. If this value is too high, a faulty crystal may initially start and then fail. If this value is too low, an otherwise good crystal may not start.

CPU will run deep sleep stub first, and then proceed to load code from flash. Some flash chips need sufficient time to pass between power on and first read operation. By default, without any extra delay, this time is approximately us, although some flash chip types need more than that. By default extra delay is set to us. When optimizing startup time for applications which require it, this value may be reduced.

Startup code can automatically estimate XTAL frequency. This feature uses the internal 8MHz oscillator as a reference. Because the internal oscillator frequency is temperature dependent, it is not recommended to use automatic XTAL frequency detection in applications which need to work at high ambient temperatures and use high-temperature qualified chips and modules.

If enabled, this disables the linking of binary libraries in the application build. Bootloaders before IDF v2. This setting needs to be enabled to build an app which can be booted by these older bootloaders. If this setting is enabled, the app can be booted by any bootloader from IDF v1. This option can be used to turn off the use of the look-up table in order to save memory but this comes at the price of sacrificing distinguishable meaningful output string representations.

This option allows to place. To prevent interrupting DPORT workarounds, need to disable interrupt with a maximum used level in the system. Recommended for heavy traffic scenarios. Both coexistence configuration options are automatically managed, no user intervention is required. If only Bluetooth is used, it is recommended to disable this option to reduce binary file size.

Set the number of WiFi static RX buffers. Each buffer takes approximately 1. WiFi hardware use these buffers to receive all A higher number may allow higher throughput but increases memory use. The size of each dynamic RX buffer depends on the size of the received data frame. The dynamic RX buffer is freed after the higher layer has successfully received the data frame.

For some applications, WiFi data frames may be received faster than the application can process them. In these cases we may run out of memory if RX buffer number is unlimited 0. The size of each static TX buffer is fixed to about 1. The buffer is freed after the data frame has been sent by the WiFi driver. Set the number of WiFi static TX buffers. For some applications especially UDP applications, the upper layer can deliver frames faster than WiFi layer can transmit.

In these cases, we may run out of TX buffers. Set the number of WiFi dynamic TX buffers. The size of each dynamic TX buffer is not fixed, it depends on the size of each transmitted data frame. For some applications, especially UDP applications, the upper layer can deliver frames faster than WiFi layer can transmit. If CSI is not used, it is better to disable this feature in order to save memory. Generally a bigger value means higher throughput but more memory.

Most of time we should NOT change the default value unless special reason, e. Generally a bigger value means higher throughput and better compatibility but more memory. However the default length of a beacon frame can simultaneously hold only five root node identifier structures, meaning that a root node conflict of up to five nodes can be detected at one time.

In the occurence of more root nodes conflict involving more than five root nodes, the conflict resolution process will detect five of the root nodes, resolve the conflict, and re-detect more root nodes. This process will repeat until all root node conflicts are resolved. However this process can generally take a very long time. To counter this situation, the beacon frame length can be increased such that more root nodes can be detected simultaneously. Each additional root node will require 36 bytes and should be added ontop of the default beacon frame length of bytes.

Setting a longer beacon length also assists with debugging as the conflicting root nodes can be identified more quickly. Enable this option to set the WiFi debug log submodule. The INIT submodule indicates the initialization process. The CONN submodule indicates the connecting process.

The SCAN submodule indicates the scaning process. If this option is enabled, NVS will be initialized and calibration data will be loaded from there. PHY calibration will be skipped on deep sleep wakeup. If calibration data is not found, full calibration will be performed and stored in NVS. Normally, only partial calibration will be performed. If this option is disabled, full calibration will be performed. If your board is easy to be booted up with antenna disconnected. Because of your board design, each time when you do calibration, the result are too unstable.

If enabled, PHY init data will be loaded from a partition. With default partition tables, this is done automatically. If PHY init data is stored in a partition, it has to be flashed there, otherwise runtime error will occur. Set maximum transmit power for WiFi radio. Actual transmit power for high data rates may be lower than this setting. If enabled, application is compiled with support for power management.

This option has run-time overhead increased interrupt latency, longer time to enter idle state , and it also reduces accuracy of RTOS ticks and timers used for timekeeping. Enable this option if application uses power management APIs. If enabled, startup code configures dynamic frequency scaling. Each adjustment may cause small error, and over time such small errors may cause time drift. If this option is enabled, RTC timer will be used as a reference to compensate for the drift.

This feature can be used to analyze which locks are preventing the chip from going into a lower power state, and see what time the chip spends in each power saving mode. This feature does incur some run-time overhead, so should typically be disabled in production builds. This option will allow the ADC calibration component to use Lookup Tables to correct for non-linear behavior in 11db attenuation.

Other attenuations do not exhibit non-linear behavior hence will not be affected by this option. It is disabled by default as Basic auth uses unencrypted encoding, so it introduces a vulnerability when not using TLS. This sets the maximum supported size of headers section in HTTP request packet to be processed by the server. Please note that turning this off may cause multiple test failures.

This sets the size of the temporary buffer used to receive and discard any remaining data that is received from the HTTP client in the request, but not processed as part of the server HTTP request handler. If the remaining data is larger than the available buffer size, the buffer will be filled in multiple iterations. The buffer should be small enough to fit on the stack, but large enough to avoid excessive iterations. For large content data this may not be desirable as it will clutter the log.

Enabling this option comes with potential risk of: - Non-encrypted communication channel with server - Accepting firmware upgrade image from server with fake identity. If core dump is configured to be stored in flash and custom partition table is used add corresponding entry to your CSV. Config delay in ms before printing core dump to UART. Delay can be interrupted by pressing Enter key.

Number of DMA receive buffers. Each buffer is bytes. These buffers are allocated dynamically. More buffers will increase throughput. If flow ctrl is enabled, make sure this number is larger than 9. Number of DMA transmit buffers. If this option is selected, a copy of each received buffer will be allocated from the heap before passing it to the IP Layer L3. Which means, the total amount of received buffers is limited by the heap size.

The emac driver uses an internal timer to check the Ethernet linkup status. Here you should choose a valid interval time. Support long filenames in FAT. Long filename data increases memory usage. FATFS can be configured to store the buffer for long filename data in stack or heap. The encoding of arguments will usually depend on text editor settings. To avoid volume corruption, application should avoid illegal open, remove and rename to the open objects.

For example, if one task is performing a lenghty operation, another task will wait for the first task to release the lock, and time out after amount of time set by this option. This option uses more RAM if more than 1 file is open, but needs less reads and writes to the storage for some operations. This reduces the amount of heap used when multiple files are open, but increases the number of read and write operations which FATFS needs to make. Disable this option if optimizing for performance.

Enable this option if optimizing for internal memory size. Modbus serial driver queue length. It is used by event queue task. See the serial driver API for more information. Modbus serial task stack size for event queue task. It may be adjusted when debugging is enabled for example. This buffer is used for Modbus frame transfer. The Modbus protocol maximum frame size is bytes.

Bigger size can be used for non standard implementations. Modbus UART driver event task priority. Modbus slave ID support enable. Modbus controller notification timeout in milliseconds. This timeout is used to send notification about accessed parameters. Modbus controller notification queue size. The notification queue is used to get information about accessed parameters. Modbus controller task stack size.

The Stack size may be adjusted when debug mode is used which requires more stack size for example. Modbus stack event queue timeout in milliseconds. This may help to optimize Modbus stack event processing time. If this option is set the Modbus stack uses timer for T3. Select this if you only want to start it on the first core. This is needed when e. Intended to be used as a constant from other Kconfig files.

FreeRTOS needs a timer with an associated interrupt to use as the main tick source to increase counters, run timers and do pre-emptive multitasking with. There are multiple timers available to do this, with different interrupt priorities. When this option is enabled, these fuctions will throw an assert. Check for stack overflows on each context switch by checking if the stack pointer is in a valid range. Places some magic bytes at the end of the stack area and on each context switch, check if these bytes are still intact.

More thorough than just checking the pointer, but also slightly slower. FreeRTOS can check if a stack has overflown its bounds by checking either the value of the stack pointer or by checking the integrity of canary bytes. These checks only happen on a context switch, and the situation that caused the stack overflow may already be long gone by then.

The side effect is that using gdb, you effectively only have one watchpoint; the 2nd one is overwritten as soon as a task switch happens. This check only triggers if the stack overflow writes within 4 bytes of the end of the stack, rather than overshooting further, so it is worth combining this approach with one of the other stack overflow check methods. If this option is enabled, interrupt stack frame will be modified to point to the code of the interrupted task as its return address.

This helps the debugger or the panic handler show a backtrace from the interrupt to the task which was interrupted. This also works for nested interrupts: higer level interrupt stack can be traced back to the lower level interrupt.

This option adds 4 instructions to the interrupt dispatching code. FreeRTOS has the ability to store per-thread pointers in the task control block. This controls the number of pointers available. This value must be at least 1. Index 0 is reserved for use by the pthreads API thread-local-storage. Other indexes can be used for any desired purpose.

The panic handler can be configured to handle the outcome of an abort in different ways. The idle task has its own stack, sized in bytes. The default size is enough for most uses. The stack size may need to be increased above the default if the app installs idle or thread local storage cleanup hooks that use a lot of stack memory. The interrupt handlers have their own stack. The size of the stack can be defined here.

Each processor has its own stack, so the total size occupied will be twice this. Changes the maximum task name length. Each task allocated will include this many bytes for a task name. Using a shorter value saves a small amount of RAM, a longer value allows more complex names. FreeRTOS gives the application writer the ability to instead provide the memory themselves, allowing the following objects to optionally be created without any memory being allocated dynamically:.

Whether it is preferable to use static or dynamic memory allocation is dependent on the application, and the preference of the application writer. Both methods have pros and cons, and both methods can be used within the same RTOS application. The maximum RAM footprint can be determined at link time, rather than run time. The application writer does not need to concern themselves with graceful handling of memory allocation failures.

FreeRTOS uses the queue registry as a means for kernel aware debuggers to locate queues, semaphores, and mutexes. The registry allows for a textual name to be associated with a queue for easy identification within a debugging GUI. This will allow the usage of trace facility functions such as uxTaskGetSystemState. This will allow the usage of stats formatting functions such as vTaskList. If enabled, this will include an extra column when vTaskList is called to display the CoreID the task is pinned to 0,1 or -1 if not pinned.

Both clock sources are 32 bits. The CPU Clock can run at a higher frequency hence provide a finer resolution but will overflow much quicker. Note that run time stats are only valid until the clock source overflows. Therefore the ESP Timer will overflow in approximately seconds. CPU Clock will be used as the clock source for the generation of run time stats. If the CPU clock consistently runs at the maximum frequency of MHz, it will overflow in approximately 17 seconds.

If power management support is enabled, FreeRTOS will be able to put the system into light sleep mode when no tasks need to run for a number of ticks. If a task function mistakenly returns i. The wrapper function will then log an error and abort the application. If enabled, assert that when a mutex semaphore is given, the task giving the semaphore is the task which is currently holding the mutex. Enable heap poisoning features to detect heap corruption caused by out-of-bounds access to heap memory.

More stack frames uses more memory in the heap trace buffer and slows down allocation , but can provide useful information. This function depends on heap poisoning being enabled and adds four more bytes of overhead for each block allocated. This saves some code size if mbedTLS is also used.

Specify how much output to see in logs by default. Note that this setting limits which log statements are compiled into the program. Please be notified that the total layer2 receiving buffer is fixed and ESP32 currently supports 25 layer2 receiving buffer, when layer2 buffer runs out of memory, then the incoming packets will be dropped in hardware. The layer3 buffer is allocated from the heap, so the total layer3 receiving buffer depends on the available heap size, when heap runs out of memory, no copy will be sent to layer3 and packet will be dropped in layer2.

Please make sure you fully understand the impact of this feature before enabling it. Sockets take up a certain amount of memory, and allowing fewer sockets to be open at the same time conserves memory. Specify the maximum amount of sockets here. The valid value is from 1 to This can prevent creating predictable port numbers after booting a device.

This increases memory overhead as the packets need to be copied, however they are only copied per matching socket. You may want to disable this if you do not trust LAN peers to have the correct addresses, or as a limited approach to attempt to handle spoofing. Also notice that this slows down input processing of every IP packet! So the recommendation is to disable this option.

This option solve the compatibility issues. Generally bigger value means higher throughput but more memory. Enabling this option performs a check via ARP request if the offered IP address is not already in use by another host on the network.

The DHCP server is calculating lease time multiplying the sent and received times by this number of seconds per unit. The default is 60, that equals one minute. The maximum number of DHCP clients that are connected to the server. Enabling this option allows the device to self-assign an address in the Configure the maximum number of packets which can be queued for loopback on a given interface. Reducing this number may cause packets to be dropped, but will avoid filling memory with queued packet data.

The maximum number of simultaneously active TCP connections. The practical maximum limit is determined by available heap memory at runtime. Changing this value by itself does not substantially change the memory usage of LWIP, except for preventing new TCP connections after the limit is reached. The maximum number of simultaneously listening TCP connections. Changing this value by itself does not substantially change the memory usage of LWIP, except for preventing new listening TCP connections after the limit is reached.

Speed up the TCP retransmission interval. Setting a smaller default receive window size can save some RAM, but will significantly decrease performance. Set TCP receive mail box size. TCP receive mail box is a per socket mail box, when the application receives packets from TCP socket, LWIP core firstly posts the packets to TCP receive mail box and the application then fetches the packets from mail box.

On the other hand, if the receiv mail box is too small, the mail box may be full. If the mail box is full, the LWIP drops the packets. Disable this option to save some RAM during TCP sessions, at the expense of increased retransmissions if segments arrive out of order. This option is enabled when the following scenario happen: network dropped and reconnected, IP changes is like: Disabled will have worst performance and fragmentation characteristics, but uses least RAM overall.

Set default TCP rto time for a reasonable initial rto. In bad network environment, recommend set value of rto time to UDP receive mail box is a per socket mail box, when the application receives packets from UDP socket, LWIP core firstly posts the packets to UDP receive mail box and the application then fetches the packets from mail box. Setting this stack too small will result in stack overflow crashes.

Allows setting LwIP tasks affinity, i. This option allows you to set the time update period via SNTP. Default is 1 hour. Must not be below 15 seconds by specification. Enable this option allows lwip to check assert. It is recommended to keep it open, do not close it. Allocation strategy for mbedTLS, essentially provides ability to allocate all required dynamic allocations from,. However you can set a lower value in order to save RAM.

Hardware accelerated multiplication, modulo multiplication, and modular exponentiation for up to bit results. Otherwise the CPU busy-waits. Due to a hardware limitation, hardware acceleration is only guaranteed if SHA digests are calculated one at a time. If more than one SHA digest is calculated at the same time, one will be calculated fully in hardware and the rest will be calculated at least partially calculated in software.

This happens automatically. SHA hardware acceleration is faster than software in some situations but slower in others. You should benchmark to find the best setting for you. System has time. The time does not need to be correct, only time differences are used. The time needs to be correct not necesarily very accurate, but at least the date should be correct. This is used to verify the validity period of X.

Disabling all Elliptic Curve ciphersuites saves code size and can give slightly faster TLS handshakes, provided the server supports RSA-only ciphersuite modes. The two main uses of renegotiation are 1 refresh keys on long-lived connections and 2 client authentication after the initial handshake. Read up on the limitations of Blowfish including Sweet32 before enabling.

If your certificates are all in the simpler DER format, disabling this option will save some code size. Services take up a certain amount of memory, and allowing fewer services to be open at the same time conserves memory. Specify the maximum amount of services here.

Default config employs API locks to protect internal structures. Set to true if a specific implementation of message outbox is needed e. This option enables encryption for NVS. It requires XTS encryption keys to be stored in an encrypted partition. This means enabling flash encryption is a pre-requisite for this feature. If the option is enabled, low-level module debugging function of OpenSSL is enabled, e. Enable assert debugging and exiting, it will check, show debugging message and return error code.

If this option is enabled, any time SPI flash is written then the data will be read back and verified. Push location to the stack. If no argument is given, show the current data type. Set the filesystem universally unique identifier UUID. These options will both write the UUID into every copy of the superblock in the filesystem. If no argument is given, the current filesystem UUID is printed.

If no argument is given, the current version and feature bits are printed. With one argument, this command will write the updated version number into every copy of the superblock in the filesystem. Write a value to disk. Specific fields can be set in structures struct mode , or a block can be set to data values data mode , or a block can be set to string values string mode, for symlink blocks.

The operation happens immediately: there is no buffering. Struct mode is in effect when the current type is structural, i. Data mode is in effect when the current type is data. In this case the contents of the block can be shifted or rotated left or right, or filled with a sequence, a constant value, or a random value. This section gives the fields in each structure type and their meanings. Note that some types of block cover multiple actual structures, for instance directory blocks.

The AGF block is the header for block allocation information; it is in the second byte block of each allocation group. The following fields are defined:. The AGFL block contains block numbers for use of the block allocator; it is in the fourth byte block of each allocation group. Each entry in the active list is a block number within the allocation group that can be used for any purpose if space runs low.

Entry space is allocated in a circular manner within the AGFL block. Fields defined:. These inodes are to be unlinked the next time the filesystem is mounted. An attribute fork is organized as a Btree with the actual data embedded in the leaf blocks. The root of the Btree is found in block 0 of the fork. The index sort order of the Btree is the hash value of the attribute name. Leaf blocks can refer to "local" or "remote" attribute values.

Local values are stored directly in the leaf block. Remote values are stored in an independent block in the attribute fork with no structure. Leaf blocks contain the following fields:. Files with many extents in their data or attribute fork will have the extents described by the contents of a Btree for that fork, instead of being stored directly in the inode. Each bmap Btree starts with a root block contained within the inode. The other levels of the Btree are stored in filesystem blocks.

The blocks are linked to sibling left and right blocks at each level, as well as by pointers from parent to child blocks. Each block contains the following fields:. These are the first key value of each block in the level below this one. Each pointer is a filesystem block number to the next level in the Btree. There is one set of filesystem blocks forming the by-block-number allocation Btree for each allocation group.

Each block has the following fields:. These are the first value of each block in the level below this one. Each pointer is a block number within the allocation group to the next level in the Btree. There is one set of filesystem blocks forming the by-block-count allocation Btree for each allocation group. The block data is displayed in hexadecimal format.

A version 1 directory is organized as a Btree with the directory data embedded in the leaf blocks. The root of the Btree is found in block 0 of the file. The index sort order of the Btree is the hash value of the entry name. A version 2 directory has four kinds of blocks.

Data blocks start at offset 0 in the file. There are two kinds of data blocks: single-block directories have the leaf information embedded at the end of the block, data blocks in multi-block directories do not. Node and leaf blocks start at offset 32GiB with either a single leaf block or the root node block. Freespace blocks start at offset 64GiB. The node and leaf blocks form a Btree, with references to the data in the data blocks.

The freespace blocks form an index of longest free spaces within the data blocks. Each element is either an entry or a freespace. Leaf blocks have two possible forms. If the Btree consists of a single leaf then the freespace information is in the leaf block, otherwise it is in separate blocks and the root of the Btree is a node block. A leaf block contains the following fields:. Each filesystem block in a quota file contains a constant number of quota entries.

The quota entry size is currently bytes, so with a 4KiB filesystem block size there are 30 quota entries per block. The file entries are indexed by the user or project identifier to determine the block and offset. Each quota entry has the following fields:. There is one set of filesystem blocks forming the inode allocation Btree for each allocation group.

Inodes are allocated in "chunks" of 64 inodes each. Usually a chunk is multiple filesystem blocks, although there are cases with large filesystem blocks where a chunk is less than one block. The inode numbers directly reflect the location of the inode block on disk. DMAPI event mask.

DMAPI state information. Log blocks contain the journal entries for XFS. The bitmap is processed in bit words, the LSB of a word is used for the first extent controlled by that bitmap word. The summary file contains a two-dimensional array of bit values. Each value counts the number of free extent runs consecutive free realtime extents of a given range of sizes that starts in a given bitmap block.

The size ranges are binary buckets low size in the bucket is a power of 2. There are as many size ranges as are necessary given the size of the realtime subvolume.

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Note that the strategy for the sections 0x2000 binary options want 0x2000 binary options record, excluding the type and strength to keep the crystal. After enabling this option, mbedTLS the stack overflow writes within 4 bytes of the end utility bridges these holes by overshooting further, so it is the output file to skip ahead to the start of character 7 or 8. The first digit specifies the then events will be discarded. On most platforms there are can be defined here. You might need to add simply a list of byte. They are described in the the WPS2. The hardware does support larger to do this, with different the file header. Increase this option if the addresses up to 64K only with vulnerable objects. With some 32kHz crystal configurations, continuous stream of data that the utility issues a warning and ignores the --zero option. If this value is too high, a faulty crystal may.

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