In most cases these bots will offer more than automated trading. Some of Auf Bitcoin. Bitcoin miner software with multi-threaded multi-pool gpu, fpga and asic mining support. Bitcoins are a digital currency, exchanged freely against all other currencies. Is Bitcoin Mining Profitable? Undoubtedly, bitcoin mining is competitive and challenging today. In the beginning, Bitcoin mining was possible on the CPUs of individual computers, which made it possible for anyone to mine.
The higher the speed of the computer Bitcoin mining is the process by which bitcoin transactions are verified and new bitcoins are released into the network. It is carried out by miners who contribute their computational power to the network in the hopes of earning the newly released bitcoin as a reward.
These days, mining requires a lot of computational power and energy input. This means that in addition to the cloud console monitoring and control features provided by the platform, an operator can also check the status of the connected devices, visualize and update output resources, edit and post input resources, as well as run resources anywhere in the world by using the Mobile Apps .
This means that an operator can either remotely visualize monitor the received data at the Cloud Console by clicking on the Device API, or by checking the Dashboards and Data Buckets. An operator can also initiate Supervisory Control actions by setting up and using the endpoint features of the platform. Figures 6 and 7 show a visual of the Thinger.
Figure 6. IO Cloud Console. Electronics , 8, 12 of Two modules are connected in parallel such that it contains six sets of W, and 14 A each. It has Maximum Power Point Tracking MPPT system to ensure that maximum power is captured from the solar panels under all operating conditions, and lead acid electrical battery system is connected to the MPPT to store the energy from the solar panels for use during prolonged extreme weather conditions.
In this project, the SCADA system is set up to acquire the PV voltage, PV current, the measured PV power from the voltage and current values, as well as the storage battery voltage, for remote monitoring and supervisory control. Here, only one set of the modules about W, and 14 A output is used for testing purposes. IO IoT server platform for remote monitoring and supervisory control. The pseudocode for the implementation methodology is shown in Algorithm 1 below, and the appearance of the received data on the Thinger.
Electronics , 8, 13 of Algorithm 1: Data Logging Algorithm: Initialization; 1. Connect to Thinger. Identify the specified Thinger. Post Sensor Data to the specified Thinger. IO Device; while Thinger. Display Sensor Data on Thinger. IO Cloud Console, and; 8. IO Server then 9. Go to Step 1; end end. Prototype Design Using the described hardware components and the operational principles of each of the components, the proposed SCADA system is designed and implemented as shown in Figure 9.
As shown in the figure, the analog sensors, the pull-down resistors arrangement, and the ESP32 Thing micro-controller are connected together on a Breadboard. The 3. IO local server IoT platform are both placed in the building, and integrated into the system in two different configurations. Electronics , 8, 14 of Figure 9. The inputs of the current and voltage sensors are connected to the PV and battery systems to acquire the PV data using electrical cables, and the sensor outputs are connected via cables to the ESP32 Thing to capture and parse the acquired data to the Thinger.
IO IoT Server. Figure Electronics , 8, 15 of Io local server IoT platform for remote monitoring and supervisory control. A flow chart of the data acquisition, processing, visualization and supervisory control process from the sensors to the Thinger. IO server platform is shown in Figure Results The Thinger.
IO program Pseudocode shown in Algorithm 1 , the acquired sensor data were posted to the Thinger. Having received the PV data at the cloud console, dashboards and data buckets were created and configured such that the received data were automatically logged to both the dashboards and data buckets for remote monitoring and supervisory control via computers and mobile devices. IO platform using desktops, laptops and mobile browsers pointed to Thinger.
IO local server IP Address. IO port is left open on MUN network. In the second configuration B , only the authorized users connected to the Local Wi-Fi Network can view the data on the Thinger. Also, in both configurations, authorized personnel can view the stored data on the platform using the Thinger. However, only the users connected to either of the networks can view the real-time data on the Mobile App.
While the system was being tested, a digital multimeter was connected to each of the points of interest to measure the desired values. In both configurations, the acquired sensor data matched the values measured locally using the digital multimeter, with minor measurement errors. The system was tested for about a month, disconnected and reconnected on different days during this testing period to test its robustness as shown on the Data History window in Figure Also, during testing, a load an electric bulb was connected to the battery to discharge it so that a significant amount of current can flow from the PV system across the MPPT to recharge the battery.
Various dashboards were created on the Thinger. IO Server IoT platform to log the real-time PV data for remote monitoring and supervisory control, and from the dashboards, variations in the acquired sensor values were seen depending on the prevalent weather conditions affecting the PV system at the time of testing. As shown in Figures 13 and 14, the vibrations in the real-time values were due to the frequent changes in the weather conditions in St.
Furthermore, by clicking on the GPS at the bottom of Figures 13 and 14 dashboards on the cloud platform, the exact location of the connected devices can be seen. Aside from these two dashboards presented, the Thinger. IO Mobile App installed on an iPhone was connected to the local server by scanning the QR Barcode of the device for real-time monitoring.
In each of the two configurations, the received data are essentially the same, and only affected by the prevalent environmental conditions affecting the PV system process plant. The major difference between the two configurations is the manner in which the received data can be accessed. In the first configuration, the real-time and stored data can be accessed with the server IP address as long as the user is connected to MUN network or if the Thinger. In the second configuration, only the users connected to the local Wi-Fi network, either wirelessly or via network cables connected to the LAN ports of the Wi-Fi Router, can view the real-time and stored data.
In addition, even though the Wi-Fi coverage distance was limited to the building where the tests were carried out in our system, the Wi-Fi range can be extended in other applications requiring wider coverage distance by using a Wi-Fi repeater. Created Dashboard B showing real-time data. Electronics , 8, 18 of The components are also compatible with related process facilities and components from various vendors. Table 1 below shows the cost of each of the components and the overall cost of the designed SCADA system.
For example, the two major components of the system Raspberry Pi Thinger. It should be noted that the power consumption values for all the components shown in Table 2 were measured simultaneously while the system was running. As shown in Table 2, the overall power consumption of the designed system while in operation is under 10 W. This power can further be reduced by eliminating the D-Link Wi-Fi Router and configuring the Raspberry Pi as a Wireless Access Point, and using a less power demanding breadboard as the breadboard only provides 5 V power supply to the VCC pin of the current sensor in this current setup.
Electronics , 8, 19 of IO Cloud Console on web browsers and Thinger. IO Mobile Apps . The administrator also has the option of creating Endpoints on the platform for more supervisory control options. Also, for more critical infrastructure monitoring and control such as traffic light system or oil and gas facilities monitoring applications, additional security measures such as hardware protection and data encryption on the SCADA communication channel might be necessary [29,30,43].
In this project, because the components are completely open source and readily available, and the fact that the main cloud server is locally installed and self-managed, it is easy for an operator or administrator to manage the system to ensure its continuous reliability and availability. IO IoT Platform is very user-friendly.
Conclusions In most industries all over the world, like the energy industry, critical assets are distributed over large geographical areas, sometimes in harsh environments such as deep offshore and swamps. While it may be necessary to have local means of managing the operations of these critical assets, it is equally important to have a reliable, flexible, cost-effective and sophisticated coordinated monitoring and control.
Although SCADA systems have revolutionized the way these critical, complex and geographically distributed industrial systems are monitored and controlled, SCADA system designs and implementations have largely remained proprietary. However in many applications, for example in power systems, the energy storage systems such as inverters and batteries, power electronic converters, and other devices connected to the grid are from various manufacturers or vendors, which often result in compatibility issues between these existing infrastructures and the proprietary SCADA system solutions.
Therefore, an open source SCADA solution represents the most cost effective solution as the user is not beholden to a single vendor. In order to validate the functionalities of the designed SCADA system, it was setup and tested at the Memorial University Electrical and Computer Engineering Laboratory to acquire and remotely monitor a W, 12 V Solar PV System data, as well as to initiate supervisory control activities whenever necessary.
The power consumption of each of the components was measured while the system was in operation and the entire system was found to require low power for operation, less than 10 W. Furthermore, the acquired real-time PV data visualized at the Thinger. IO IoT Server Cloud Console and Dashboards were found to be within the same range as the data locally measured using the conventional digital multimeter.
From information security and system reliability points of view, because the main cloud server is privately hosted and self-managed on own network, data security measures such as access control, authorization, authentication, whitelisting, firewalls, log analysis, etc. Although a PV system has been used as the process plant for testing purposes in this work, the designed SCADA system can also be applied in other industries and fields to remotely monitor and control critical infrastructures such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, buildings, facilities and environments, oil and gas production facilities, mass transit systems, water and sewage systems, and traffic signal systems.
However, it should be noted that the designed system for this particular application is not a plug and play turnkey solution or a one-size-fits-all system for the above possible applications as further measures will need to be taken to customize the system for any chosen application in order to guarantee its functionalities, reliability and security, which might increase the overall cost and power consumption presented in this application.
For example, for outdoor deployment of the proposed SCADA system, options for boxes and shields will have to be considered for the electronic components to prevent damage due to moisture and wild animals. Also, to increase the security of the proposed SCADA system for very critical applications like oil and gas facilities monitoring and traffic signal control, additional security measures such as data encryption algorithms can be implemented on the ESP32 micro-controller side to encrypt the acquired sensor data before sending them to the Thinger.
IO server, and at the server side, data decryption and further security measures can be carried out. These could relatively increase the overall cost and power consumption of the system. Future Work In the future, endpoints can be created on Thinger. IO platform to carry out more supervisory control events like sending an email, sending an SMS, calling a REST API, interacting with IFTTT If This Then That , calling a device from a different account, or calling any other HTTP endpoint directly from the server to complement the current supervisory control strategy where an administrator has to notify a local operator of any abnormal variations in the received data for necessary actions.
IO Server. Furthermore, to increase the security of the proposed SCADA system, especially when the system is deployed in very critical applications like oil and gas facilities monitoring and traffic signal control, data encryption algorithms can be implemented on the ESP32 micro-controller side to encrypt the acquired sensor data before sending them to the Thinger.
IO server, and on the server side, data decryption and further security measures can be carried out. Author Contributions: L. The authors would also like to acknowledge the technical and emotional supports of friends and families during the difficult period of carrying out this research work. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
All the components and software used in the actualization of this work were selected on a professional basis. References 1. Lu, X. Technical Report No. Anderson, M. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. Industrial Automation and Control. Abbey, L. Electronics , 8, 22 of Boyer, S. Sheng, Z.
IEEE Access , 3, — Medrano, K. Al-Kuwari, M. Smart-home automation using IoT-based sensing and monitoring platform. Aghenta, L. Fortino, G. Toward opportunistic services for the industrial Internet of Things. Unique Automation Portfolio. Almas, M. Thomas, M. Shabani, H. Novel IEEE Sajid, A. IEEE Access , 4, — Rajkumar, R. Unde, M. Web based control and data acquisition system for industrial application monitoring.
Prokhorov, A. Avhad, M. Mononen, T. A low-cost cloud-extended sensor network for supervisory control. Kodali, R. Smart emergency response system. Piggin, R. Mo, Y. IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Yang, Y. Power Deliv. Rosa, L. IEEE Access , 7, — Iqbal, A. Alves, T. IEEE Embed. Nasr, P. Falco, G. Endi, M.
Current Sensor ICs. Shete, R. IoT based urban climate monitoring using Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi 2 Model B. Bagri, A. Supervisory Control ad Data Acquisition. Tautz-Weinert, J. IET Renew. Power Gener. Grilo, A. Sample Availability: All the materials, data and software used in this project, including the ESPArduino Code used in the data logging phase, are available from L.
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Date uploaded Jul 20, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: low cost scada research. Flag for inappropriate content. Save Save electronics For Later. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. A SCADA system is a collection of both software and hardware components that allows for the supervision and control of Electronics , 8, ; doi Electronics , 8, 4 of 24 Similar to , Avhad et al.
The properties of these sensors and their usage in this work are described below: 4. Figure 3. ACS step-down resistors connection. Figure 4. Electronics , 8, 11 of 24 Thinger. Electronics , 8, 12 of 24 Figure 7.
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