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MINE BITCOINS ON SURFACE RT

Retarded hopping between adjacent B-sites of carriers across the grain boundaries is addressed. Relatively higher resistivity and low dielectric loss in Sbdoped Mn-Zn ferrite systems pronounce their utility in high frequency applications. Investigation of structural , optical, magnetic and electrical properties of tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn nano -ferrites. Tungsten substituted nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles with chemical composition of Ni0. XRD measurement revealed the phase purity of all the nanoferrite samples with cubic spinel structure.

The estimated crystallite size by X-ray line broadening is found in the range of nm. FTIR spectra of all the samples have observed two prominent absorption bands in the range cm-1 arising due to tetrahedral and octahedral stretching vibrations. Vibrating sample magnetometer experiments showed that the saturation magnetizations MS decreased with an increase in non- magnetic tungsten ion doping. The electrical resistivity of tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn nano ferrites were examined extensively as a function of temperature.

With an increase in tungsten composition, resistivity was found to decrease from 2. The activation energy also decreased from 0. These low coercive field tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn ferrites are suitable for hyperthermia and sensor applications. These observations are explained in detail on the basis of various models and theories. Structure and magnetic properties of Co and Ni nano -ferrites prepared by a two step direct microemulsions synthesis. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis and Transmission electron microscopy measurements provided data to clarify the crystal structure and size of the produced nano -particles.

Additionally zero field cooling and field cooling measurements provided data for estimating the blocking temperature of the materials produced. For NiFe2O4 this temperature is lower, 23 K. As synthesized powders were characterized for the detailed structural analysis by X-ray diffractometer XRD , Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy FTIR and room temperature magnetic properties by using vibrating sample magnetometer VSM. Spectroscopic study of Pbs nano-structured layer prepared by Pld utilized as a Hall-effect magnetic sensor.

The deposited films were characterized by several structural techniques, including scanning electron microscopy SEM , transmission electron microscopy TEM , and Selected-area electron diffraction patterns SAED. The results prove the formation of cubic phase of PbS nanocrystals. Elemental analysis of the deposited films compared to the bulk target was obtained via laser induced fluorescence of the produced plasma particles and the energy dispersive X-ray "EDX" technique.

The Hall coefficient measurements indicate an efficient performance of the deposited films as a magnetic sensor. Effect of vanadium doping on structural and magnetic properties of defective nano -nickel ferrite. Nano -nickel ferrites defected by vanadium doping NiV x Fe Rietveld analysis revealed a nonmonotonic change in lattice parameter, oxygen parameter and magnetization upon doping with vanadium.

Cation distributions suggested from either Rietveld analysis or from experimental magnetic moments were in a good agreement. A practical approach to calculate the time evolutions of magnetic field effects on photochemical reactions in nano-structured materials. A practical method to calculate time evolutions of magnetic field effects MFEs on photochemical reactions involving radical pairs is developed on the basis of the theory of the chemically induced dynamic spin polarization proposed by Pedersen and Freed.

In theory, the stochastic Liouville equation SLE , including the spin Hamiltonian, diffusion motions of the radical pair, chemical reactions, and spin relaxations, is solved by using the Laplace and the inverse Laplace transformation technique. In our practical approach, time evolutions of the MFEs are successfully calculated by applying the Miller-Guy method instead of the final value theorem to the inverse Laplace transformation process.

Especially, the SLE calculations are completed in a short time when the radical pair dynamics can be described by the chemical kinetics consisting of diffusions, reactions and spin relaxations. The SLE analysis with a short calculation time enables one to examine the various parameter sets for fitting the experimental date.

Our study demonstrates that simultaneous fitting of the time evolution of the MFE and of the magnetic field dependence of the MFE provides valuable information on the diffusion motions of the radical pairs in nano-structured materials such as micelles where the lifetimes of radical pairs are longer than hundreds of nano -seconds and the magnetic field dependence of the spin relaxations play a major role for the generation of the MFE. In the present article, the structural and soft magnetic properties of Fe-B-P-Cu alloy system with W addition have been studied as well as the annealing configurations required for magnetic softness.

It is found that the substitution of B by W deteriorates the soft magnetic properties after annealing. The reason of such impact with W addition may lie in the insufficient bonding strength between W and B so that the addition of W is not effective enough to suppress grain growth against the high concentration and high crystallization tendency of Fe during annealing. The addition of 4 at.

It is also found that the addition of P in the Fe-based alloys could help reduce the coercivity upon annealing with high heating rate. The existence of P could also help slightly increase the overall saturation magnetization by enhancing the electron transfer away from Fe in the residual amorphous structure. The strong gradients of these localized gyro- magnetic fields suggest that higher-order multipolar interactions will affect the standard magnetic quadrupole transition rates in 1.

Founded that the magnetic quadrupole absorption rate is comparable with the absorption rate calculated in the gyro-magneticdipole approximation of ThxDUO2 nano material structure. This implies that near-field optical techniques can extend the range of spectroscopic measurements for MHz at quantum gyro- magnetic field until MHz deployment quantum field at B around tesla beyond the standard dipole approximation.

However, we also show that spatial resolution could be improved by the selective excitation of ABR formulation in quantum quadrupole transitions. Structural , magnetic and impedance spectroscopic analysis of LaFeO3 nano -particles. Physical properties are known to be drastically varied with crystallite size and in a multifunctional material this size reduction is seem to be interesting.

One such material is chosen as LaFeO3 nanoparticles which have been prepared by wet-chemical route. The average particle size found to be in the order of 45nm in which the chemical content of the unit cell has been verified.

A distorted orthorhombic structure with Pbnm space group is possessed by this nanoparticle. From the bifurcation of ZFC and FC in low field, behavior of inverse susceptibility and the small hysteresis loop favors the material to be in a weak FM state well below the Neel temperature. The electrical behavior and the conduction mechanism above room temperature have been studied by cole-cole plot of the Impedance spectra.

The high frequency depressed semi circles represent the grain conduction while the intermediate frequency semi circles appear may be due to grain boundary effect. On the synthesis, structural , optical and magnetic properties of nano -size Zn-MgO. In case of Zn0. FTIR spectra clearly show the broad band within cm-1 is associated with the special vibration of magnesium oxide. FT-IR spectrum of Zn0. Further the optical study obtained value of MgO 4.

All samples show diamagnetic nature at room temperature. Magnetization reversal modes in fourfold Co nano -wire systems. Magnetic nano -wire systems are, as well as other patterned magnetic structures , of special interest for novel applications, such as magnetic storage media. In these systems, the coupling between neighbouring magnetic units is most important for the magnetization reversal process of the complete system, leading to a variety of magnetization reversal mechanisms.

This article examines the influence of the magnetic material on hysteresis loop shape, coercive field, and magnetization reversal modes. While iron nano -wire systems exhibit flat or one-step hysteresis loops, systems consisting of cobalt nano -wires show hysteresis loops with several longitudinal steps and transverse peaks, correlated to a rich spectrum of magnetization reversal mechanisms. We show that changing the material parameters while the system geometry stays identical can lead to completely different hysteresis loops and reversal modes.

Thus, especially for finding magnetic nano -systems which can be used as quaternary or even higher-order storage devices, it is rational to test several materials for the planned systems. Apparently, new materials may lead to novel and unexpected behaviour - and can thus result in novel functionalities.

Magnetic bead detection using nano -transformers. A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano -scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano -transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer.

In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level. The change in device characteristics is attributed to a proportional change in the number of nonmagnetoresistive and magnetoresistive conductive channels in the SV upon high bias voltage application. The decrease in MR ratio accompanied the disappearance of the magnetic nanocontact, suggesting that the positive MR effect was partially due to the presence of magnetic nanocontacts.

Effect of Zn addition on structural , magnetic properties, antistructural modeling of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 nano ferrite. Effect of Zn addition on cationic distribution, structural properties, magnetic properties, antistructural modeling of nanocrystalline Co1-xZnxFe2O4 0. XRD confirms the formation of single phase cubic spinel nano ferrites with average grain diameter ranging between Variation of magnetic properties is correlated with cationic distribution.

The effect of nano -alumina on structural and magnetic properties of MgB2 superconductors. Ansari, Intikhab A. Nano -Al2O3 doped Mg1-xAlxB2 with 0 Magnetization studies in the temperature range from 4 to 35 K and in the magnetic field up to 9 T shows a significant increase in the irreversibility field Hirr , critical current density Jc and remanent magnetization MR with increasing concentration of the Al2O3 nanoparticle.

At low fields we have observed large vortex instabilities known as a vortex avalanche associated with all doped samples. The vortex-avalanche effect is reduced with increasing temperature and vanishes near 20 K. The results are discussed in terms of local-vortex instabilities caused by doping of Al2O3 nanoparticles. Refinement of atomic and magnetic structures using neutron diffraction for synthesized bulk and nano -nickel zinc gallate ferrite. As a typical example, the Ni0. Structure and microstructure properties were investigated using the time-of-flight HRFD instrument at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor, at a temperatures range K.

The Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data revealed that all samples possess cubic symmetry corresponding to the space group Fd3m. The level of microstrains in bulk samples was estimated as very small while the size of coherently scattered domains is quite large.

Transmission electron microscope images indicated that polyvinyl alcohol chains have surrounded the cobalt ferrite nano -particles; also, the interaction between polymer and cobalt ferrite particles in nano -composite samples was confirmed. Magnetic properties evaluation showed that saturation magnetization , coercivity and anisotropy constant values decreased in nano -composite samples compared to pure cobalt ferrite.

However, the coercivity values of related nano -composite samples enhanced by increasing PVA amount due to domain wall mechanism. Modulation in magnetic exchange interaction, core shell structure and Hopkinson's peak with chromium substitution into Ni0.

The ever growing applications and ever evolving challenges of magnetic nano particles has been motivating the researchers from various disciplines towards this area of magnetic nano particles. Cation substitutional effect on the magnetic structure of the nanoparticles forms a crucial aspect in their applications. Here the environmentally benign auto combustion method was employed to synthesize chromium substituted nickel cobalt ferrite Ni0. Chromium substitution has shown its effect on the structural , magnetic and electrical properties of Ni0.

Structural and phase analysis of the prepared samples show increased phase purity of ferrite sample with increasing Cr substitution. The TEM Transmission Electron Microscope image confirms the nano size of the particles, EDS Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy has supported the stoichiometry of the prepared samples and FTIR Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis confirms the spinel structure and also suggests cation redistributions with chromium substitution.

All samples show hysteresis and show reduction in magnetic properties with increase in chromium content. The thermo magnetic study shows Hopkinson peak s in the magnetization vs. Possible reasons for the changes in the nature of the peak are discussed. Structural , morphological and magnetic properties of Eu-doped CoFe2O4 nano -ferrites. In order to observe the phase development of the ferrite samples, thermo-gravimetric analysis was carried out.

The synthesized samples were subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis for structural investigation. All the samples were found to constitute face centered cubic FCC spinel structure belonging to Fd3m space group. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of nanocrystalline grains with spherical shape. Energy dispersive X-ray spectra confirmed the presence of Co, Eu, Fe and O elements with no existence of any impurity. The enhancement of former is ascribed to the transition from multi domain to single domain state and reduction in lateral is attributed to the incorporation of nonmagnetic Eu ions for Fe, resulting in weak superexchange interactions.

Effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nano -particles: Magnetic enhancement by a reducing atmosphere. In this work, effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni0. The structural characterization of the samples by X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy is evidence for formation of a cubic structure with no presence of impurity phase.

Calculated values of crystallite size and unit cell parameter show an increase with sintering temperature under different atmospheres. Electrical and magnetic properties of nano -sized magnesium ferrite. Nano -sized magnesium ferrite was synthesized using sol-gel techniques. Structural characterization was done using X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Vibration Sample Magnetometer was used to record the magnetic measurements. XRD analysis reveals the prepared sample is single phasic without any impurity.

Particle size calculation shows the average crystallite size of the sample is 19nm. FTIR analysis confirmed spinel structure of the prepared samples. Magnetic measurement study shows that the sample is ferromagnetic with high degree of isotropy. Hysterisis loop was traced at temperatures K and K. DC electrical resistivity measurements show semiconducting nature of the sample. Janus " nano -bullets" for magnetic targeting liver cancer chemotherapy. Tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs with controlled drug release function has been recognized as a promising strategy for pursuit of increased chemotherapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects.

Development of magnetic nanoparticulates as delivery carriers to accommodate cytotoxic drugs for liver cancer treatment has evoked immense interest with respect to their convenience in biomedical application. This nanodrug formulation possessed nanosize with controlled aspect-ratio, defined abundance in pore structures , and superior magnetic properties. M-MSN-DOX was determined to induce selective growth inhibition to the cancer cell under magnetic field rather than human normal cells due to its preferable endocytosis by the tumor cells and pH-promoted DOX release in the interior of cancer cells.

Ultimately, both subcutaneous and orthotropic liver tumor models in mice have demonstrated that the proposed Janus nano -bullets imposed remarkable suppression of the tumor growth and significantly reduced systematic toxicity. All rights reserved. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano -particles: Synthesis and characterizations. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about Structural and magnetic properties of Ni0. Nano -crystalline nickel ferrites are interesting materials due to their large physical and magnetic properties.

In the present work, two kinds of spinel ferrites Ni0. The structural properties of synthesized ferrites are determined by using X-ray powder diffraction; scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The structural parameters like bond lengths, tetrahedral and octahedral edges have been varied with the substitution.

The microstructural study is carried out by using SEM technique and the average grain size is increased with nickel ferrite. The observed g-value from ESR is approximately equal to standard value. Shape and edge dependent electronic and magnetic properties of silicene nano -flakes. We performed first-principle study of the geometric, electronic and magnetic properties of arm-chair and zigzag edge silicene nano -flakes of triangular and hexagonal shapes.

Electronic properties of silicene nano -flakes show strong dependence on their edge structure and shape. Zigzag edged triangular nano -flake is magnetic and semiconducting in nature with 4. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano -aerosol and nano-structured materials.

The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano -aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano -clusters and nano -fibers. Nano -aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase.

Neutralization of electrospan nano -fibers with molecular ions and charged nano -clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano -mats. Nano -mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano -filters. Magnetic properties of Dy nano -islands on graphene.

PubMed Central. The extraordinary transmission through the patterns of such nano -wells was investigated experimentally and numerically. By doing numerical simulations of nm and nm diameter polystyrene beads in water and air, we show the potential of such patterns for self-induced back-action SIBA trapping. The simulations were based on the analytical Lorentz force model.

We envisioned a novel nano -catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system, and simultaneously be cheaper, easily accessible sustainable and possibly does not require elaborate work-up. Because of its nano -size, i. Synthesis, structural and magnetic properties of Mg0. Present study reports, effect on structural , magnetic properties of Cr doped Mg-Zn nano -ferrite: Mg0.

X-ray diffraction XRD , vibrating sample magnetometer VSM , scanning electron microscopy SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS techniques were utilized to monitor the effect of Cr substitution on structural , magnetic properties, and correlation between them. XRD confirms the formation of single phase spinel nano ferrite with particle size ranging between 3.

Increase of Cr content leads to increase of specific surface area 4. Observed changes in coercivity values reflect soft magnetic nature of the studied ferrites. Comparative study of structural and magnetic properties of nano -crystalline Li 0. Lithium ferrite has been considered as one of the highly strategic magnetic material.

Nano -crystalline Li 0. The particle size of as-prepared lithium ferrite was observed around 40, 31, 22 and 93 nm prepared by flash combustion, sol-gel, citrate precursor and standard ceramic technique, respectively. Lithium ferrite prepared by citrate precursor method shows a maximum saturation magnetization Stacking faults density driven collapse of magnetic energy in hcp-cobalt nano-magnets.

Cobalt nanowires with different shape parameters were synthesized via the polyol process. By calculating the magnetic energy product BH max both for dried nano -powder and for nanowires in their synthesis solution, we observed unexpected independent BH max values from the nanowires shape.

A good alignment of the nanowires leads to a higher BH max value. Our results show that the key parameter driving the magnetic energy product of the cobalt nanowires is the stacking fault density. An exponential collapse of the magnetic energy is observed at very low percentage of structural faults. Cobalt nanowires with almost perfect hcp crystalline structures should present high magnetic energy, which is promising for application in rare earth-free permanent magnets.

Magnetic multilayer structure. A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

Magnetic properties of nano -multiferroic materials. Ramam, Koduri; Diwakar, Bhagavathula S. Latent magnetization in the multiferroics can be achieved via the structural distortion with respect to particle size and destroying the spiral spin structure , which plays the vital role in high-performance applications. In this investigation, multifunctional single phase Bi1-xLaxFe1-yCoyO3 nanomaterials were synthesized by co-precipitation technique.

The novelty in magnetic behavior of the Bi0. This magnetic anomaly in Bi0. Besides, Bi0. This kind of magnetic anomaly could form advanced multiferroic devices. In the presented paper, strontium Sr and barium Ba nano ferrites were synthesized by citrate auto combustion method. The investigated samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction technique XRD , field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

The structural properties of the obtained samples were examined by XRD analysis showing that the synthesized nanoparticles are in cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite sizes are in the range of Rigidity modulus, longitudinal and shear wave velocities are predicted theoretically from Raman spectroscopy and structural data of the investigated spinel ferrite. The magnetic and structural properties of magnesium are enhanced by doping with barium and strontium nano particles.

The saturation magnetization , remanent magnetization and coercivity reported on vibrating sample magnetometer curve illustrate the promising industrial and magnetic recording applications of the prepared samples. Nano minerals and materials have become a focal point of Geoscience research due to the unique physical, chemical, optical, magnetic , electronic, and reactive properties. Many of these desired properties in Nano technology have the potential to impact society by improving remediation, photovoltaics, medicine and the sustainability limits on Earth for an expanding population.

Despite the progress made on the discovery, synthesis, and manufacturing of numerous nano -materials, the atomistic cause of their desired properties is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the atomic structure of nano materials and their bulk counterparts we combined several crystallographic techniques to solve the crystal structure and performed formative characterization to ascertain the atomistic source of the desired application. These strategies and tools can be used to expedite discovery, development and the goals of the National Nanotechnology Initiative NNI.

This thesis will cover the optimization of the reaction conditions and resolve the atomic structure to produce pure synthetic nano nolanite SNN Fe2V3O7OH. The complete structural model of nolanite was described from a bulk mineral to the nano -regime using a combination of single crystal X-ray diffraction SC-XRD , pair distribution function analysis PDF and neutron powder diffraction from synthetic material.

Nolanite is isostructural to ferrihydrite, a ubiquitous nano -mineral, both of these mineral structures have been the subject for debate for the last half of century. A comparative study of the isostructural minerals nolanite, akdalaite and ferrihydrite was utilized to address the discrepancies and consolidate the structural models. Lastly, we developed a structural model for nano -crystalline titanium-based material; mono sodium titanate MST using high energy total X-ray scattering and PDF coupled with scanning transmission electron microscope STEM.

In the USA we have accumulated over metric tons. Effect of synthesis methods with different annealing temperatures on micro structure , cations distribution and magnetic properties of nano -nickel ferrite. Nano -crystalline NiFe2O4 was synthesized by citrate and sol-gel methods at different annealing temperatures and the results were compared with a bulk sample prepared by ceramic method.

Saturation magnetization and coercivity are found to be affected by the particle size and the cations distribution. Effect of magnetic and electric coupling fields on micro- and nano - structure of carbon films in the CVD diamond process and their electron field emission property.

In this paper, both electric field and magnetic field were used to assist the hot filament chemical vapor deposition HFCVD and we systematically investigated the effects of which on the 1 phase composition, 2 grain size, 3 thickness and 4 preferred orientation of diamond films through SEM, Raman and XRD.

During the deposition process, the electric field provided additional energy to HFCVD system and generated large number of energetic particles which might annihilate at the substrate and lose kinetic energy, while the Lorentz force, provided by magnetic field, could constrict charged particles including electrons to do spiral movement, which prolonged their moving path and life, thus the system energy increased.

With the graphitization of diamond films intensified, the preferred orientation of diamond films completely evolved from to , until the orientation and diamond phase disappeared, which can be attributed to I the distribution and concentration ratio of carbon precursors C2H2 and CH3 and II graphitization sequence of diamond crystal facets. Since the electron field emission property of carbon film is sensitive to the phase composition, thickness and preferred orientation, nano - carbon cones, prepared by the negative bias current of 20 mA and magnetic field strength of 80 Gauss, exhibited the lowest turn-on field of 6.

Mixed ferrites of the form Co0. Structural analyses are carried out using powder X-ray diffraction to idntify pure ferrite phases. SEM analysis revealed clear crystal morphology with relatively uniform grain sizes with polygonal structures. The FT-IR studies also confirm the bond formation and cation vibrations at low cm-1 and high cm-1 bands that correspond to the tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively.

The magnetic properties studied through vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the Ni substituted sample has more magnetic character by exhibiting the highest saturation magnetization. On the possibility of magnetic nano -markers use for hydraulic fracturing in shale gas mining.

Recently shale gas production became essential for the global economy, thanks to fast advances in shale fracturing technology. Shale gas extraction can be achieved by drilling techniques coupled with hydraulic fracturing. Further increasing of shale gas production is possible by improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing and assessing the spatial distribution of fractures in shale deposits.

The latter can be achieved by adding magnetic markers to fracturing fluid or directly to proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. After that, the range of hydraulic fracturing can be assessed by measurement of vertical and horizontal component of earth's magnetic field before and after fracturing. The difference in these components caused by the presence of magnetic marker particles may allow to delineate spatial distribution of fractures.

Due to the fact, that subterranean geological formations may contain minerals with significant magnetic properties, it is important to provide to the markers excellent magnetic properties which should be also, independent of harsh chemical and geological conditions. On the other hand it is of great significance to produce magnetic markers at an affordable price because of the large quantities of fracturing fluids or proppants used during shale fracturing.

Examining the properties of nano -materials, it was found, that they possess clearly superior magnetic properties, as compared to the same structure but having a larger particle size. It should be then possible, to use lower amount of magnetic marker, to obtain the same effect.

Although a research on properties of new magnetic nano -materials is very intensive, cheap magnetic nano -materials are not yet produced on a scale appropriate for shale gas mining. In this work we overview, in detail, geological, technological and economic aspects of using magnetic nano -markers in shale gas mining. Magnetic Microhelix Coil Structures. Together with the well-known ferro- and antiferromagnetic ordering, nature has created a variety of complex helical magnetic configurations.

Here, we design and investigate three-dimensional microhelix coil structures that are radial-, corkscrew-, and hollow-bar- magnetized. The magnetization configurations of the differently magnetized coils are experimentally revealed by probing their specific dynamic response to an external magnetic field.

Helix coils offer an opportunity to realize microscale geometries of the magnetic toroidal moment, observed so far only in bulk multiferroic materials. Optimizing Energy Conversion: Magnetic Nano -materials. The focus of the study is to develop cost effective rare-earth-free magnetic materials that will enhance energy transmission performance of various electrical devices solar cells, electric cars, hard drives, etc. The preliminary work concentrates on analyzing the properties of magnetic nanoparticle candidates, calculating molecular orbitals and band gap, and the fabrication of thin films.

Antiferromagnetic nano -oscillator in external magnetic fields. We describe the dynamics of an antiferromagnetic nano -oscillator in an external magnetic field of any given time distribution. The oscillator is powered by a spin current originating from spin-orbit effects in a neighboring heavy metal layer and is capable of emitting a THz signal in the presence of an additional easy-plane anisotropy.

We derive an analytical formula describing the interaction between such a system and an external field, which can affect the output signal character. Interactions with magnetic pulses of different shapes, with a sinusoidal magnetic field and with a sequence of rapidly changing magnetic fields are discussed. We also perform numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with spin-transfer torque effects to verify the obtained results and find a very good quantitative agreement between analytical and numerical predictions.

The pseudo-first order kinetic equation could describe the reduction of p-nitrophenol with excess of NaBH4. For the first time, ATO surface was used for hydrothermal growth of silver and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. The in situ growth of these nanoparticles provided an effective bonding of components of the nano -composite over the surface of ATO nanoparticles. This nano -composite exhibited easy synthesis, high stability, cost effective and rapid separation using external magnet.

The excellent catalytic and anti-bacterial activity of as-synthesized silver nano -composite makes it potential nano -catalyst for waste water treatment as well as biomedical application. Structure -property relationships of multiferroic materials: A nano perspective. The integration of sensors, actuators, and control systems is an ongoing process in a wide range of applications covering automotive, medical, military, and consumer electronic markets.

Four major families of ceramic and metallic actuators are under development: piezoelectrics, electrostrictors, magnetostrictors, and shape-memory alloys. All of these materials undergo at least two phase transformations with coupled thermodynamic order parameters. These transformations lead to complex domain wall behaviors, which are driven by electric fields ferroelectrics , magnetic fields ferromagnetics , or mechanical stress ferroelastics as they transform from nonferroic to ferroic states, contributing to the sensing and actuating capabilities.

These materials break the conventional boundary between piezoelectric and electrostrictors, or magnetostrictors and shape-memory alloys. Upon applying field or in a poled condition, they yield not only a large strain but also a large strain over field ratio, which is desired and much benefits for advanced actuator and sensor applications.

X-ray and neutron diffraction were used to obtain the lattice structure and phase transformation characteristics. Piezoresponse and magnetic force microscopy were performed to establish the dependence of domain configurations on composition, thermal history and applied fields. With increasing PT. The latest impressive advancements in the epitaxial fabrication of semiconductors and in the refinement of characterization techniques have the potential to allow insight into the deep relation between materials' structural properties and their physical and chemical functionalities.

Furthermore, while the comprehensive nano characterization of semiconductor materials and structures is becoming more and more necessary, a compendium of the currently available techniques is lacking. We are positive that an overview of the hurdles related to the specific methods, often leading to deceptive interpretations, will be most informative for the broad community working on semiconductors, and will help in shining some light onto a plethora of controversial reports found in the literature.

From this perspective, with this special issue we address and highlight the challenges and misinterpretations related to complementary local nanoscale and more global experimental methods for the characterization of semiconductors. The six topical reviews and the three invited papers by leading experts in the specific fields collected in here are intended to provide the required broad overview on the possibilities of actual nano characterization methods, from the microscopy of single quantum structures , over the synchrotron-based absorption and diffraction of nano -objects, to the contentious detection of tiny magnetic signals by quantum interference and resonance techniques.

We are grateful to all the authors for their valuable contributions. Moreover, I would like to thank the Editorial Board of the journal for supporting the realization of this special issue and for inviting me to serve as Guest Editor. In particular, the efforts of Alice Malhador in coordinating this special issue are acknowledged. Nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensor for sensitivity enhancement.

A new nano-structured SPR sensor was devised to improve its sensitivity. Nano -scaled silica particles were used as the template to fabricate nano-structure. The surface of the silica particles was modified with thiol group and a single layer of the modified silica particles was attached on the gold or silver thin film using Langmuir-Blodgett LB method.

Thereafter, gold or silver was coated on the template by an e-beam evaporator. Finally, the nano-structured surface with basin-like shape was obtained after removing the silica particles by sonication. Enhancement of iron content in spinach plants stimulated by magnetic nano particles. In our previous study, the iron content in spinach plants could be detected by magnetic susceptibility values. In the present work, magnetic nano particles were found from the iron sand.

The magnetic nano particles are synthesis by using co-precipitation process and sol-gel technique. The stimulation of magnetic nano particles in the plant has been done by the provision of magnetic nano particles in growing media. After certain time, plant samples was characterized using susceptibility-meter MS2B and atomic absorption spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility and the amount of iron content that absorbed of the plant, respectively.

While the samples with the higher Co loadings showed a behavior typically paramagnetic, a superparamagnetic contribution is more notorious for lower loadings, suggesting high Co species dispersion. Sustainable utility of magnetically recyclable nano -catalysts in water: Applications in organic synthesis. Magnetically recyclable nano -catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis.

It is well established that magnetically separable nano -catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and Magnetically recyclable nano -catalysts and their use in benign media is an ideal blend for the development of sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. Water or pol Development of low loss soft nano magnetic system for antenna miniaturization at ultra high frequency.

The magnetic property was measured using VSM show a typical feature of magnetically soft material with low coercivity. Successfully obtained appreciable microwave properties using network analyzer, as the nano magnetic system Ba1. Microwave results are explained on the basis of relevant existing theories and models.

Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors. Cordaro, Joseph V. Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano -sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal.

The nano -sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements e. Magnetically recyclable Ni0. A novel visible light active and magnetically separable nanophotocatalyst, Ni0. Crystallite sizes of Ni0. Magnetic measurements field H dependent magnetization M show all samples to be super-paramagnetic in nature and saturation magnetizations Ms decrease with decreasing ferrite content in the nanocomposites.

These novel nanocomposites show excellent photocatalytic activities on Rhodamin Dye. Electrospinning for nano - to mesoscale photonic structures. The fabrication of photonic and electronic structures and devices has directed the manufacturing industry for the last 50 years. Currently, the majority of small-scale photonic devices are created by traditional microfabrication techniques that create features by processes such as lithography and electron or ion beam direct writing.

Microfabrication techniques are often expensive and slow. In contrast, the use of electrospinning ES in the fabrication of micro- and nano -scale devices for the manipulation of photons and electrons provides a relatively simple and economic viable alternative.

ES involves the delivery of a polymer solution to a capillary held at a high voltage relative to the fiber deposition surface. Electrostatic force developed between the collection plate and the polymer promotes fiber deposition onto the collection plate. Issues with ES fabrication exist primarily due to an instability region that exists between the capillary and collection plate and is characterized by chaotic motion of the depositing polymer fiber.

Material limitations to ES also exist; not all polymers of interest are amenable to the ES process due to process dependencies on molecular weight and chain entanglement or incompatibility with other polymers and overall process compatibility.

ES produces fiber devices that can be combined with inorganic, metallic, biological, or organic materials for novel device design. Synergistic material selection and post-processing techniques are also utilized for broad-ranging applications of organic nanofibers that span from biological to electronic, photovoltaic, or photonic.

Optical spins and nano -antenna array for magnetic therapy. Magnetic therapy is an alternative medicine practice involving the use of magnetic fields subjected to certain parts of the body and stimulates healing from a range of health problems. In this paper, an embedded nano -antenna system using the optical spins generated from a particular configuration of microrings PANDA is proposed.

The orthogonal solitons pairs corresponding to the left-hand and right-hand optical solitons photons produced from dark-bright soliton conversion can be simultaneously detected within the system at the output ports. Magnetic moments could indeed arise from the intrinsic property of spins. By controlling some important parameters of the system such as soliton input power, coupling coefficients and sizes of rings, output signals from microring resonator system can be tuned and optimized to be used as magnetic therapy array.

Controlled data storage for non-volatile memory cells embedded in nano magnetic logic. Gamm, Stephan. Among the beyond-CMOS technologies, perpendicular Nano Magnetic Logic pNML is a promising candidate due to its low power consumption, its non-volatility and its monolithic 3D integrability, which makes it possible to integrate memory and logic into the same device by exploiting the interaction of bi-stable nanomagnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

Logic computation and signal synchronization are achieved by focus ion beam irradiation and by pinning domain walls in magnetic notches. However, in realistic circuits, the information storage and their read-out are crucial issues, often ignored in the exploration of beyond-CMOS devices. In this paper we address these issues by experimentally demonstrating a pNML memory element, whose read and write operations can be controlled by two independent pulsed currents.

Our results prove the correct behavior of the proposed structure that enables high density memory embedded in the logic plane of 3D-integrated pNML circuits. In this process, the liquid is subjected to electrical and mechanical forces to form a liquid jet, which is further disintegrated into droplets.

The major advantage of the E-Jet technique is that the sizes of the jet formed can be at the nanoscale far smaller than the nozzle size, which can realize high printing resolution with less risk of nozzle blockage. We show how nanocrystalline Co films formed by separated oblique nano -sheets display anisotropy in their resistivity, magnetization process, surface nano -morphology and optical transmission.

This loss has been monitored measuring the resistivity as a function of temperature. This suggests the existence of a structural relaxation, which produces the change of the Co nano -sheets during annealing. Thus, an approach and coalescence of the nano -sheets have been directly visualized. The spectrum of activation energies of this structural relaxation has indicated that the coalescence of the nano -sheets has taken place between 1.

This study may be relevant for the application in devices working, for example, in the GHz range and to achieve the retention of the anisotropy of these films at higher temperatures. Singh, Jitendra, E-mail: jitendra ceeri. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc and fcc phases.

High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano -clusters, which are embedded in the nano -composite matrix. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non- magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator.

Singh, Hanuman; Konishi, K. In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently.

Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study. Magnetically levitated nano -robots: an application to visualization of nerve cells injuries. This paper proposes a swarm of magnetically levitated nano -robots with high sensitivity nano -sensors as a mean to detect chemical sources, specifically the chemical signals released by injured nervous cells.

In the aftermath of the process, further observation by these nano -robots would be used to monitor the healing process and assess the amount of regeneration, if any, or even the repair, of the injured nervous cells.

Postsynthetic modification of magnetic nano ferrites Fe3O4 has been accomplished by anchoring glutathione and dopamine on the surface. The Cu nano particles immobilized over these surfaces were investigated for the coupling and cyclo addition reactions. The purpose of the International Conference on Structural Nano Composites Nano Struc is to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions.

Nano Struc brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures , nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas.

Before ending this message, I would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which ensured the general organisation. As a conclusion, I would like to Welcome you to the Nanostruc and wish you a stimulating Conference and a wonderful time. Magnetic dipole moment estimation and compensation for an accurate attitude control in nano -satellite missions.

Nano -satellites provide space access to broader range of satellite developers and attract interests as an application of the space developments. These days several new nano -satellite missions are proposed with sophisticated objectives such as remote-sensing and observation of astronomical objects.

In these advanced missions, some nano -satellites must meet strict attitude requirements for obtaining scientific data or images. For LEO nano -satellite, a magnetic attitude disturbance dominates over other environmental disturbances as a result of small moment of inertia, and this effect should be cancelled for a precise attitude control. This research focuses on how to cancel the magnetic disturbance in orbit.

This paper presents a unique method to estimate and compensate the residual magnetic moment, which interacts with the geomagnetic field and causes the magnetic disturbance. An extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the magnetic disturbance. This method will be also used for a nano -astrometry satellite mission. This paper concludes that use of the magnetic disturbance estimation and compensation are useful for nano -satellites missions which require a high accurate attitude control.

High power density is required for application of electric motors in hybrid electric propulsion. Potential path to achieve high power density in electric motors include advanced materials, lightweight thermal management, lightweight structural concepts, high power density power electronics, and advanced manufacturing.

The results have been validated Effect of weak magnetic field on the grain size of electrodeposited nickel. Effect of weak magnetic field on the electro-deposition of nickel onto copper electrode has been investigated. The working conditions were optimized through adjustment of cathodic current density CCD , deposition time, bath temperature and pH of the medium.

The same conditions were maintained for the electrodeposition while applying magnetic field of 0. The morphological features of the Ni-deposits on copper cathode were compared for the two cases. The applied magnetic field not only enhanced the amount of nickel deposition but also improved the quality of the deposit. Surface morphology of the electro-deposited nickel has been monitored using scanning electron microscopy SEM ; the preliminary investigation has shown that the grain size decreased with the applied magnetic field case.

One possible explanation to this behavior is the convection flow of cations close to the electrode surface induced by the Lorentz force which also influences the ion-migration. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications.

For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter.

A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. Facile and rapid synthesis of nickel nanowires and their magnetic properties. The present work reports a facile and rapid microwave-assisted route to synthesize nickel nanowires with a necklace-like morphology and lengths up to several hundreds of microns.

Nickel nanostructures with various morphologies including spheres, chains and irregular particles with porous surfaces can also be obtained by adjusting reaction parameters. Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP is found to be vital for the formation of the one-dimensional chains and a high concentration of PVP smoothes their surfaces to result in the appearance of wires.

This rapid one-pot procedure combines the formation of nanoparticles, their oriented assembly into chains, and the subsequent shaping of wires. The Ni nanostructures show variable magnetic properties. The prepared nickel wires have a high mechanical stability and exhibit much higher coercivity than bulk nickel , Ni nanoparticles and their aggregations, which promise potential applications in micromechanical sensors, memory devices and other fields. This transition is connected to a lattice distortion, which can be described as breathing mode of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the Ni cations.

Our results show a strong dependency of the breathing mode amplitude on the magnetic order, with a much larger breathing mode obtained for the AFM state compared to the ferromagnetic case. Magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles in zirconia matrix. Granular films composed of nanometric Co particles embedded in an insulating ZrO 2 matrix were prepared by pulsed laser deposition in a wide range of Co volume concentrations 0.

The mean particles size and width of the distribution determined by fitting the low-field magnetic susceptibility and magnetization curves in the paramagnetic regime to a distribution of Langevin functions are in agreement with the parameters extracted from direct TEM observations.

Ferromagnetic correlations between Co particles are evident in the field-cooled state when increasing Co concentration. The effective anisotropy constant estimated from magnetic measurements is about two orders of magnitude larger than the bulk value, and decreases as particle size increases.

Electron paramagnetic resonance response and magnetic interactions in ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides. Azzoni, C. EPR data of ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides are reported as a function of the lithium content. The possible origin of the interactions responsible for the magnetic ordering and some features of the transport properties are also discussed. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels. Ivanov, S.

Anil; Mathieu, R. Spinel-type compounds of Fe—Ni—Sb—O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd — 3 m. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter a and the oxygen positional parameter u were obtained.

A chemical formula close to Fe0. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral A and octahedral B sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point.

The simulations on Nickel target preparation and separation of Ni II -Cu II matrix has been carried out as a preliminary study for production of medical radioisotope Cu based on nuclear reaction of "6"4Ni p,n "6"4Cu. The nickel target preparation was performed by means of electroplating method using acidic solution of nickel chloride - boric acid mixture and basic solution of nickel sulphate - nickel chloride mixture on a silver - surfaced-target holder.

The simulated solution of Ni II - Cu II matrix was considered as the solution of post-proton-irradiated nickel target containing both irradiated nickel and radioactive copper, but in the presented work the proton irradiation of nickel target was omitted, while the radioactive copper was originally obtained from neutron irradiation of CuO target. It was found that the electroplating result from the acidic solution was more satisfied than that from the basic solution.

Structure and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles preparedby selective leaching. Nanoparticles of nickel oxide: growth and organization on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix by one-pot route at room temperature. It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO 4 aqueous solution.

No organic compounds are used during the fabrication. Results show that the nickel -clay nanoarchitecture consists of small nanoparticles of nickel oxide average size 7 nm deposited on the larger nanoparticles average size 90 nm of zinc-substituted clay. The optical properties of the new nickel -zinc formulation are studied by UV-Vis. It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO4 aqueous solution.

A chemical formula close to Fe 0. Improvement of the corrosion resistance on Nd-Fe-B magnet with nickel plating. Al ion-plating and without coating were also exposed to the corrosion test. After the specified periods of corrosion test, the permanent flux loss of the re- magnetized sample was measured.

The changes in the appearance were also observed. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation route. Magnetic nanoparticles of nickel ferrite NiFe 2O 4 have been synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferric and nickel salts with sodium hydroxide as the precipitating agent and oleic acid as the surfactant.

X-ray diffraction XRD and transmission electron microscope TEM analyses confirmed the formation of single-phase nickel ferrite nanoparticles in the range nm depending upon the annealing temperature of the samples during the synthesis. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature T B was found to be increasing with increasing particle size that has been attributed to the increased effective anisotropy energy of the nanoparticles.

Schramm, Harry F. All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils 25 m of paint 5 or 6 layers. This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

Structural and magnetic studies of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films. Panwar, Kalpana; Heda, N. We have studied the structural and magnetic properties of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films deposited on Si and Si using pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films on both substrates have single phase cubic spinel structure.

However, the film grown on Si shows better crystalline behavior. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests that films on both substrates have mixed spinel structure. These films show magnetic hysteresis behavior and magnetization value of film on Si is larger than that on Si It turns out that structural and magnetic properties of these two films are correlated.

Nickel --chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields. Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel -chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high- magnetic -field 12 T , liquid-helium 4. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4.

A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties. These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4. Chitosan-coated nickel -ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel -ferrite NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles as both T 1 and T 2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging MRI. The coating of nickel -ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel -ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method. The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4.

The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T 1 and T 2 relaxivities were 0. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel -ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T 1 and T 2 contrast agents in MRI. We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T 1 and T 2 contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles.

Magnetic and electrical properties of oxygen stabilized nickel nanofibers prepared by the borohydride reduction method. Srinivas, V. Fine nickel fibers have been synthesized by chemical reduction of nickel ions in aqueous medium with sodium borohydride.

The thermal stability and relevant properties of these fibers, as-prepared as well as air-annealed, have been investigated by structural, magnetic and electrical measurements. As-prepared samples appear to have a novel crystal structure due to the presence of interstitial oxygen.

Upon annealing in air, the fcc-Ni phase emerges out initially and develops into a nanocomposite subsequently by retaining its fiber-like structure in nano phase. The as-prepared sample is observed to be weakly magnetic at room temperature, but attains surprisingly high magnetization values at low temperatures.

This is attributed to the modified spin structure, presumably due to the presence of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Development of a weakly ferromagnetic and electrically conducting phase upon annealing in air is attributed to the formation of the fcc-Ni phase. The structural phase transformations corroborate well with magnetic and electrical measurements. Full Text Available Nickel -based magnetic activated carbon was synthesized from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation.

The effect of plating solution volume on metallic ratio and adsorption capacity were evaluated. The effect of metallic ratio on specific area, pore volume, and magnetic properties were investigated. The morphologies of activated carbon before and after plating were observed by SEM, and the composition of the layer was analyzed by EDS analysis.

The results showed that the metallic ratio was increased with the increase of the plating solution volume. The magnetic activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and a high iodine number. Those values reached And the layer was more compact and continuous when the metallic ratio reached In the layer, there was about 97 wt.

At the same time, magnetism was enhanced, making the product suitable for some special applications. Nickel -base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding. Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel -base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause.

The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding.

Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than HV. Comparison of low cycle fatigue of ductile cast irons with different matrix alloyed with nickel.

Praha, Effect of experimental factors on magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction method using a statistical design. But addition of more ethanol to precursor solvent leads to the formation of larger particles with broader size distribution and weak ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic behavior.

Magnetic properties of nickel nanowires decorated with cobalt nanoparticles fabricated by two step electrochemical deposition technique. Maaz, K. We demonstrate fabrication and magnetic characterization of novel nanostructures composed of Ni nanowires decorated with Co nanoparticles by two step etching and electrochemical deposition in polycarbonate template. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of nickel nanowires with diameter of 62 nm which are surrounded by cobalt nanoparticles of about 15 nm in diameter.

By electron microscopy analyses it is evident that the nanoparticles are distributed on the surface of the nanowires. Analysis of magnetization data indicates that ferromagnetic Ni nanowires exhibit an easy axis of magnetization parallel to the wire long-axis while the angular dependence of coercivity indicates that magnetization reversal occurs through the curling process in these nanowires.

Full Text Available The morphologies of nickel and copper deposits obtained without applied magnetic fields, and with both parallel and perpendicular applied magnetic fields were examined by the scanning electron microscopy SEM technique. The morphologies of the nickel and copper deposits obtained under parallelly oriented magnetic fields were similar to those obtained at some lower cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field with a perpendicular orientation to the electrode surface increased the dispersity of the nickel and copper deposits.

Nickel and copper deposits obtained under this orientation of the magnetic field were similar to those obtained at some higher cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel -based nanoparticles and nanochains.

Landa, Romina A. Nickel Ni based nanoparticles and nanochains were incorporated as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane PDMS elastomers and then these mixtures were thermally cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. In this way, macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-Ni based magnetorheological composites were obtained with the formation of pseudo-chains-like structures referred as needles oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field when curing.

The size distribution was obtained by fitting Small Angle X-ray Scattering SAXS experiments with a polydisperse hard spheres model and a Schulz-Zimm distribution, obtaining a size distribution centered at The magnetic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains at room temperature are compared and discussed in terms of surface and size effects.

Both Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains were used as fillers for obtaining the PDMS structured magnetorheological composites, observing the presence of oriented needles. The results indicate that even at low loadings it is. Preparation and magnetic properties of polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate resin filled with nickel plating graphite nanosheets.

Zhang Yi, E-mail: zhangyilove yahoo. Scattering matrix for magnetic potentials with Coulomb decay at infinity. Magnetism of iron and nickel from rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We present a rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo algorithm in which the spin rotational invariance of Hund's exchange is approximated by averaging over all possible directions of the spin quantization axis.

We employ this technique to perform benchmark calculations for the two- and three-band Hubbard models on the infinite-dimensional Bethe lattice. Our results agree quantitatively well with those obtained using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method with rotationally invariant Coulomb interaction.

The obtained Curie temperatures agree well with experiment. Our results indicate that the magnetic transition temperature is significantly overestimated by using the density-density type of Coulomb interaction. Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc- nickel alloy. Levesque, A.

The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis. There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results.

The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. Magnetism of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters studied in molecular beams. The magnetic properties of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters in a molecular beam have been studied in a magnetic Stern-Gerlach deflection experiment. The molecular beam apparatus consists of a laser vaporization cluster source with high intensity and stability and a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the deflection measurements.

Several novel experimental features have been developed in this work, like a nozzle which can be heated up to K and a chopper to measure the dwell times of the clusters in the source and their corresponding velocities. These new developments have allowed the measurement and the control of the temperature of the free clusters. The Stern-Gerlach deflection experiments have been performed on Fe, Co and Ni clusters in the mass range from 20 to atoms.

All clusters show single-sided deflection toward increasing field. This observation indicates that a spin relaxation process occurs within the isolated clusters. The participation of both the cluster rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom to the spin relaxation has been experimentally demonstrated. The cluster magnetization has been determined as a function of applied magnetic field B and as a function of dwell times of the clusters in the source before the supersonic expansion into vacuum.

For lower rotational speeds, reduced values of the magnetization have been observed. The magnetic moments of the superparamagnetic Fe, Co and Ni clusters have been measured as a a function of cluster size N at low temperature and b as a function of cluster temperature T for various size ranges. Preparation of nickel -coated titanium carbide particulates and their use in the production of reinforced iron matrix composites. The microstructure and phase composition of the Ni-coated powders and the composites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

The results showed that the TiC particles were distributed uniformly in the matrix and were free of segregation or coarsening. Compared to the TiC particles without Ni coating, the reinforced iron-based composites containing the Ni-coated particles showed higher relative densities and better mechanical properties. The density, hardness, tensile strength, and elongation were enhanced to We propose that the nickel coatings on the particulates had a beneficial effect on the microstructure and properties of the reinforced iron-based composites is due to promotion of neck formation and growth between TiC and iron powders during sintering, which enhanced the density of the sintered compact and the bonding strength between the TiC particles and the iron matrix.

Magnetic nickel ferrite nanoparticles as highly durable catalysts for catalytic transfer hydrogenation of bio-based aldehydes. Magnetism of hexagonal close-packed nickel calculated by full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The energy dependent on volume of hexagonal close-packed hcp nickel with different magnetism is calculated by full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method.

Based on the calculation ferromagnetic state is found to be the most stable state. The magnetic moment of hcp Ni is calculated and compared to those calculated by different pseudo-potential methods. Furthermore, it is also compared to that of face-centered cubic fcc one with the reason discussed. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content.

The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement.

The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials. Witthoeft, M. We present R- matrix calculations of photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections across the K edge of the Li-like to Ca-like ions stages of Ni. Level-resolved, Breit-Pauli calculations were performed for the Li-like to Na-like stages.

Term-resolved calculations, which include the mass-velocity and Darwin relativistic corrections, were performed for the Mg-like to Ca-like ion stages. The R- matrix calculations include the effects of radiative and Auger dampings by means of an optical potential. The damping processes affect the absorption resonances converging to the K thresholds causing them to display symmetric profiles of constant width that smear the otherwise sharp edge at the K-shell photoionization threshold.

These data are important for the modeling of features found in photoionized plasmas. We present R- matrix calculations of photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections across the K edge of the Li-like to Ca-like ion stages of Ni. Full Text Available The aim of this work was to apply coarse recycled hardmetal particles in combination with Ni-based matrix to produce wear resistant metal matrix composite MMC thick coatings using plasma transferred arc hardfacing PTA technology.

Assignment of hardmetal waste as initial material can significantly decrease the production costs and improve the mechanical properties of coatings and, consequently, increase their wear resistance. Micro-mechanical properties, including hardness and elastic modulus of features, were measured by nanoindentation. Furthermore, behaviour of materials subjected to abrasive and impact conditions was studied. Results show the recycled powder provides hardfacings of high quality which can be successfully used in the fabrication of wear resistant MMC coatings by PTA-technology.

Effect of vanadium doping on structural and magnetic properties of defective nano- nickel ferrite. Nano- nickel ferrites defected by vanadium doping NiV x Fe Rietveld analysis revealed a nonmonotonic change in lattice parameter, oxygen parameter and magnetization upon doping with vanadium. Cation distributions suggested from either Rietveld analysis or from experimental magnetic moments were in a good agreement. Preparation and magnetic properties of nano size nickel ferrite particles using hydrothermal method.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nickel ferrite, a kind of soft magnetic materials is one of the most attracting class of materials due to its interesting and important properties and has many technical applications, such as in catalysis, sensors and so on. In this paper the synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by the hydrothermal method is reported and the inhibition of surfactant Glycerol or Sodium dodecyl sulfate on the particles growth is investigated. Methods For investigation of the inhibition effect of surfactant on NiFe2O4 particles growth, the samples were prepared in presence of Glycerol and Sodium dodecyl sulfate.

The average particle size was determined from the Scherrer's equation and TEM micrographs and found to be in the range of nm that decreased up to nm in presence of surfactant. The FT-IR results show two absorption bands near to and cm-1 for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively.

Furthermore, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of As well as, the nanoparticles exhibited a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Conclusions Nanosized nickel ferrite particles were synthesized with and without surfactant assisted hydrothermal methods.

The results show that with increasing of temperature, the crystallinity of nanoparticles is increased. In the presence of surfactants, the crystallinity of. Observation of magnetically anisotropic defects during stage I recovery in nickel after low-temperature electron irradiation.

The measurement of defect-induced changes of magnetic anisotropy in a nickel single crystal after low-temperature electron irradiation was undertaken. A dynamic measuring method was used after reorienting a certain fraction of the radiation-induced defects in an external magnetic field of 5 kOe. In the temperature range of recovery stage I sub C,D,E 45 to 60 k the crystallographic direction dependence of defect-induced anisotropy could be determined.

The results show that in this temperature range the split interstitial is mobile and able to reorient. The obtained data are further discussed with respect to existing information on magnetic after effect and resistivity annealing in electron-irradiated nickel. MMCs Metal Matrix Composites can obtain mechanical characteristics of application purposes that a single material is difficult to obtain. Al alloy composite material that nickel is added by reinforcement is used for piston of diesel engine, because high temperature properties, strength, corrosion resistant are improved excellently than existent Al alloy.

And, in case of processing, interface between Ni and Al improves wear resistant by intermetallic compound of high hardness. Also, in the world, industrial circles are proceeding research to apply excellent composite material.

Existent process methods of MMC using preform were manufactured by high-pressure. But, it cause deformation of preform or fault of completed MMC. Using low-pressure as infiltration pressure can prevent this problem, and there is an advantage that is able to reduce the cost of production by small scale of production equipment. Accordingly, process methods of MMC have to consider low-pressure infiltration for the strength of preform, and nowadays, there are many studies about reducing infiltration pressure.

In this study produced Al composite material that Ni is added by reinforcement by low-pressure infiltration, and observed microstructure of completed MMCs. Generalized matrix method for transmission of neutrons through multilayer magnetic system with non-colinear magnetization.

A generalized matrix method GMM for reflection and transmission of polarized and nonpolarized neutrons for multilayer systems with non-colinear magnetization of neighboring layers is developed. Several methods exist for calculation of the reflection and transmission coefficients of the multilayer systems MS. We consider here only two of them. One is the recurrence method RM , and another one is the matrix method. Previously these methods were used for scalar particles and for spinor particles.

In the last case a limitation was imposed on the directions of the magnetization of different layers: they were required to lie in the plane parallel to the layers. In Fermon has described a different approach of the neutrons in MS. Here, the behaviour of the wave inside the layers depends on the position within the plane. The RM, as shown by us earlier, permits to treat multilayer systems with arbitrary directions of the magnetization.

We show how to treat these systems with the updated matrix method, which we call the generalized matrix method. In the GMM method the transmission and reflection of a layered system are obtained by finding a 4 x 4 matrix , which is a product of elementary 4 x 4 matrices related to the different layers, and in the RM the solution is found by recurrent application of the same procedure of finding the reflection and transmission matrices for a continuously increasing number of layers.

The RM method permits to use a simple algorithm to write analytical formulas for the reflection and transmission. However, for more or less complicated systems these formulas become useless and one needs to do numerical calculations. The GMM does not give a simple analytical algorithm, but it gives a very simple numerical algorithm.

We have developed two computer codes for computing the coefficients of reflection and transmission of a layered system using the GMM and RM methods. Impacts of yttrium substitution on FMR line-width and magnetic properties of nickel spinel ferrites. Ishaque, M. Beyond this, the FMR line-width increases with yttrium contents.

A significant change in FMR position of nickel—yttrium Ni—Y ferrites was observed and it found to exist between and Oe. The saturation magnetization was observed to decrease with the increase of yttrium contents and this was referred to the redistribution of cations on octahedral. The coercivity increased from 15 Oe to 59 Oe by increasing the yttrium concentration.

The initial permeability decreased from to 35 at 1 MHz by the incorporation of yttrium and this was attributed to the smaller grains which may obstruct the domain wall movement and impede the domain wall motion. The magnetic loss factors of substituted samples exhibit decreasing behavior in the frequency range 1 kHz to 10 MHz. The smaller FMR line-width and reduced magnetic loss factor of the investigated samples suggest the possible use of these materials in high frequency applications.

Jung, A. Open-cell metal foams are used as lightweight construction elements, energy absorbers or as support for catalytic coatings. Coating of open-cell metal foams is not only used for catalytic applications, but it leads also to tremendous increase in stiffness and energy absorption capacity.

A non-line of sight coating technique for complex 3D structures is electrodeposition. Unfortunately, due to the 3D porosity and the related problems in mass transport limitation during the deposition, it is not possible to produce homogeneously coated foams.

In the present contribution, we present a semi-non-destructive technique applicable to determine the coating thickness distribution of magnetic coatings by measuring the remanent magnetic field of coated foams. In order to have a closer look at the mass transport mechanism, a numerical model was developed to predict the field scans for different coating thickness distributions in the foams.

For long deposition times the deposition reaches a steady state whereas a Helmholtz equation is sufficient to predict the coating thickness distribution. The applied current density could be identified as the main influencing parameter. Based on the developed model, it is possible to improve the electrodeposition process and hence the homogeneity in the coating thickness of coated metal foams.

This leads to enhanced mechanical properties of the hybrid foams and contributes to better and resource-efficient energy absorbers and lightweight materials. Removal of copper and nickel from water using nanocomposite of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanorods.

A nanocomposite of magnetic hydroxyapatite was synthesized and tested as an adsorbent for the removal of copper Cu II and nickel Ni II from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to determine and compare the adsorption parameters of Fe3O4 and its composite with hydroxyapatite. It was found that the adsorbent is nanostructured and has a specific surface area of The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to be an appropriate model to describe the adsorption processes, showing the adsorption capacities of Cu II and Ni II of In addition to the high adsorption capacity, the fully-adsorbed material could be easily separated from aqueous media using an external magnetic field.

These results suggested that the utilization of new hydroxyapatite - Fe3O4 nanocomposite for the removal of Cu II and Ni II is a promising method in water technology. The prepared magnetic nanopowders were investigated through X-ray diffraction XRD , Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer—Emmett—Teller, vibrating sample magnetometer, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to explore the structural, ferromagnetic, and dielectric properties.

The obtained XRD pattern shows formation of iron doped nickel titanate in orthorhombic structure. Angular dependence of the magnetic properties of permalloy and nickel nanowires as a function of their diameters. In this paper we have compared the angular dependence of the magnetic properties of permalloy Ni80Fe20 and nickel nanowires by means of micromagnetic simulations.

For each material we have chosen two diameters, 40 and nm. In addition, both Py and Ni nanowires exhibit the same remanence values. The magnetization reversal modes vary as a function of the angle at which the external field is applied. When the field is applied parallel to the wire axis, it reverts through nucleation and propagation of domain walls, whereas when the field is applied perpendicular to the axis, it reverts by a pseudo-coherent rotation. These results may provide a guide to control the magnetic properties of nanowires for use in potential applications.

Investigation of structural and magnetic properties of Zr-Co doped nickel ferrite nanomaterials. Crystallite size was calculated by Scherrer's formula found in the range 10—15 nm. The high values of Ms of some compositions predicted the potential applications in high density perpendicular recording media and microwave devices. The crystallite size calculated by scherrer's formula lie in the range 10—15 nm.

The saturation magnetization decreases from Cobalt and nickel ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic adsorbent for the removal of radioactive cesium. Cobalt ferrocyanide CoFC or nickel ferrocyanide NiFC magnetic nanoparticles MNPs were fabricated for efficient removal of radioactive cesium, followed by rapid magnetic separation of the absorbent from contaminated water.

Batch experiments revealed that the maximum adsorption capacity values were These results confirm the developed approach as an innovative and reliable analytical tool for food-safety monitoring, and confirm the role of micromotors as a new paradigm in analytical chemistry. KGaA, Weinheim. The effect of segregated sp-impurities on grain-boundary and surface structure, magnetism and embrittlement in nickel. Magnetic separator having a multilayer matrix , method and apparatus.

A magnetic separator having multiple staggered layers of porous magnetic material positioned to intercept a fluid stream carrying magnetic particles and so placed that a bypass of each layer is effected as the pores of the layer become filled with material extracted from the fluid stream. Temperature dependent and applied field strength dependent magnetic study of cobalt nickel ferrite nano particles: Synthesized by an environmentally benign method.

Spinel ferrites have come a long way in their versatile applications. The ever growing applications of these materials demand detailed study of material properties and environmental considerations in their synthesis. In this article, we report the effect of temperature and applied magnetic field strength on the magnetic behavior of the cobalt nickel ferrite nano powder samples.

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy DRS is done to understand the nickel substitution effect on the optical properties of cobalt ferrite nano particles. The XRD,TEM analysis suggest 40 nm crystallites that show changes in the cation distribution and phase changes in the spinel structure with nickel substitution. Raman micrographs support phase purity changes and cation redistributions with nickel substitution. Diffuse reflectance study on powder samples suggests two band gap values for nickel rich compounds.

The Magnetic study of these sample nano particles show varied magnetic properties from that of hard magnetic , positive multi axial anisotropy and single- magnetic -domain structures at 5 K temperature to soft magnetic core shell like structures at K temperature. Nickel substitution effect is non monotonous. Blocking temperature of all the samples is found to be higher than the values suggested in the literature.

Octa- and nonanuclear nickel II polyoxometalate clusters: synthesis and electrochemical and magnetic characterizations. Three high-nuclearity NiII-substituted polyoxometalate compounds functionalized by exogenous ligands have been synthesized and characterized. In 2, two azido groups replace two of the six mu-hydroxo ligands present in 1. Electronic spectroscopy and electrochemical studies indicate that, while compounds decompose in a pure aqueous medium, these complexes are very stable in a pH 6 acetate medium.

The cyclic voltammetry pattern of each complex is constituted by a first eight-electron reduction wave followed by a second large-current intensity wave. The characteristics of the first waves of the complexes are clearly distinct from those obtained for their lacunary precursor [A-R-SiW9O34], a feature that is due to the Ni centers in the complexes. Such observations of electroactive, stable, and highly nickel -rich polyoxometalates are not common. Measurements of the magnetic susceptibility revealed the occurrence of concomitant ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions in 1 and 3.

For both of these compounds, the extension of the magnetic exchange has been determined by means of a spin Hamiltonian with three and four J constants, respectively. Full Text Available Magnetic particle imaging MPI is a quantitative method for determining the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles, which can be used as tracers for cardiovascular imaging.

For reconstructing a spatial map of the particle distribution, the system matrix describing the magnetic particle imaging equation has to be known. Due to the complex dynamic behavior of the magnetic particles, the system matrix is commonly measured in a calibration procedure.

In order to speed up the reconstruction process, recently, a matrix compression technique has been proposed that makes use of a basis transformation in order to compress the MPI system matrix. By thresholding the resulting matrix and storing the remaining entries in compressed row storage format, only a fraction of the data has to be processed when reconstructing the particle distribution.

In the present work, it is shown that the image quality of the algorithm can be considerably improved by using a local threshold for each matrix row instead of a global threshold for the entire system matrix. Horton, T. Determining how vertebrates navigate during their long-distance migrations remains one of the most enduring and fundamental challenges of behavioral ecology.

It is widely accepted that spatial orientation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and a variety of viable positional and directional orientation cues, including the sun, stars, and magnetic field, have been documented experimentally. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Are empirically observed migratory movements compatible with modern theoretical frameworks of spatial orientation?

To address this question, we analysed leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea , arctic tern Sterna paradisaea , humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae , and great white shark Carcharodon carcharias track maps, frequency distribution diagrams and time-series plots of animal locations in spherical magnetic coordinate space. Our analyses indicates that, although individual migration tracks are spatially and temporally distinct, vertebrate movements are non-randomly distributed in all three spherical magnetic coordinates i.

Stop-over locations, migratory destinations, and re-orientation points occur at similar magnetic coordinate locations, relative to tagging areas, in all four species, suggesting that a common system of magnetic orientation likely informs the navigational behaviors of these phylogenetically diverse taxa.

Although our analyses demonstrate that the experiment-derived ' magnetic map' goal orientation theoretical framework of animal navigation is compatible with remotely-sensed migration track data, they also indicate that magnetic information is complemented by spatially and temporally contingent celestial stimuli during navigation. Rodrigues, A. The powders were prepared by combustion according to the concept of chemical propellants and heated in a microwave oven with a power of kW.

The results indicated that it was possible to obtain nickel ferrite doped with cobalt in all compositions and that an increase of cobalt concentration caused an increase in particle size 9. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion. Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption.

Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition Magnetic nanofilms of nickel prepared at the liquid-liquid interface. The films were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Thicker Ni films could be prepared by carrying out the reaction at the interface at 60 o C.

The Ni nanofilms exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. Three-dimensional micro assembly of a hinged nickel micro device by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding. The three-dimensional micro assembly of hinged nickel micro devices by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding is proposed here. By an electroplating-based surface machining process, the released nickel structure with the hinge mechanism can be fabricated. Lifting of the released micro structure to different tilted angles is accomplished by controlling the positions of a magnet beneath the device.

An in situ electro-thermal actuator is used here to provide the pressing force in micro resistance welding for immobilizing the tilted structure. Design parameters such as the electro-thermal actuator and welding beam width are also investigated.

It is found that there is a trade-off in beam width design between large contact pressure and low thermal deformation. Different dominated effects from resistivity enhancement and contact area enlargement during the welding process are also observed in the dynamic resistance curves. Finally, a lifted and immobilized electro-thermal bent-beam actuator is shown to displace upward about We have studied the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of CdS:Mn quantum dots in polyvinyl alcohol matrix synthesized by co-precipitation method.

The size of quantum dots was estimated by means of absorption spectroscopy. In this work magnetic susceptibility was investigated by Faraday's method at the temperatures of K in magnetic fields of 0. The inverse magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature follows a Curie Weiss law. Formation of ferromagnetic coupling between magnetic ions is supposed. Magneto-optical Faraday rotation has been investigated in the wavelength region nm at temperature K in a magnetic field up to 5 T.

Sign of the Verdet constant is found to be negative. Tadic, Marin; Savic, S. No other impurities have been observed by XRPD. The magnetic properties of the sample have been studied by measuring the temperature and field dependence of magnetization. Magnetic measurements of M T reveal rather complex magnetic properties and multiple magnetic phase transitions. We found that the T M1 transition is strongly dependent on the strength of the applied magnetic field T M1 decreases with increasing applied field whereas the T M3 is field independent.

Magnetic measurements of M H show hysteretic behavior below T M3. In summary, the properties that. Until now, two approaches were used in the literature: either two or three regions that differ in physicochemical properties were identified. Methods Multiparametric, spatially and temporally resolved T2 MR relaxometry in situ was applied to study the hydration progress in HPMC matrix tablets using a Structural and magnetic properties of nickel nanowires grown in porous anodic aluminium oxide template by electrochemical deposition technique.

We study the formation of nickel nanowires Ni NWs grown in porous anodic aluminium oxide AAO template by the electrochemical deposition technique. Here, the initial AAO template was grown by anodization of aluminium substrate in sulphuric acid solution. As a result, the highly-ordered Ni NWs are observed with the uniform diameter of 27 nm and the length from 31 to nm.

The magnetic properties are also calculated by means of generalized gradient approximation methods. From the calculation result, we show that the ferromagnetism behavior comes from Ni NWs without any contribution from AAO template or the substrate. This study opens the potential application of Ni NWs system for novel functional magnetic devices.

Preparation and characterization of magnetic levan particles as matrix for trypsin immobilization. Maciel, J. The magnetic levan particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy SEM , magnetization measurements, X-ray diffractometry XRD and infrared spectroscopy IR.

Magnetite and magnetic levan particles were both heterogeneous in shape and levan-magnetite presented bigger sizes compared to magnetite according to SEM images. Magnetic levan particles exhibited a magnetization 10 times lower as compared to magnetite ones, probably, due to the coating layer. XRD diffractogram showed that magnetite is the dominant phase in the magnetic levan.

Therefore, these magnetic levan particles can be proposed as an alternative matrices for enzyme immobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utilization of magnetic levan particles showed to be efficacious for immobilization of enzymes as trypsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic particles can be planned as other matrix for immobilization of biomolecule in various division processes in biotechnology. Individual magnetization reversal of a square dot matrix by common current excitation.

We have proposed a method for magnetization reversal of individual sites of a 2 by 2 matrix of perpendicularly magnetized dots by common current excitation.

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