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Hector Y. Adames, Nayeli Y. Salas, Claire R. Behavioral and Psychosocial Treatments of Dementia in Mexico. Dementia Care in Guatemala, Central America. Ivonne Z. Schenk-Aldahondo, Mackenzie T. Yakeel T. Torres, Joshua T. Fuller, Amanda Saldarriaga, Francisco Piedrahita et al. Behavioral and Psychosocial Treatments of Dementia in Spain. Back Matter Pages The compendium of chapters, written by researchers, practitioners, and policy analysts from multiple disciplines provides a deep exploration of the current state of dementia care for Latinxs in the U.
The volume is designed to increase and strengthen the collective scientific and sociocultural understanding of the epidemiological and biopsychosocial factors, as well as the overlapping systemic challenges that impact diagnosis and symptom management of Latinxs with dementia.
The authors introduce policy options to reduce risk factors for dementia and present culturally-responsive interventions that meet the needs of Latinx patients and their caregivers. Highlighted topics featured in the book include: Contextual, cultural, and socio-political issues of Latinxs with dementia.
New meta-analysis of dementia rates in the Americas and Caribbean. Dementia-related behavioral issues and placement considerations. Educational, diagnostic, and supportive psychosocial interventions. Lithium sulfate is added to the solution in an amount ranging from 0. The corrosiveness of the solution with respect to stainless steel is substantially decreased by this means.
This treatment also serves to raise the phase separation temperature of the solution above deg C , at which time the uranyl sulfate solution separates into two liquid phases of unequal uranium concentration and thus becomes unsuitable as nuclear reactor fuel. Kinetics of sulfate reduction and sulfide precipitation rates in sediments of a bar-built estuary Pescadero, California. The bar-built Pescadero Estuary in Northern California is a major fish rearing habitat, though recently threatened by near-annual fish kill events, which occur when the estuary transitions from closed to open state.
The direct and indirect effects of hydrogen sulfide are suspected to play a role in these mortalities, but the spatial variability of hydrogen sulfide production and its link to fish kills remains poorly understood. Using flow-through reactors containing intact littoral sediment slices, we measured potential sulfate reduction rates, kinetic parameters of microbial sulfate reduction Rmax, the maximum sulfate reduction rate, and Km, the half-saturation constant for sulfate , potential sulfide precipitation rates, and potential hydrogen sulfide export rates to water at four sites in the closed and open states.
At all sites, the Michaelis-Menten kinetic rate equation adequately describes the utilization of sulfate by the complex resident microbial communities. However, the indirect effects of sulfide precipitates , which chemically deplete, contaminate, and acidify the water column during sediment re-suspension and re-oxidation in the transition from closed to open state, can be implicated in fish mortalities at Pescadero Estuary.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. Tapiador, Francisco; Turk, Francis J. This paper reviews the many aspects of precipitation measurement that are relevant to providing an accurate global assessment of this important environmental parameter.
Methods discussed include ground data, satellite estimates and numerical models. First, the methods for measuring, estimating, and modeling precipitation are discussed. Then, the most relevant datasets gathering precipitation information from those three sources are presented.
The third part of the paper illustrates a number of the many applications of those measurements and databases. The aim of the paper is to organize the many links and feedbacks between precipitation measurement, estimation and modeling, indicating the uncertainties and limitations of each technique in order to identify areas requiring further attention, and to show the limits within which datasets can be used.
Depletion of highly abundant proteins in blood plasma by ammonium sulfate precipitation for 2D-PAGE analysis. Ammonium sulfate precipitation ASP was explored as a method for depleting some highly abundant proteins from blood plasma, in order to reduce the dynamic range of protein concentration and to improve the detection of low abundance proteins by 2D-PAGE. Besides, it allowed detecting 59 spots per gel, very close to the number of spots detected in immuno-affinity-depleted plasma.
Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method. Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.
Morris, R. The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit ended its mission in Gusev crater on sol after it had become stuck in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate rich soil with dust covered solar panels unfavorably pointed toward the sun. Final analysis of remaining data from Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer Fe redox and mineralogy for sols through is now complete. We focus here on chemical APXS and MB data for targets having high-SiO2 or high-SO3 and process link the targets through mixing and geochemical modelling to an acid- sulfate system centered at Home Plate, which is considered to be a hydrovolcanic complex.
Production of salbutamol sulfate for inhalation by high-gravity controlled antisolvent precipitation. The purpose of this study was to produce salbutamol sulfate SS as a model anti-asthmatic drug using high-gravity controlled precipitation HGCP through antisolvent crystallisation. Spray drying was employed to obtain dry powders.
Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction XRD , density measurement, thermal gravimetric analysis, and dynamic vapour sorption were carried out to characterise the powder physical properties. The particles showed the same XRD pattern and true density 1. However, the spray dried agglomerates had a much lower tapped density 0. Compared with the powder obtained by spray drying directly from an aqueous solution, the SS powders obtained from HGCP were much less hygroscopic 0.
In conclusion, SS powder with suitable physical and aerosol properties can be obtained through antisolvent HGCP followed by spray drying. Total and non-seasalt sulfate and chloride measured in bulk precipitation samples from the Kilauea Volcano area, Hawaii. Six-month cumulative precipitation samples provide estimates of bulk deposition of sulfate and chloride for the southeast part of the Island of Hawaii during four time periods: August to February , February to September , March to September , and September to February Total estimated bulk deposition rates for sulfate ranged from 0.
Patterns of non-seasalt sulfate deposition were generally related to prevailing wind directions and the proximity of the collection site to large sources of sulfur gases, namely Kilauea Volcano's summit and East Rift Zone eruption. Total chloride deposition from bulk precipitation samples ranged from 0. Chloride appeared to be predominantly from oceanic sources, as non- seasalt chloride deposition was near zero for most sites.
Plutonium values can be recovered from acidic solutlons by adding lead nitrate, hydrogen fluoride, lantha num nitrate, and sulfurlc acid to the solution to form a carrler preclpitate. The lead sulfate formed improves the separatlon characteristics of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate ,.
Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass. Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof.
Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.
Recently aqueously deposited sulfate -rich bedrock was found at the MER-B Meridiani landing site . Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs.
Recovery and purification of limonin from pummelo [Citrus grandis] peel using water extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and resin adsorption. In the present study, pummelo [Citrus grandis] peel was investigated for limonin preparation using a novel process consisting of water extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and resin adsorption.
The pummelo peel was determined to have 4. The precipitated limonin was purified by resin adsorption and crystallization with a purity of In addition, the limonin was identified via the analyses of retention time, infrared spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonance.
This study indicates a novel and eco-friendly process for recovering limonin, providing a new candidate for limonin preparation. An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate , amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium.
The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. Modeling investigation of controlling factors in the increasing ratio of nitrate to non-seasalt sulfate in precipitation over Japan.
Anthropogenic emissions in East Asia have been increasing during the three decades since , as the population of East Asia has grown and the economies in East Asian countries have expanded. This has been particularly true in China, where NOx emissions have been rising continuously. These drastic changes in emission levels of acidifying species are likely to have caused substantial changes in the precipitation chemistry. The absolute concentration of compounds in precipitation is inherently linked to precipitation amount; therefore, we use the ratio of nitrate NO to non-seasalt sulfate nss-SO2- concentration in precipitation as an index for evaluating acidification, which we call Ratio.
In this study, we analyzed the long-term behavior of Ratio in precipitation over the Japanese archipelago during and estimated the factors responsible for changes in Ratio in precipitation by using a model simulation. This analysis showed that Ratio was relatively constant at 0. Sensitivity analysis elucidated that the increase in NOx emissions and the decrease in SO2 emissions contributed equally to the increases in Ratio.
Considering both emission changes in China enables to capture the observed increasing trend of Ratio in Japan. The ability of sulfate -reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Precipitation products are currently available from various sources at higher spatial and temporal resolution than any time in the past.
Each of the precipitation products has its strengths and weaknesses in availability, accuracy, resolution, retrieval techniques and quality control. By merging the precipitation data obtained from multiple sources, one can improve its information content by minimizing these issues. However, precipitation data merging poses challenges of scale-mismatch, and accurate error and bias assessment.
This method is a combination of scale conversion and merging weight optimization, involving performance-tracing based on Bayesian statistics and trend-analysis, which yields merging weights for each precipitation data source. The weights are optimized at multiple scales to facilitate multiscale merging and better precipitation downscaling. The test cases demonstrate that the OMP method is capable of identifying a better data source and allocating a higher priority for them in the merging procedure, dynamically over the region and time period.
This method is also effective in filtering out poor quality data introduced into the merging process. The dose-response lines for diphtheria toxoid fractions precipitated at various concentrations of ammonium sulfate. Three diphtheria toxoid preparations, fractionated at various concentrations of ammonium sulfate , having various grades of purity, and showing striking differences in immunizing potency when compared at the same Lf dose, were examined for similarity of the effective constituents in the fractions.
No evidence of deviations from parallelism of the dose-response regression lines was observed; thus the statistical criteria for qualitative similarity were satisfactory met. Daily atmospheric concentrations of sulfate collected in northeastern Pennsylvania are regressed against meteorological factors, ozone, and time in order to determine if a significant trend in sulfate can be detected.
Effects of nitrate and water on the oxygen isotopic analysis of barium sulfate precipitated from water samples. BaSO4 precipitated from mixed salt solutions by common techniques for SO isotopic analysis may contain quantities of H2O and NO that introduce errors in O isotope measurements.
These results have implications for the calibration and use of O isotope data in studies of SO sources and reaction mechanisms. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol and the southward shift of tropical precipitation in the late 20th century. In this paper, we demonstrate a global scale southward shift of the tropical rain belt during the latter half of the 20th century in observations and global climate models GCMs. In rain gauge data, the southward shift maximizes in the s and is associated with signals in Africa, Asia, and South America.
A southward shift exists at a similar time in nearly all CMIP3 and CMIP5 historical simulations, and occurs on both land and ocean, although in most models the shifts are significantly less than in observations. Our results suggest that anthropogenic aerosol cooling of the Northern Hemisphere is the primary cause of the consistent southward shift across GCMs, although other processes affecting the atmospheric energy budget also contribute to the model-to-model spread. A simple and reliable method reducing sulfate to sulfide for multiple sulfur isotope analysis.
Precise analysis of four sulfur isotopes of sulfate in geological and environmental samples provides the means to extract unique information in wide geological contexts. Reduction of sulfate to sulfide is the first step to access such information. The conventional reduction method suffers from a cumbersome distillation system, long reaction time and large volume of the reducing solution.
We present a new and simple method enabling the process of multiple samples at one time with a much reduced volume of reducing solution. The reduction rate was much slower for BaSO 4 and a complete reduction was not observed. The new methodology is easy to handle and allows us to process multiple samples at a time. It has also demonstrated good reproducibility in terms of H 2 S yield and for further isotope analysis. It is thus a good alternative to the conventional manual method , especially when processing samples with limited amount of sulfate available.
The differences and the variations of chondroitin sulfate content in different parts of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum CCP with different processing methods were investigated. The chondroitin sulfate from velvet was extracted by dilute alkali-concentrated salt method. The results indicated that the chondroitin sulfate content in different processing methods was significantly different. Tyrosine sulfation is one of the ubiquitous protein posttranslational modifications, where some sulfate groups are added to the tyrosine residues.
It plays significant roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. To explore the molecular mechanism of tyrosine sulfation , one of the prerequisites is to correctly identify possible protein tyrosine sulfation residues. In this paper, a novel method was presented to predict protein tyrosine sulfation residues from primary sequences. By means of informative feature construction and elaborate feature selection and parameter optimization scheme, the proposed predictor achieved promising results and outperformed many other state-of-the-art predictors.
Using the optimal features subset, the proposed method achieved mean MCC of The experimental performance indicated that our new proposed method could be effective in identifying the important protein posttranslational modifications and the feature selection scheme would be powerful in protein functional residues prediction research fields. Turbidimetric method TM , ion chromatography IC and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry ICP-AES with and without acid digestion have been compared and validated for the determination of sulfate in mining wastewater.
Analytical methods were chosen to compa Sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for highly efficient biological sample extraction; however, SDS presents a significant challenge to LC-MS-based proteomic analyses due to its severe interference with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization interfaces. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomic sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal protocol.
The resulting proteome coverage from this SDS-assisted protocol was comparable to or better than those obtained from other standard proteomic preparation methods in both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples. These results suggest that this SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomic sample processing method , which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.
This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution.
The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products. Comparison of preparation methods for ceria catalyst and the effect of surface and bulk sulfates on its activity toward NH3-SCR. The catalytic activity of CeO2 was significantly affected by the preparation methods and the precursor type.
Based on the results obtained by temperature-programmed reduction H2-TPR , transmission infrared spectra IR and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA , the excellent performance of CeO2-SH was correlated with the surface sulfate species formed in the hydrothermal reaction. Accordingly, the selective oxidation of NH3 was enhanced, which contributed to the high N2 selectivity in the SCR reaction. However, the location of sulfate on the CeO2-SP catalyst was different.
Plenty of sulfate species were likely deposited on CeO2-SP surface, covering the active sites for NO oxidation, which resulted in poor SCR activity in the test temperature range. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin and recovery yield as determined by greater infectivity.
Describes efforts in devising a method for determining sulfate quickly and accurately from rainwater samples. Explains the design and operation of the apparatus and identifies the solutions for the testing. Precipitation chemistry affected by differences in location of collection sites and storage methods. An investigation was carried out to evaluate rigorously the possible differences in measured concentrations of hydrogen, nitrate and sulfate ions in 'bulk' precipitation samples that may be caused by variations in location of rain collectors, and duration and temperature of storage.
Storage of precipitation samples, up to 1 month, both in the coldroom and in the field resulted in a significant reduction in the concentration of hydrogen ions. Only field storage caused a statistically significant reduction in the concentration of nitrate in the precipitation samples. Levels of sulfate ions were not found to be significantly affected by storage either in the field or in coldrooms. Samples collected from a rain gage located on a building roof were more acidic than those collected in open spaces in forests.
Though all samples showed similar seasonal patterns in the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate, the individual values consistently differed from each other. A dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering method for the determination of chondroitin sulfate with nile blue sulfate. At pH 3.
As a result, the new spectra of resonance Rayleigh scattering RRS , second order scattering SOS and frequence doubling scattering FDS appeared and their intensities were enhanced greatly. The scattering intensities of the three methods were proportional to the concentration of CS in certain ranges.
The methods had high sensitivity and the detection limits were between 1. The characteristics of the spectra and optimal reaction conditions of RRS method were investigated. The effects of coexistent substances on the determination of CS were evaluated. Owing to the high sensitivity, RRS method had been applied to the determination of CS in eye drops with satisfactory results. The recovery range was between In addition, the reasons for RRS enhancement were discussed and the shape of ion-association complex was characterized by atomic force microscopy AFM.
The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-burn NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.
The NO. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate , phosphate, and carbonate. The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-bum NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents.
The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent.
Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate. Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin.
However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5. The precipitant , which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed.
The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods.
Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. An improvement of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process for the recovery of plutonium is presented. The IPCC 5th Assessment found that the predicted warming of 1oC would increase the risk of extreme events such as heat waves, droughts, and floods.
Weather extremes, like floods, have shown the vulnerability and susceptibility society has to these extreme weather events, through impacts such as disruption of food production, water supply, health, and damage of infrastructure. This paper examines a new way of near-real time forecasting of precipitation.
Forecasting precipitation estimates in real time is dire for flood monitoring and disaster management. The derived climatological relationship can be applied to create precipitation estimates in near real time by utilizing the direct broadcasting capabilities currently available in the CONUS region.
The analysis will highlight the advantages of applying this relationship in near-real time for flash flood monitoring and risk management. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test RSSCT and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration.
The method was extended to synthe Temperature and seeding effects on the precipitation of scorodite from sulfate solutions under atmospheric-pressure conditions. Arsenic is a major contaminant in the nonferrous extractive metallurgy.
The beneficial effects of temperature are attributed to the higher thermodynamic stability of scorodite at elevated temperatures, but also to higher rates of secondary nuclei formation and crystal growth. Another parameter examined in this study was seeding. It was observed that the higher the initial concentration of seed, the faster the precipitation.
The microstructure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles have been investigated using X-ray diffraction XRD and transmission electron microscopy TEM. To investigate the quality of prepared nanoparticles, the particles size, lattice constant, strain, dislocation density etc. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials.
A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone HAZ are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.
The influence of different black carbon and sulfate mixing methods on their optical and radiative properties. Three different internal mixing methods Core-Shell, Maxwell-Garnett, and Bruggeman and one external mixing method are used to study the impact of mixing methods of black carbon BC with sulfate aerosol on their optical properties, radiative flux, and heating rate.
The optical properties of a mixture of BC and sulfate aerosol particles are considered for three typical bands. The results show that mixing methods , the volume ratio of BC to sulfate , and relative humidity have a strong influence on the optical properties of mixed aerosols.
However, the asymmetry parameter is strongly sensitive to the equivalent particle radius, but is only weakly sensitive to the different mixing methods. The results show that the internal mixing methods could reduce the radiative flux more effectively because they produce a higher absorption. The annual mean instantaneous radiative force due to BC- sulfate aerosol is about Synthesis of TiO2 nanorods from titania and titanyl sulfate produced from ilmenite dissolution by hydrothermal method.
TiO2 powder has been synthesized through hydrolysis-condensation of titanyl sulfate solution to a starting material of TiO2 nanorods formation. This processing was conducted by the solid separation of TiO2 from ilmenite by roasting ilmenite, acidic leaching hydrolysis , and co- precipitation condensation. While the acidic leaching process was conducted by sulfuric acid at a various concentrations of 3, 3.
The result shown that the solubility optimum occurs in H2SO4 6 M condition. Further treatment of the TiO2 is the formation of one-dimensional nano-size 1-D nanorods through a hydrothermal method under basic condition NaOH 12M solution. A year record of the ratio of nitrate to non-sea-salt sulfate in precipitation over East Asia.
Acidifying species in precipitation can have severe impacts on ecosystems. The chemical composition of precipitation is directly related to the amount of precipitation ; accordingly, it is difficult to identify long-term variation in chemical concentrations. The ratio of the nitrate NO3- to non-sea-salt sulfate nss-SO concentration in precipitation on an equivalent basis hereinafter, Ratio is a useful index to investigate the relative contributions of these acidifying species.
To identify the long-term record of acidifying species in precipitation over East Asia, the region with the highest emissions worldwide, we compiled ground-based observations of the chemical composition of precipitation over China, Korea, and Japan from to based on the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia EANET. The spatial coverage was limited, but additional monitoring data for Japan, southern China, and northern China around Beijing were utilized.
The behaviors of NO3- and nss-SO concentrations and hence the Ratio in precipitation were related to these precursors. Further, satellite observations of the NO2 and SO2 column density to capture the variation in emissions were applied. We found that the long-term trend in the NO3- concentration in precipitation was not related to the variation in NOx emission and the NO2 column.
In comparison, the nss-SO concentration in precipitation over China, Korea, and Japan was partially connected to the changes in SO2 emissions from China, but the trends were not significant. This variation in Ratio in East Asia clearly. In the framework of the Climate KIC partnership, has been funded the project Wat-Ener-Cast WEC , coordinated by ARIA Technologies, having the goal to adapt, through tailored weather-related forecast, the water and energy operations to the increased weather fluctuation and to climate change.
A common "energy water" web platform, able to interface with newest smart water-energy IT network have been developed. The main benefit by sharing resources through the "WEC platform" is the possibility to optimize the cost and the procedures of safety and maintenance team, in case of alerts and, finally to reduce overflows. For each fixed deadline different type of operation are implemented: 1 48hour horizon, organisation of "on call team", 2 24 hour horizon, update and confirm the "on call team", 3 12 hour horizon, secure human resources and equipment emptying storage basins, pipes manipulations ….
More specifically CMCC have provided a statistical downscaling method in order to provide a "rough" daily local precipitation at 24 hours, especially when high precipitation values are expected. This statistical technique consists of an adaptation of analogue method based on ECMWF data analysis and forecast at 24 hours.
One of the most advantages of this technique concerns a lower computational burden and budget compared to running a Numerical Weather Prediction NWP model, also if, of course it provides only this. The development of a simple, rapid and low cost method based on video image analysis and aimed at the detection of low concentrations of precipitated barium sulfate is described.
The proposed system is basically composed of a webcam with a CCD sensor and a conventional dichroic lamp. For this purpose, software for processing and analyzing the digital images based on the RGB Red, Green and Blue color system was developed. The proposed method had shown very good repeatability and linearity and also presented higher sensitivity than the standard turbidimetric method.
The developed method is presented as a simple alternative for future applications in the study of precipitations of inorganic salts and also for detecting the crystallization of organic compounds. Radar and satellite studies of the impact of mesoscale convective precipitation and wind systems on visibility, sulfates , and oxidants during persistent elevated pollution episodes. The results are consistent and supportive, but certainly not conclusive, of a hypothesis suggesting that PBL sulfate mass removal into the free troposphere are on the order of several times that deposited on the surface during convective rainfalls.
Thus, given the highly episodic nature of wet deposition and the potential major contribution of a single event to a season's total, a need exists to better understand the contributions of the various MCPS types to visibility improvement and sulfate removal, both to the surface and especially into the free atmosphere.
Hales and Dana suggest the importance of designing an experiment to achieve an accurate closure of species mass balance within the entire domain of a convective storm. In noting the extreme variability in species washout over a region, they speculate that the bulk of the variability within and between storms must occur by superposition of the effects of inhomogeneous storm features, as well as source characteristics.
Grant stated that a definitive characterization of individual storm dynamics and trajectories must be performed before long-term trends can be established with certainty. From the viewpoint of a severe storms meteorologist, much of the effort ongoing to understand regional wet deposition, sulfate , ozone, and visibility patterns, is subject to large errors of interpretation unless an attempt is made to better understand the highly different ways in which various precipitation systems, convective and stratiform, impact the PBL.
The recovery of plutonium from fluoride carrier precipitates is described. The precipitate is dissolved in zirconyl nitrate, ferric nitrate, aluminum nitrate, or a mixture of these complexing agents, and the plutonium is then extracted from the aqueous solution formed with a water-immiscible organic solvent.
Production of a Pseudomonas lipase in n-alkane substrate and its isolation using an improved ammonium sulfate precipitation technique. Among the various lipidic and non-lipidic substances, normal alkanes within the chain lengths of C to C served as the best carbon substrates for the production of extracellular lipase by Pseudomonas species G6.
The optimum concentration of iron, which played a critical role on the lipase production, was found to be 0. Lipase production could be enhanced to nearly 2. A rapid and simple method for estimating sulfate reduction activity and quantifying inorganic sulfides. A simplified passive extraction procedure for quantifying reduced inorganic sulfur compounds from sediments and water is presented. This method may also be used for the estimation of sulfate reduction rates. Efficient extraction of FeS, FeS inf2 , and S sup2- was obtained with this procedure; however, the efficiency for S sup0 depended on the form that was tested.
Passive extraction can be used with samples containing up to 20 mg of reduced sulfur. We demonstrated the utility of this technique in a determination of both sulfate reduction rates and reduced inorganic sulfur pools in marine and freshwater sediments. A side-by-side comparison of the passive extraction method with the established single-step distillation technique yielded comparable results with a fraction of the effort. Simultaneous chemical oxygen demand removal, methane production and heavy metal precipitation in the biological treatment of landfill leachate using acid mine drainage as sulfate resource.
Biological treatment played an important role in the treatment of landfill leachate. In the current study, acid mine drainage AMD was used as a source of sulfate to strengthen the anaerobic treatment of landfill leachate. Effects of chemical oxygen demand COD and SO 4 2- mass concentration ratio on the decomposition of organic matter, methane production and sulfate reduction were investigated and the microbial community was analyzed using the high throughout methods.
The relative abundance of anaerobic hydrogen-producing bacteria Candidatus Cloacamonas in the experimental group with the addition of AMD was significantly increased compared to the control. Abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens of Methanosarcina and Methanomassiliicoccus was increased.
Results confirmed that AMD could be used as sulfate resource to strengthen the biological treatment of landfill leachate. Published by Elsevier B. Hydroxyapatite can be used as substituted bone biomaterial because biocompatible, non toxic, and osteoconductive.
In this study, hydroxyapatite is synthesized using wet precipitation method from egg shell. The analytical results showed hydroxyapatite had range in crystallinity from The analytical functional groups showed that presence of functional groups such as OH, PO4 3 2-, and CO3 2- that indicated as hydroxyapatite. A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution.
First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate , selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved.
The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate. In the present work we demonstrate the partitioning of this peptide to the inner membrane and matrix of mitochondria when it is perfused into isolated rat hearts.
Additionally, we found that when soybean trypsin inhibitor SBTI , was added to rat heart effluents, it could also be precipitated using NH4 2SO4 and detected in western blots. This provided a convenient method for normalizing protein recoveries between groups. In addition, we have developed an improved method for the detection of cTnI release from perfused rat hearts.
The influence of sodium lauryl sulfate on the crystal phases of titania by hydrothermal method. The absorption and steric effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the surfaces of TiO2 grains also have an important influence on the formation of mixed crystals by changing the speed and the way of octahedral TiO6 units combining. Based on the above facts, we revised the original reaction scheme for crystalline titania formation by previous authors.
Glucosamine Sulfate. Glucosamine Hydrochloride Study of accuracy of precipitation measurements using simulation method. Hungarian Meteorological Service1 Budapest University of Technology and Economics2 Precipitation is one of the the most important meteorological parameters describing the state of the climate and to get correct information from trends, accurate measurements of precipitation is very important.
The problem is that the precipitation measurements are affected by systematic errors leading to an underestimation of actual precipitation which errors vary by type of precipitaion and gauge type. It is well known that the wind speed is the most important enviromental factor that contributes to the underestimation of actual precipitation , especially for solid precipitation.
It provides the tools needed to describe atmospheric processes, design and optimize new equipment. The CFD package includes solvers that accurately simulate behaviour of the broad range of flows that from single-phase to multi-phase. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography separates analytes according their solubility in ammonium sulfate AS solution and other precipitants.
The separation column is made from a pair of long spiral channels partitioned with a semipermeable membrane. In a typical separation, concentrated ammonium sulfate is eluted through one channel while water is eluted through the other channel in the opposite direction. The countercurrent process forms an exponential AS concentration gradient through the water channel.
Consequently, protein samples injected into the water channel is subjected to a steadily increasing AS concentration and at the critical AS concentration they are precipitated and deposited in the channel bed by the centrifugal force. Then the chromatographic separation is started by gradually reducing the AS concentration in the AS channel which lowers the AS gradient concentration in the water channel.
This results in dissolution of deposited proteins which are again precipitated at an advanced critical point as they move through the channel. Consequently, proteins repeat precipitation and dissolution through a long channel and finally eluted out from the column in the order of their solubility in the AS solution. The present method has been successfully applied to a number of analytes including human serum proteins, recombinant ketosteroid isomerase, carotenoid cleavage enzymes, plasmid DNA, polysaccharide, polymerized pigments, PEG-protein conjugates, etc.
The method is capable to single out the target species of proteins by affinity ligand or immunoaffinity separation. Method of repressing the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate. Boric acid or a borate salt is added to aqueous solutions of fluoride containing radioactive wastes generated during the reprocessing of zirconium alloy nuclear fuels which are to be converted to solid form by calcining in a fluidized bed. The addition of calcium nitrate to the aqueous waste solutions to prevent fluoride volatility during calcination, causes the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate, which tends to form a gel at fluoride concentrations of 3.
The boron containing species introduced into the solution by the addition of the boric acid or borate salt retard the formation of the calcium fluozirconate precipitate and prevent formation of the gel. These boron containing species can be introduced into the solution by the addition of a borate salt but preferably are introduced by the addition of an aqueous solution of boric acid. Official Gazette. Apparatus and methods for regeneration of precipitating solvent.
A regenerator that can handle rich loaded chemical solvent containing precipitated absorption reaction products is disclosed. The invention is particularly suitable for separating CO. The internally circulating liquid stream in the regenerator ICLS regenerator rapidly heats-up the in-coming rich solvent stream in a downcomer standpipe as well as decreases the overall concentration of CO.
Both these actions lead to dissolution of precipitates. Any remaining precipitate further dissolves as heat is transferred to the mixed solution with an inverted bayonet tube heat exchanger in the riser portion of the regenerator. The evolving CO. As minor amounts of solvent components present in the exit gas stream are condensed and returned back to the regenerator, pure CO. A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction purification of steroid sulfates.
Steroid sulfates are a major class of steroid metabolite that are of growing importance in fields such as anti-doping analysis, the detection of residues in agricultural produce or medicine. Despite this, many steroid sulfate reference materials may have limited or no availability hampering the development of analytical methods. We report simple protocols for the rapid synthesis and purification of steroid sulfates that are suitable for adoption by analytical laboratories.
Central to this approach is the use of solid-phase extraction SPE for purification, a technique routinely used for sample preparation in analytical laboratories around the world. Structural characterization data, together with NMR and mass spectra are reported for all steroid sulfates , often for the first time.
A review of chemical methods for the selective sulfation and desulfation of polysaccharides. Sulfated polysaccharides are known to possess several biological activities, with their sulfation pattern acting as a code able to transmit functional information. Due to their high biological and biomedical importance, in the last two decades many reports on the chemical modification of their sulfate distribution as well as on the regioselective insertion of sulfate groups on non- sulfated polysaccharides appeared in literature.
In this Review we have for the first time collected these reports together, categorizing them into three different classes: i regioselective sulfation reactions, ii regioselective desulfation reactions, iii regioselective insertion of sulfate groups through multi-step strategies, and discussing their scope and limitations. Determination of kjeldahl nitrogen in fertilizers by AOAC official methods In this method , either copper sulfate or chromium metal is added to analyze for total Kjeldahl nitrogen.
The objective was to examine the necessity of copper sulfate as a catalyst for the nitrate-free fertilizer products. Copper salts are not environmentally friendly and are considered pollutants. Products such as ammonium sulfate , diammonium phosphate, monoammonium phosphate, urea-containing fertilizers such as isobutylene diurea IBDU , and urea-triazone fertilizer solutions were examined.
Our findings indicate that copper sulfate can be eliminated from the method with no significant difference in the results for the nitrogen content of the fertilizer products. Pore water sampling in acid sulfate soils: a new peeper method. This study describes the design, deployment, and application of a modified equilibration dialysis device peeper optimized for sampling pore waters in acid sulfate soils ASS.
The modified design overcomes the limitations of traditional-style peepers, when sampling firm ASS materials over relatively large depth intervals. The new peeper device uses removable, individual cells of 25 mL volume housed in a 1. The rigid housing structure allows the device to be inserted directly into relatively firm soils without requiring a supporting frame.
The use of removable cells eliminates the need for a large glove-box after peeper retrieval, thus simplifying physical handling. Removable cells are easily maintained in an inert atmosphere during sample processing and the mL sample volume is sufficient for undertaking multiple analyses. A field evaluation of equilibration times indicates that 32 to 38 d of deployment was necessary.
Evaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methods. Evaporation from a precipitation gauge can cause errors in the amount of measured precipitation. For automated weighing-bucket gauges, the World Meteorological Organization WMO suggests the use of evaporative suppressants and frequent observations to limit these biases. However, the use of evaporation suppressants is not always feasible due to environmental hazards and the added cost of maintenance, transport, and disposal of the gauge additive.
In addition, research has suggested that evaporation prior to precipitation may affect precipitation measurements from auto-recording gauges operating at sub-hourly frequencies. For further evaluation, a field campaign was conducted to monitor evaporation and its impacts on the quality of precipitation measurements from gauges used at U.
Two Geonor gauges were collocated, with one gauge using an evaporative suppressant referred to as Geonor-NonEvap and the other with no suppressant referred to as Geonor-Evap to evaluate evaporative losses and evaporation biases on precipitation measurements. From June to August, evaporative losses from the Geonor-Evap gauge exceeded accumulated precipitation , with an average loss of 0. The impact of evaporation on precipitation measurements was sensitive to the choice of calculation method. In general, the pairwise method that utilized a longer time series to smooth out sensor noise was more sensitive to gauge evaporation This study can be used to advance quality insurance QA techniques used in other automated networks to mitigate the impact of evaporation biases on precipitation measurements.
The effects of evaporation on precipitation measurements have been understood to bias total precipitation lower. For automated weighing-bucket gauges, the World Meteorological Organization WMO suggests the use of evaporative suppressants with frequent observations. For further evaluation, a field campaign was conducted to monitor evaporation and its impacts on the quality of precipitation measurements from gauges used at US Climate Reference Network USCRN stations.
Collocated Geonor gauges with nonEvap and without evap an evaporative suppressant were compared to evaluate evaporative losses and evaporation biases on precipitation measurements. From June to August, evaporative losses from the evap gauge exceeded accumulated precipitation , with an average loss of 0. However, the impact of evaporation on precipitation measurements was sensitive to calculation methods.
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