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Spaces, Facebook's VR social network, is now in open beta Quake Champions will start a day open beta this week The open beta will take Thereafter, the membranes were transferred into a clean deionised water bath and allowed to cure for 24 h, then stored in deionised water kept in the refrigerator for further analysis and assessment. The surface area and the pore size and volume of the material were determined by single point analysis.
A precise amount of the sample was sonicated in about 5 cm 3 of ethanol under 60 W ultrasonic bath for about 10 min. Then a tiny drop of the suspension was placed on a coated copper grid. The grid was dried in the air before mounting on the TEM sample holder for analyses. The morphological structure of the samples was scanned at 5 kV using lowest beam current of the scanning electron microscopy SEM , which achieved the optimum resolution at a specific magnification.
A small amount of zeolite powder from a piece of the membrane was mounted on a sample holder using a carbon tap and was carbon-coated before analysis. Stock solutions of NaCl and MgCl 2 ca. The standard solution was prepared by dilution of the stock solution: typically, a ppm standard solution of NaCl or MgCl 2 was prepared by diluting mL of ppm stock solution in mL volumetric flask.
The permeate flux was defined as:. The permeation measurements in the study of all membranes were at room temperature. Preliminary, the water flux of each membrane was compacted until a steady state was reached under the condition of pre-compacting pressure of 1 bar for about 1 h. Following pressure was decreased to the normal operating pressure of 0. After the pure water flux test measurement, a solution of ppm BSA was transferred in the dead-end, followed by compacting and then permeation flux measurement at a similar pressure.
Thereafter, the fouled membranes were then rinsed with deionised water through backwashing for 1 h, and the pure water fluxes of these backwashed membranes were retested again. The obtained ZSM zeolite material was then directly incorporated into the pristine PES casting solution, resulting in a series of composite membranes containing ZSM For instance, the pattern of the membrane containing 0. The shifts indicate a physical interaction between ZSM crystallites and PES polymer chains, which is a positive observation, as it will result in minimal zeolite leaching from the membranes during application.
Additional zeolitic peaks were observed at 9. The overall amorphous character of the composite membranes indicates that the addition of the zeolites did not alter the membrane structure. The ZSM material was analysed using BET to estimate the pore size distribution of the nanoadditives for effective salt polymer and solute chain interaction upon membrane formation and application, respectively.
The N 2 adsorption—desorption isotherms with inserted textural properties of ZSM materials along with their pore size distribution are shown in Figure 2. The isotherm indicates that the ZSM material produced here have a significantly developed the micropore system in agreement with the reported literature results for zeolite materials [ 61 , 62 , 63 ].
The existence of highly ordered micropores on the structure can be manifested by the constant N 2 uptake at 0. The structure also exhibits absent hysteresis loops, suggesting a typical formation of a highly ordered and well-defined structure. These results further indicate that the obtained ZSM zeolite structure has a typical hierarchical framework of inter-crystalline mesopores, within micropore nanorods, among self-assembled ZSM nanorods.
These further confirm that the resulting structure possesses a negatively charged framework. Their spectra exhibited no bands attributable to ZSM inclusion in the membranes, probably due to low amounts of ZSM typically 0. Another explanation for their absence might be that these bands, specifically the symmetric and asymmetric peaks of ZSM, are buried within the relatively more intense vibration bands from the PES polymer matrix.
The observed shapes are attributed to the effect of HMDA used as a structure-directing agent. Then, the nanocomposite membranes were also analysed using the SEM technique. The surface morphology Figure 5 a—e of the membranes all exhibited a porous nature, as expected. Furthermore, as the quantity of ZSM was increased, surface nodules started to emerge, indicating that the zeolite crystallites were near or on the surface layer.
The cross-section also showed a typical morphology of finger-like pores with microvoids of varying shapes depending on the amount of nanoadditives used. There is an observable transformation of both the surface and cross-section in both the surface layer and sublayer i. This is evident from the respective decrease and increase in pore size and pore quantity upon ZSM addition. Generally, SEM studies show that the incorporation of ZSM nanoadditives into the polymer matrix has influenced the membrane formation mechanism and the final structure of the prepared membranes during the phase inversion process.
As such, the incorporation of hydrophilic ZSM into the PES polymer matrix resulted in reduced membrane surface pore sizes Figure 5 a—e with a concomitant increase in pore density compared to the pristine PES membrane. These observations are in line with the reported expectations for hydrophilic fillers that generally result in membranes with smaller surface pores and increasing filler content [ 71 , 72 ]. This technique is widely used for a quick and cheap way to estimate surface hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity even with its known limitations [ 71 , 72 , 73 ].
The limitations are, in some cases, due to the water droplet penetrating the surface into the micro-voids of the membrane gradually because of capillary force contact with the membrane. Generally, the water contact angle decreases with increasing surface hydrophilicity, indicative of the wettability of the permeable membrane [ 74 , 75 ].
As such, the membrane contact angle with good hydrophilicity should decrease more rapidly, in theory, when the pore size and morphology are similar for a series of membranes. Figure 6 shows the water contact angles of prepared membranes with varying zeolite wt. As shown in the figure, the water contact angles of the membranes containing ZSM were smaller than that of the pristine PES membrane. The water contact angle decreased as the amount of nanoadditives was increased.
This decrease in contact angle with increasing nanoadditive loadings indicates that ZSM imparts hydrophilicity to the membrane surface. This was expected as ZSM is known to be a hydrophilic zeolite [ 76 , 77 ]. The composite membranes were further assessed for filtration performance. In this regard, pure water flux, flux recovery ratio, as well as solute rejection, were measured for each membrane in the series. Performance evaluation.
Therein, Figure 7 a indicates that, as the loading of ZSM was increased, the membranes showed increasing flux response at the same pressure. Thus, membranes with high hydrophilicity showed relative high flux in line with expectations. Moreover, the flux recovery ratios were assessed by using BSA as a model foulant Figure 7 b. The unmodified polyethersulfone membrane, which exhibited a greater contact angle due to its inherited low hydrophilicity, attained the lowest flux recovery ratio FFR.
This was a typical hydrophobic membrane and followed its reported character [ 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 ]. As shown in Figure 7 a at higher wt. This might be due to additional flow paths presented by the porous nanoadditives, thus increasing the tortuosity of the matrix [ 82 , 83 ]. In this study, the solutes used for membrane rejection were inorganic salts NaCl and MgCl 2 , representing mono and divalent salts, respectively.
The interaction of these solutes with the composite membrane matrix containing negatively charge nanoadditives, as opposed to size exclusion, was also a possible mode for membrane rejection [ 84 , 85 ]. The relatively high charge on divalent Mg ion means it is strongly attracted to the negatively charged membrane surface than the monovalent Na ion, resulting in the different observed rejection profiles.
It can be concluded that the composite membranes in this study possess negatively charge surfaces due to the AlO 4 tetrahedra interactions with the SiOH of ZSM nanoadditives [ 84 , 86 , 87 ]. The zeolitic materials were incorporated into PES membranes through phase inversion. The increased hydrophilicity with increasing amounts of ZSM resulted in membranes having increased flux and flux recovery ratios or increasing protein BSA fouling resistance.
The solute rejection for the monovalent NaCl was insensitive to the nanoadditive loadings, while the divalent salt, MgCl 2 , reached a maximum before decreasing with increasing loadings. Conceptualization, R. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Polymers Basel v.
Polymers Basel. Published online Jun Nyiko M. Chauke , 1, 2 Richard M. Richard M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 8; Accepted Jun 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: zeolite ZSM, polymer membranes, polyethersulfone, salt rejection.
Introduction The global demand for freshwater is increasing every day due to high population growth and industrial development. Results and Discussion 3. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. BET Analysis The ZSM material was analysed using BET to estimate the pore size distribution of the nanoadditives for effective salt polymer and solute chain interaction upon membrane formation and application, respectively.
Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Flux and Rejection Analysis The composite membranes were further assessed for filtration performance. Figure 7. Author Contributions Conceptualization, R. Conflicts of Interest The authors have no conflict to declare. References 1. Dongre R. Natural polymer based composite membranes for water purification: A review. Nqombolo A. Wastewater Treatment Using Membrane Technology. Wastewater Water Qual. Ursino C. Progress of nanocomposite membranes for water treatment.
Gao X. Fabrication of stainless steel hollow fiber supported NaA zeolite membrane by self-assembly of submicron seeds. Malekizadeh A. High flux water purification using aluminium hydroxide hydrate gels. Korolkov I. Preparation of PET track-etched membranes for membrane distillation by photo-induced graft polymerization. Wang W. Bagheri M. Advanced control of membrane fouling in filtration systems using artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques: A critical review. Process Saf. Akhondi E.
The performance and fouling control of submerged hollow fiber HF systems: A review. Fouling mechanism and cleanability of ultrafiltration membranes modified with polydopamine-graft-PEG. Water SA. Modification of PET ion track membranes for membrane distillation of low-level liquid radioactive wastes and salt solutions. Lee S. Treatment of medical radioactive liquid waste using Forward Osmosis FO membrane process.
Lee W. Fouling mitigation in forward osmosis and membrane distillation for desalination. Gohari B. ACS Omega. Tshabalala T. Synthesis of robust flexible polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes supported on non-woven fabrics for separation of NOM from water. Puro L. Amy G. Membrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects. Liu L. Ismail A. Preparation and characterization of hyperthin-skinned and high performances asymmetric polyethersulfone membrane for gas separation.
Cassano A. Nanofiltration and tight ultrafiltration membranes for the recovery of polyphenols from agro-food by-products. Liao C. Arthanareeswaran G. Performance enhancement of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane by blending with polyurethane hydrophilic polymer. Kamari S. Biocompatible Fe3O4 SiO2-NH2 nanocomposite as a green nanofiller embedded in PES-nanofiltration membrane matrix for salts, heavy metal ion and dye removal: Long-term operation and reusability tests.
Nguyen T. Biofouling of water treatment membranes: A review of the underlying causes, monitoring techniques and control measures. Abdelrasoul A. Fouling in membrane filtration and remediation methods.
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