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Around BC the Icarians built a fine tower on this low-lying area. Among other functions, this structure aided pilots who navigated through these dangerous straits and marked the roadstead, now called Aghios Georgios from the small church in the vicinity, below the tower. Only the most intrepid mariners ventured near the high cliff-bound Icarian coast, and it was not until the end of the 19th century that steamers began to make regular visits to the island, but did not endeavor to approach shore.

Boatmen ferried passengers and cargo to land in small shallow-bottomed rowboats. The Greek government constructed a mole, a massive stone wall jutting into the sea and providing shelter for ships, at the capital Aghios Kyrikos in the s, but the absence of such a facility in the past partially explains the peculiar developmentor lack of developmentof Icaria. Thus there is scarcely any land breeze. People stroll in calm weather on the northern beaches between the villages of Aremistis and Yaliskari while great waves hit the shore.

Crossing the Atheras mountain range, which separates northern Icaria from the southern half of the island, the meltimi encounters warmer ground air. The contrast in temperatures produces a vertical displacement of air generating surface gusts and eddies. These winds whisk dishes and bottles off modern outdoor caf tables, damage crops, and bend saplings.

This peculiar phenomenon was noted even in antiquity. Theophrastus De Ventis 34 , the third century BC Peripatetic, observed that there was little land breeze on the windward side of Aegean islands while the lee region was subject to windy weather. These turbulent gales played a role in the catastrophe of the summer of when they fanned flames that ignited the parched maquis, the dense growth of small trees and shrubs so typical of Mediterranean lands.

The fire spread through the underbrush, reached villages, burned houses, and killed thirteen people. The Early History Despite the lack of arable land and harbors, and the role of fierce winds, the inhabitants of Icaria flourished in classical antiquity. They built a famous temple for Artemis at Nas, which gets its name from the word naos, meaning temple, now a tourist village on the northwest coast, and established two poleis, Oenoe on the north coast, and Therma on the south.

In the middle of the fifth century BC the combined annual taxes of Oenoe and Therma to the Delian league were eleven thousand drachmas, a substantial sum for that time, ranking Icaria in the upper thirty percent of tax-paying regions in the Athenian Empire.

The Greeks described the island as either Makris, for its long shape, or Ichthyoessa, for the rich supply of fish off its coast. The origin of the name Icarus the ancient name of Icaria is not clear, but apparently, by the fifth century BC the inhabitants began to associate the name of their island with Icarus, the son of Daedalus, and identified a natural landmark with the tomb of Icarus.

The alleged sepulcher was conspicuous from the sea and became part of the navigational topography for sailors negotiating the straits between Icaria and Samos, some fifteen miles to the east. Icarians from the classical to the modern period shared the pride in the Icarus connection. Indeed, many Icarians in the modern period believe that Icarus was a historical figure who experimented in aviation and fell on the island. For a short time Therma took the name.

But at the end of the Hellenistic Age, piracy became endemic, driving the people of Icaria from their coastal settlements, and beginning a period of decline that lasted for the next two thousand years. A barter economy, dictated by poor land and lack of harbors, reasserted itself. At the end of the first century BC, Samians resettled Oenoe and exploited the plains of Campos, the rich bottomlands on the north coast a few miles east of Evdilos, to graze their flocks.

By the beginning of the Pax Romana, Icaria was a backwater. The Byzantine emperors established naval themata, military spheres, and until the 10th century, the thema of Samos furnished ships to the emperor and patrolled the region.

Evdilos, a town adjacent to Oenoe, flourished as part of this important naval thema, and may have served as a provincial shipyard. At that time Icaria had one of the best supplies of oak needed for the keel of the dromon, the Byzantine military ship. Around the Byzantine government closed its Aegean shipyards and shifted its main naval construction to Constantinople, the principal imperial port as well as the capital. Samos ceased to be a naval center, and thus the entire region again went into decline.

The inhabitants of Icaria tended to retreat into a forested, impenetrable interior. The encroachment of the Turks into the Byzantine Empire at the end of the eleventh century began a process that forced many Greeks of Asia Minor to flee westward to seek refuge on islands in the Aegean. As the Turkish menace grew in Asia Minor, Icaria became a safe haven.

Byzantine authorities had granted certain islands to Venice and Genoa as part of a policy to keep the Turks, who were beginning to establish naval strength, out of the Aegean. Icaria was in the possession of Genoa from to , almost three decades after the fall of Constantinople itself. There remain some indications of this occupation. For example, there are two fortifications on Icaria associated with the Genoese, and perhaps some of the many Italian surnames which survive on the island today go back to the 14th century.

When the Genoese evacuated Icaria, some Icarians decided to abandon the island. The Knights of St John, who took Rhodes in and flourished as merchants and warriors, coveted Icaria as an Aegean base. The aim of the Knights was to carve out an Aegean empire, and prevent the Turks from establishing a foothold on the islands. Their fleet, which originally consisted of four. In , the Knights destroyed a Turkish fleet near Amorgos, and by controlled the Anatolian Sporades as far as Leros.

Between the Hospitallers and the Turks In the Castilian Ruy Gonzlez de Clavijo, on a diplomatic mission to Samarkand, passed by Icaria, and, ignoring the Genoese fortifications, reported that the ruler of the island was a woman and that the land was extensively cultivated. He was mistaken on both counts. While Icaria was not deserted, as many islands were, it maintained only small settlements in its inaccessible interior.

Hardly any of the land was cultivated. Akamatra rather than Evdilos was now the main populated area. The communities in the western region, the most important of which was Langadha, remained protected because they were remote. If there are any Icarians on the island today descended from the inhabitants of the Byzantine era, they are offspring of people from this region. In Constantinople fell to the Ottomans, and the Turks proceeded to take possession of some of the islands.

Many, however, were deserted. Samos remained without visible settlements throughout the 15th century. About a Turkish official landed there to hunt and was so taken by the beauty of the island that he ordered its resettlement, establishing a village with Greeks from Mytilene on the island of Lesbos. This village, also called Mytilene, in the eastern part of Samos, is not visible from the sea.

Later in that century, the Ottomans encouraged settlements of Samian coastal areas, and apparently some Icarians from Akamatra claimed land near Karlovassi. By the mid-seventeenth century there were eighteen villages on Samos, and unlike the Icarians who considered settlements of several dwellings as villages, Samian counterparts generally consisted of at least fifty houses.

When the Genoese abandoned Icaria, the inhabitants turned to the Knights of St. John for help. According to Marcos Coronelli, a Venetian historian of the 16th century, Icarians in petitioned the Knights for land in Rhodes. Wishing to elude Turkish pirates who were allegedly kidnapping their children and converting them to. Islam, they offered to surrender their freedom and live as serfs. In the people of Nisyros, an island about fifty miles north of Rhodes, petitioned the knights in Rhodes for the same privilege.

The desire of the denizens of these islands to abandon their homes is connected to the growth of Ottoman sea power. Turkish raiding parties roamed the islands seeking young men to impress into the nascent Turkish navy. Deploying such means, the Ottoman authorities eventually amassed around seventy thousand sailors, mostly Greeks, for their unsuccessful siege of Rhodes. However, the Knights, after repulsing the Turkish siege, rejected the Icarian request to settle them in Rhodes, but did send a garrison to Icaria, and converted the island into a protectorate, Icaria served as a frontier outpost in the Knights Sporades Empire.

The names of several Roman Catholic bishops, who probably never came to Icaria, survive. We may assume the Knights occupied the same fortified points held previously by the Genoese, and protected the Icarians from piratical invasions, particularly from attempts to impress the young men into the Ottoman navy.

In Jerome Maurand, a priest from Antibes and the almoner for the French galleys operating in the area, noted that Myconus, an island about thirty miles west of Icaria, had been utterly destroyed by pirates. A few years later, it seemed to Pierre Belon, a French naturalist and traveler who sailed past Icaria, that it was uninhabited.

He reported that Turkish corsairs operating in the area made it impossible for people on the island to cultivate the land or keep animals. But Icaria, unlike Myconus and other smaller islands, enjoyed a remote, forested interior. Belon, therefore, was unaware of Akamatra, Steli, Langadha, and other villages of five or six houses that were not visible from the sea.

They took care to conceal any signs of life, going so far as to block the chimneys in their hearth to prevent smoke from escaping and thus providing pirates with a reference point. To avoid asphyxiation most of the family, apparently, remained outdoors while the food was being cooked. Travelers like Belon would assume the island was desolate but pirates knew better. Around the time Belon voyaged in the vicinity of Icaria, a man from Langadha betrayed his fellow villagers by informing pirates where shepherds were grazing their animals.

The Icarians, however, stole a march on the pirates. They ambushed the marauders, killing some and driving the rest away. Such a. On the other hand, no such defense system could be deployed on the coast. Thus the best land in Icaria, like Campos, a very fertile area, was abandoned and, through neglect, riddled with stagnant pools that made it unsafe because of malaria.

We may conjecture that Icaria had then a population of about three thousand, located entirely in the interior of the island. His son, Suleiman I the Magnificent born or , reigned enlarged Ottoman naval forces, and in deployed the new vessels in his successful campaign against the Knights in Rhodes. At this time the Knights withdrew from the Aegean and abandoned Icaria.

We hear nothing of Icaria during Suleimans three-year war with Venice. By the middle of the 16th century the Porte controlled most of the Aegean. Suleiman wished to have a detailed knowledge of this area, and encouraged naval officers to make maps of the region. Piri Reis died about , the nephew of the great admiral Kemal, was the most successful of these naval cartographers. Best known for his map of the New World, he also made a detailed map of the Aegean with a commentary, the Book of Sea Lore.

In this work Piri Reis included a map of Icaria with a brief description of the island. According to the Ottoman cartographer, Icaria was a long mountain with a perimeter of seventy miles. In the western portion he noted a strong fortress and at the eastern extremity a small bay with a copious supply of fresh water for sailors.

Piri Reis oddly listed Icaria among the possessions of Genoa though the Genoese had pulled out of Icaria in Piris reference to Genoese fortifications in Icaria suggests that Genoa repossessed the island after when Suleiman drove the Knights out of the Aegean. The sultan esteemed Genoese merchants, approved of their activity on Chios, and perhaps permitted them to place a garrison in Icaria to support Genoese ships sailing to Chios. The second Genoese dominance of Icaria, apparently, did not last long.

Murad endeavored to increase the tax base in the Aegean by establishing mints in the region, and increasing the circulation of silver coinage. To further this policy, the sultan issued a series of firmans, imperial decrees, related to Naxos, Andros, Paros, Melos, and Santorini. The sultan granted the people of these islands rights to bequeath property, repair churches and generally to improve conditions.

Although none of these decrees referred to Icaria, they attest to a general attempt to improve conditions in the Aegean islands. It was perhaps during this time that the village society that Georgirenes was to describe in the middle of the 17th century began to emerge. The Icarians again took refuge in their forested interior, and forbade outsiders to settle on the island. The impact of the recent war was evident in when the bishop Joseph Georgirenes arrived.

Athos, London, , is the most comprehensive 17th century source for Icaria. It is undeniably genuine and, allowing for some hyperbole, rather accurate. Unlike nonGreek visitors, he did not base his reflections on what he saw as he sailed past the island, or on what he heard from persons on neighboring islands, but mainly on what he witnessed as he ranged through the rugged island.

While the Icarians made a strong impression on him, his stay was the subject of conversation on the island for many years after. Three hundred thirty-five years later, the elders in Raches and Akamatra recounted stories handed down about the prelates sojourn. Born in Melos around , he became bishop of Samos and Icaria in , holding the position until The bishop, with revenues drawn mainly from Samians, lived the life of a relatively wealthy man.

Apart from his ecclesiastical substantial salary, he received an allowance of milk, cheeses, wine, sheep, and goats from the Samians and Icarians. During the Venetian-Turkish war , the Venetians made his predecessor, Bishop Christophoros, a native Samian, serve as a galley slave because he was unable to raise enough money to satisfy a Venetian war levy.

Georgirenes, who became bishop at the end of the war, when the Ottomans had resumed control of the Aegean, was mindful of how quickly he might fall from his lofty station. He was under pressure to collect the. By the end of the 17th century, not only did the patriarch have to raise 20, groschen, a large European silver coin for a peskes supposedly a voluntary gift for the sultan, but he also had to pay an annual involuntary tax of that amount. As one contemporary source reported, as soon as the patriarchs were promoted, they sent to all their bishops, to contribute to the sum they have disbursed for their preferment, and such as deny, they depose and send others to their charge.

Generally they could not raise the required sum. In the seventy-five years between and the sultan appointed fifty patriarchs, an average tenure of only eighteen months. The patriarch was unable to hold his position long because his bishops like Georgirenes had difficulties raising funds to help him defray the expense of his office. As bishop he had unspecified difficulties with Turkish officials who came to Samos from Crete.

He cryptically referred to their abusive behavior that forced him to retire to the monastery of St. John on the island of Patmos. He probably had not raised all of the expected head tax. The monastery in Patmos did not prove to be the haven he had hoped. Despite charters from the Pope, the King of France, the Doge of Venice, and the Grand Masters of Malta, threatening anyone who raided the monks with dire consequences, corsairs were a bane to the monastery.

His cousin, Lawrence Georgirenes, was a London businessman who had invented a method for pickling mackerel and was trying to make his fortune in England with his new method. The bishop was enterprising in his own right. He met Charles II and his brother the Duke of York, who became a patron of sorts, and encouraged Georgirenes to undertake a collection of funds for the first Greek Church in London.

He raised the huge sum of eight thousand pounds sterling. Unfortunately, a subordinate absconded with some of the funds, but with the remaining cash, the Greeks of London endeavored to purchase land and then build a church. Due to legal complications they did not acquire title to the land they thought they had possessed, and thus the building, which survived until , reverted to the owner of the land.

It never served as a Greek Orthodox Church. Georgirenes sought solace in intellectual pursuits. He toyed with converting to the Anglican Church,. Though that venture never materialized, he collaborated with Henry Denton, the chaplain to the Levant Co. Athos, Georgirenes chiefly describes the topography and monuments, but in his chapter on Icaria he reveals a fascination with the people and a talent for unbyronic observation.

Georgirenes described Icarians in the way that other European travelers portrayed Greeks in general, namely as inferior and wretched specimens of the human race. The clergyman from Samos noted conditions that were more primitive than in other parts of the Aegean. With the exception of a few charcoal merchants who made boats and went to Chios to exchange their product for grain, and the shepherds with the greatest flocks, the Icarians were the most destitute people of the islands.

He complained that they did not even have the means to support a suffragan, a diocesan bishop subordinate to Georgirenes. He wrote, there is not a bed on the island, the ground is their tick, and the only clothing they possessed, they wore on their back. He could have added that some slept in the same room with their animals.

While most went without shoes, some had footwear made of thin copper, perhaps the petromachi of the Papas dialect spoken in the western part of the island, where people wore shoes of pigskin reinforced with thin copper plates. They baked a type of pita bread on a stone just before meals.

The head of the household divided it equally, but pregnant women and guests received a double share. They added one-third water to their wine, diluting it more than other Greeks. They did not keep wine in wooden caskets, but rather in jars, the pithoi we encounter in legal documents, and they siphoned it out with a straw. Each family possessed one hand mill for grinding grain, but kept no furniture or property in the house. Unlike their neighbors on other Greek islands they did not develop, even in the modern era, a reliance on closets, cupboards, and keys to lock their belongings.

As we have noted, they kept their valuable possessions, even food, hidden outside in chostokelia. Georgirenes based his account to some extent on the practices he encountered in the main villages. Akamatra boasted one hundred houses, and Steli and Raches were about half that size. Unlike the Samians, the Icarians did not build their domiciles close to one another, even in the main villages, but lived apart with houses encircled by gardens, and vineyards, and grazing land for animals.

These small Icarian settlements were like islands on dry land cut off from their neighbors by pathless mountains and valleys. The Icarians might have developed antisocial traits if priests had not arranged marriages for their offspring with eligible persons in distant villages. Neighborly visits, however, were rare, and difficult. According to the bishop, the Icarians often conducted their visits at great distances. Guests and hosts yodeled their news through winding valleys.

Such were the distances that it required a quarter of an hour for the message to arrive. And yet they make distinct and proper answers both audible and intelligible without the help of a stentophonical trumpet. On the other hand, they exploited their beggarly appearance abroad to practice the profession of the pauper.

Georgirenes account of Icarian manners bristles with such irony and criticism. Apart from giving the Icarians credit for providing the rare visitor with double portions at meals, he does not acknowledge any other virtues or generous behavior. While there is no hint of any refinements in 17th century Icaria, it must be said that the fear of pirates prevented people from developing some of the positive qualities they exhibited a century later.

Quite contrary to Georgirenes, the monk Nephon, who settled in Icaria in , found the Icarians the kindest and most hospitable people in the Aegean. By the end of the 19th century, visitors invariably commented on their extraordinary hospitality. Icarians offered guests goat meat, olives, and wine. Plates were never taken from the table so the guest might not presume he was being asked to leave.

At mealtime in many houses, women set an extra plate with a piece of bread in case a visitor appeared, and, if a stranger passed by their home while they were eating and was reluctant to join them, they forced him to partake of their meal. We should not dismiss his remarks about their exceptional good health, which he attributed to the air and water, as overstatement.

In the fourth century BC Therma acquired the name Asclepieis, a healing center, and even today the health spa is in use, and the island enjoys a reputation for its air, thanks to the purifying force of the meltimi, and its good. Georgirenes saw people allegedly one hundred years old hale and hearty, and wills of that period reveal people reaching an advanced age.

While there are not enough figures to bear this out statistically, the Icarians from to seemed more makrobioi than other Greeks whose adult longevity was 34 years for males and 28 for females. The well being of the population was not entirely the result of good air and water, but rather also the consequence of inhabiting the interior where they were relatively safe from coastal malaria and the plagues that ravaged the Aegean.

Furthermore, houses, constructed of stone and clay mortar and without beds or furniture, were relatively hygienic. In such an environment, bacteria for deadly diseases did not thrive. Finally, these houses were not built contiguous to one another, as Georgirenes observed, and thus disease did not spread easily. Despite these buffers against plague, one ravaged the island in the late 18th century.

In the local historian, Melas, who was collecting information for his history of Icaria, interviewed a man about 80, who in his youth had heard from his elders that a deadly disease, skordoulon, characterized by pimples that blister and form pockmarks on the face, ravaged the island. This elderly gentleman, apparently, was referring to the great plague of smallpox that killed some fourteen thousand people in Chios.

This epidemic may partially explain the decline of Akamatra, the only village where houses were clustered together, in the 18th century. How could people who considered the ground their bed, had one set of tattered clothes, were cursed with barren soil, and had no ports, pay taxes? The deficiencies of intervillage lanes provided protection from pirates and tax collectors alike, but prevented the bishop from visiting certain parts of the island.

Where he did go, he saw a barter economy in which everyone was his own baker and cobbler. The Icarians made exactly the impression they wished to make, and thus dodged some of the taxes they were expected to pay. For the 16th and much of the 17th century, Icarians avoided the head tax.

In subsequent centuries, they paid this tax but were not assessed a custom excise, taxes on houses, wax, baths, and salts, or a tithe on agricultural products. The Porte was successful in collecting such taxes on other islands. The cadi, as the Greeks then referred to most Ottoman officials connected with taxation, were often arrogant. In one of them threat-.

He warned them that it was no use fleeing for he knew every hiding spot on the island. In addition to such taxes, on Naxos they attempted to seize boys for service in the janissaries, the sultans elite military force. It was, apparently, at this time that the Icarians bore a cadi in a type of settee, over Mt. Atheras at Kako Katavasithi, and there tilted the conveyance, and thus hurled the man over a precipice.

Georgirenes reports that they were summoned to answer for their crime, and they by common consent owned the fact. According to the oral version of the event, passed down from one generation to the next, the Turks sent an expedition but could not find the culprits, who took refuge in caves. Presumably, the Turkish force seized hostages and threatened to harm them if the responsible men did not appear before a Turkish judge. Apparently, the most prominent Icarians came forth and accepted collective responsibility for the act, ouloi emeis efendi.

Its all of us, Sir. We may surmise that this gathering of Icarians to deal with the emergency was the origin of the Icarian demogerontia, council of elders. Georgirenes adds that the judge saw there was neither gain nor glory in punishing such miscreants, and that in justice they must punish all, or none, he dismissed them untouched.

It was not in the interest of the Ottoman government to invest in the extermination of the insignificant inhabitants of this remote island. Some of the people could retreat to the old Genoese strongholds, forcing the Turks to take the expensive, if not impossible, maneuver of dragging cannons into the mountains to besiege remote fortresses.

Others could simply conceal themselves in caves. If the Ottomans had succeeded in massacring a portion of the population, the semi-deserted island would have become a pirate haven. These people had committed a serious crime, but by appearing in an Ottoman court they demonstrated that they were not lawless, and had the potential to pay taxes. At this time the Ottomans were endeavoring to repopulate deserted areas of their realm. Apparently, the Icarians. From the time the Icarians did away with the cadi, until some time in the middle of the 18th century, no Turkish official had stepped onto the shores of Icaria.

We may assume the bishop tallied three hundred adult males, doubtless an undercount, not being able to tally the people who lived in the stentophonical regions of the island. The bishop probably meant a kurus, an Ottoman silver coin, for three hundred gold coins would have been impossible to squeeze out of Icaria every year. The Icarian documents of the period mention silver and not gold coins. A generation later, about , Pitton de Tournefort, a botanist and medical doctor commissioned by Louis XIV to study the plants, history, geography and the religion of the Aegean, reported a hatach head tax of crowns; again we may assume silver coins.

An undated document, probably from the end of the 18th century, mentions a hatach of 1, groschen, about two groschen for each male. The head tax was levied on all adult males except the old, insane, and those who provided special services.

This tax did not take into account economic disparities between people, and was especially hard on the poor in most islands. In Icaria it was relatively fair because most people were on equal footing. Furthermore, by being free of Turkish administrators, the Icarians were able to conceal much of their population and assets.

Thus by taking collective responsibility for sending the cadi careening down a mountainside, the Icarians gained certain tax advantages. According to local lore a fictional George Trouletes went to Constantinople to persuade the sultan to lower taxes. Too poor to equip his ship with regular sails, he outfitted it with tree branches laden with leaves. Gazing from the window of the imperial palace, the sultan saw this strange vessel sailing through the straits and upon learning that the owner was an Icarian and could not afford proper sails, decreed lowering the taxes of the Icarians by 30 groschen.

We may compare Icarias tax situation with that of some of the neighboring and more prosperous islands. In Chios it was not a cadi, but rather a private entrepreneur, a Jew, who in acquired the right to collect. With the thriving mastika a very valuable aromatic resin and silk trade, each adult Chian male paid a head tax of eleven groschen. Samos produced silk, pitch, cotton, and wheat, and boasted of large villages with as many as three-hundred houses.

The cadi went to every village, charged the priests to provide a register of adult males, and collected three groschen from each male. Unlike the Chians, Samians had difficulties paying their tax. Georgirenes maintained that the high tax in Samos kept the people in poverty and ignorance. There was no point in maintaining an official on an island like Icaria where there was little husbandry, where most villages consisted of less than six houses, and only a few priests were literate enough to help register the male citizens on the tax ledger.

There was, however, a lively Aegean commerce, and Icarians, according to Georgirenes, traded in wood, boats, sheep, goats, pigs, wax, and honey. Unlike the products of many of the other islands, Icarian products were not taxed, and therefore it must have been easy enough for them to sell their ware to neighboring islands and raise the requisite crowns for their head tax collected by a native designated as a muchtar, or headman.

The first Icarian muchtar on record was Papas the title of a priest Nikolaos Kouloulias who undertook in to raise the hatach of one and one-half groschen per adult male. A century later the Ottoman government replaced the muchtar system with a kaimakames, governor, who resided in Akamatra, and from there collected taxes and administered justice. He had culprits caned, and apparently, conducted a hanging or two, for today the Akamatrians point to a plane tree in the village square where Turks executed malefactors.

The governor mainly punished men who had committed crimes against their fellow Icarians. Social and Economic Life Georgirenes animadversions on Icaria confirmed what the Samians long believed, and were doubtless the source for more unfavorable accounts.

Bernard Randolph, a British adventurer who visited Samos shortly after the bishops trip, reported that the Icarians were so poor that they went out naked on their boats to fish and thus saved wear and tear on their clothing. The Samians told Randolph not to visit Icaria, because when God made the world he created Icaria for its trash heap.

Around Tournefort passed by Icaria. On Myconus he met an Icarian priest,. Judging from the priests appearance, Tournefort believed it, but discouraged by bad weather, the meltimi, he was unable to confirm this opinion by visiting the island. About William Perry, a medical doctor, was weather-bound on the western tip of Icaria for several days.

Perry had heard that there were few inhabitants on the island and those were almost naked and seldom seeing or conversing with any of the human species except those of their isle. Perrys party met no one on the first day, but on the second, members of the crew who went on a hunting expedition encountered some natives, dressed in rags.

The Icarians fled, thinking they had stumbled into pirates. Later, realizing that this was no raiding party, they exchanged meat for bread. It was, oddly enough, not Georgirenes, but rather Tournefort who commented on this, characterizing the language as plus du Grec literal, ancient Greek perhaps basing this opinion on his conversation with the Icarian priest in Myconus.

This dialect survived well into the 19th century. In Professor Hatzidakis, the founder of the chair of linguistics at the University of Athens, published an article on the subject, concluding that the Icarians preserved more classical usages than any other Greeks. Georgirenes met people who claimed Byzantine aristocrats, who had fled from Constantinople in , for ancestors. The reliability of an oral tradition of two centuries is not unreasonable, but not guaranteed either.

While the names of the great Byzantine aristocratic families, Palaeologoi, Comnenoi, and Catacuzene, are not represented in Icaria, there are some surnames which derive from uniquely Byzantine family names. He bases his view on the survival of pagan beliefs and skeletal remains, and maintains that the skulls of present Icarians resemble five thousand-year-old skulls from Crete.

His use of skeletal evidence seems highly arbitrary and is difficult to assess. The survival of alleged pagan rituals is common throughout Greece. On several occasions, the population on Icaria nearly vanished, and over the. At best we may conclude that the island was relatively isolated from to Perhaps some Icarians from the western interior are descendants from people who inhabited the island in ancient times, but the bulk of the present population is descended from settlers who came from Asia Minor, the other islands, particularly Crete, and from the Peloponnese during the years to Dowry agreements, bills of sale, and wills of this period record the names of prominent families of the present eraVlachos, Mamatas, Kazalas, Kefalos, Kouloulias, Koutsophlakes, Kastanias, Glaros, Tsembides, Tripodis, Loukatsos, Karemalis, Kouvdos, Kouvares, Poulos, Lakkios, Raptes, to mention only a few.

The few literate Icarian priests whose signature legitimized the legal document drafted most of these items. These wills, dowry agreements, and bills of sale deal with property in the interior, Akamatra, Steli, and Langadha, where a few silver coins groschen and aslania akce and vineyards, beehives, a plot of land, a pithos a clay jar about four feet high with a girth of three feet of wine or grain, sheep, and, in exceptional cases, a cow were priceless possessions.

Families subsisted on a small plot of land, with a few animals and an apiary. Beehives, vineyards, and pithoi filled with grain and wine, items generally listed in dowries, were powerful lures for suitors. We know little about family life during this period. Georgirenes reports that pregnant women received a double portion of food. Wills from the 17th and 18th century often make provisions for offspring on the basis of services rendered to the parents.

It is possible that in such difficult economic circumstances offspring were viewed largely as an asset, and the deep bonds between parents and children, which are so evident in the modern era, had not fully developed. In a certain Anna, born in , when the Knights of St. John were lords of Icaria, left land and a vineyard to her son, Papas Xenos, and divided three groschen among two friends.

Anna, who apparently was relatively prosperous because she could make a will, possessed some cash. Money came to the island from commerce in wine, charcoal, and timber exported to neighboring islands, but in Icaria itself money for daily needs was almost superfluous. Apart from land transactions based upon four or five silver coins, or fees paid to a priest for services, money rarely changed hands in what Georgirenes accurately saw as a barter economy.

The testament of Angeloudakes of Vrakades, a man from the northwestern part of the island, referred to his possessions in Amalou and Vrakades, but did not mention groschen. The absence of money is more noteworthy in the wedding gift of Papas Georgios Katzimates to his daughter Kale betrothed to Kur Sir Xenon, the son of Papas Ioanniou. It seems that priestly families, the wealthiest members of the community, endeavored to arrange marriages within their group.

Papas Katzimates gave his daughter as a dowry property in Myliopo, a remote village in the northeastern section of the island, Raches, Proespera, Langadha, and Amalou. He was one of the most prosperous men of his time and thus able to provide his daughter with three pithoi of wine, two pithoi of grain, eight beehives, ten sheep, fifteen goats, a bull, and a half a cow.

We wonder whether Katzimates butchered the cow and presented half the meat to his daughter or earmarked half the milk to her. In Papas Gerasimos Gardiaswho enjoyed the position of director, hegoumenos, of the monastery, without actually being a monk himself, of Saint Theoctestesbequeathed three large fields in Raches and his sawmill in Campos to heirs in Icaria and his four beehives to the monastery of St.

John in Patmos. Presumably, the monastery would lease or sell the beehives to someone in Icaria. Around pirates drove Georgirenes from Patmos. At that time pirates captured an English gunner named Roberts who described how his subjugators made Icaria an occasional base. Piracy, however, was sporadic rather than a continual problem. Although an occasional pirate raid deterred Icarians from settling coastal areas, it did not prevent them from going to sea.

Georgirenes referred to Icarian boat building and trade with Chios, about thirty miles north. There were men, like the Icarian priest whom Tournefort met on Myconus selling timber, who set off by themselves on small boats with modest cargoes. Trade was conducted by cabotage, by men setting off with wine, honey, or charcoal in rowboats or small sailboats, and not on large vessels requiring crews, ports, and coastal communities. Piracy was as ineffective at ending this type of trade as the Italian and German forces of the Second World War were when they occupied the Aegean islands and attempted to control Aegean traffic.

Icaria was never absolutely isolated from the rest of the world but it was not as integrated into the Aegean community as other islands. Venturing toward the Coast At the end of the 17th century, a man named Perdikis, apparently, settled in the village of that name, and a certain Tsimbedes left Kouniado, traveled across the entire island, and allegedly built the first house in Fanari.

Papas Gardias investment in the monastery of Theoctestes, near Campos, and a wood sawmill at Campos suggests a growing sense of security from pirates. By the beginning of the 18th century, references to coastal property become more frequent in the bills of sale, dowries, and wills. Often one person owned property in several villages attesting to an increased interaction between various sections of the island.

Men used the few rich plains mainly as grazing land, lived in temporary shacks, and returned to their villages in the interior after their work was finished. A new wave of settlers at the end of the 17th century was a further impetus to colonize the coast. When the Turks took Crete in , and destroyed Candia Herakleion , which remained in ruins into the next century, some fugitives settled in Icaria.

Some of the Italian surnames on Icaria perhaps derive from people arriving from Venetian Crete. The best known of these settlers, however, was renamed when he arrived in Icaria. According to oral tradition this man arrived in Armenistis, where the natives labeled him Kochilas, a derisive sobriquet paratzungle apparently connected to his survival on crabs and sea urchins.

His descendants flourished in Raches and, acquiring new paratzunglai, established themselves in southern regions of the island. In the Turks reconquered southern Greece, producing another wave of refugees leaving the Peloponnese and settling in the islands.

Names such as Vassilaros and Moraitis appear in documents. And people from other islands continued to arrive as the names Andriotes the man of Andros , Kassiotes the man of Kassos , Parianos the man of Paros , Creticos the man of Crete , and Cyprios the man of Cyprus indicate. Land was available near the precarious coast, and a few ramshackle structures appeared in these areas.

The population also increased in the interior, and price for land nearly doubled. There was a building boom in Langadha with the development of a new section opposite Paliochora, the old district. Permanent coastal settlements established better connections between Icaria and other islands, permitted the use of larger sail vessels rather than small craft which had to be constantly hidden on shore, and brought some measure of prosperity. The improved conditions, which in part were the result of new settlers bringing ideas from the mainland and Crete, are.

Furthermore, these documents reveal more possessions. Papas Gardias, one of the most prosperous Icarians of the midth century would have envied the wealth of Papas Zacharias Malachias who in bequeathed his house in Kosikia, a village in the center of the island, gardens, vineyards, five pithoi of wine, one of grain, a bull, a cow, and eleven sheep to his children.

By this time such property could now be converted into good sums of cash. In Nikolaos Beles sold two fields in viglas for fifty groschen. Religious Life and Superstitions Judging from the wills of Papas Gardias and Papas Malachias, the Icarian clergy were the most important and prosperous members of society. Georgirenes, however, was surprised that an Icarian priest visiting Samos refused to sleep in a bed, and when he visited Icaria, he saw nothing to change his view of the Icarian clergy.

Tournefort, who met an ignorant Icarian priest selling timber in Myconus, assumed all Icarian priests were illiterate. According to Tournefort, there were twenty-four priests in Icaria, and one monastery. Papas Malachias and Papas Gardias were probably a cut above their twenty-two colleagues who memorized part of the Liturgy, and were among the few who could read the Liturgy aloud, and did so, perhaps learning this skill in Patmos where they acquired bibles.

Priests earned money or goods by performing marriages, baptisms, funerals, and, if they were literate, drafting legal records. They also worked their fields, and engaged, as Tournefort notes and Papas Gardias will indicates, in commerce. The Icarians, apparently, took the first steps to honor Saint Theoctestes in the early 17th century.

Around pirates seized Theoctestes, a native of Mytilene. She eventually escaped from her captors and found refuge on Paros where she lived in isolation and achieved a reputation for her saintly ways. Several centuries later priests, allegedly taking the bones of Theoctestes from Paros to Mytilene, were forced by storm to seek shelter in Icaria. Natives stole the bones and hid them in a cave near the village of Marathon, on the north central part of the island.

After many years a peasant, who dreamed. Pious men chiseled a chapel out of a huge boulder to house the relics. Papas Gardias, it seems, took control of the new religious institution, and did much to promote the bones as relics. Muttering appropriate incantations and carrying the relics through infertile fields or bringing them into the vicinity of sick people, the relics allegedly produced miracles. There were no doctors or medicines on the island so even water from the monastery was highly prized for therapeutic purposes.

For such services there was a fee. With proceeds from the relics he built the monastery into the adjacent boulder. An artist from Chios, apparently paid from the earnings of Theoctestes relics, painted the image of Papas Gardias and his mother on the chapel wall, along with depictions of sinners suffering in hell.

The relics and monastery became a very profitable business. Some envious Icarians wished to deprive the entrepreneurial priest of the moneymaking relics. Papas Gardias apparently did not fear the torments of hell as illustrated on his chapel wall for fraud. To his rivals he displayed a charter in the name of the Patriarch Callinicus, granting himself full control of the relics, chapel, and monastery.

Melas examined the document and concluded it was a forgery. Visitors to the chapel saw adulteresses entwined with snakes and other similar punishments meted out to sinners who gossiped, lied, and blasphemed. These images were as forceful as the execration language in legal records of the time.

The 17th century will of Papas Malachias warns his legatees not to sell or give away any share of their patrimony lest they incur the testators malediction and curse, anathema kai katara, from the other world. By the end of the century, this type of threat is strengthened. Any heir who does not adhere to the terms of the last will and testament shall enjoy no joy or success in life chaeri kai prokope na men di.

Many documents began with the formula since we all must pay a common debt and do not know the terrible hour of death, and end with blessings and curses to those who adhere to or reject the terms of the will. For instance, they considered a field where a man had been slain as eternally barren, and endeavored to control high winds by puffing into a vase, cursing the trapped air, then burying the vessel with the imprisoned wind.

At the end of the 19th century, the Samian historian Stamatiades remarked. An excommunication document drawn up in supports his view. A thief stole some olives and sheep and vandalized property. The injured party commissioned a priest to draw up an aphorismos, a writ of excommunication, condemning the culprit and anyone concealing knowledge of the crime to a tortured existence in hell.

Furthermore, the descendants of the thief were destined to endure leprosy, the fate of Judas, and behold all their earthly ventures fail. In , when a blight attacked the Icarian vineyards, cultivators paid 24, groschen to the monks of Patmos to bring the relics of St.

John to bless the diseased plants. In a time when a family could survive on one hundred groschen a month, this was an enormous sum, and represented more than three times the Icarian annual ecclesiastical tax paid to the patriarch. While the use of relics in such a way has pagan roots, a more clearly pagan practice was an attempt to control the winds, which church officials ended sometime in the 18th century.

The villagers of Kataphyion, Negia, and Monokampi met annually at Anemotaphia, presumably in July before the meltimi season. They appointed the eldest in the group to blow into a vase that was then buried. Casting curses and stones upon the entombed vessel, they sought to curb the destructive force of summer windstorms. When a plague of caterpillars invaded the vineyards of the island in , the cultivators paid a priest to carry icons, burn incense, and chant prayers in their infested vineyards.

After the ritual, the cleric directed his children to remove the caterpillars manually from the vines and destroy them. Even construction plans gave way to superstitious practices. In Raches a man who went to great expense to purchase a lot and prepare the foundations, unearthed bones that smelled like rotten flesh. Discarding his expenditures, he donated the site for a church that was built immediately on the spot. The wealthy shepherds doubtless took the lead in this ritual, but such a practice may also be connected to the raskoi, wild goats which were common property.

At the end of the 20th century, there were about 8, goats on the island but there were doubtless more in the 17th and 18th centuries. The frequent ritual consumption of meat resembled. The custom prescribed the regular distribution of the most precious commodity on the island, a way of sharing the resources of the island, and thus renewed constantly the ouloi emeis efendi spirit.

A Way of Life The Icarians did not construct any significant structures until the 18th century. The inhabitants of Kosikia were rather typical of the 17th century, living in a house cum stable with their animals. This was an improvement over some of the early homes, the theoctesta, abodes similar in appearance to the monastery and chapel at Theoctestes, which were cave dwellings. Several of the spitia, houses, referred to in the 17th century records, are extant.

They are extensions of the granite landscape representing a primal architecturesturdy, short, and rooted like their inhabitants. On average, these houses were no more than 12 meters by 12 meters, essentially one-room domiciles. Mud was used for mortar. A few had a second story, a pyrgos, attached to the lower story and connected by an outside staircaseresembling Byzantine houses depicted in icons.

Such was Georgirenes residence in Raches, the so-called Skirianos house, used in the s as a stable, and in the s as a shelter for Albanian farm workers. Judging from the fact that Georgirenes sojourned there, this house was considered a mansion. The 17th century roof made from local slate laid over timber is still intact.

Attempts at imitating this style have failed because contemporary hardwood is inadequate and roof beams made from it rot after a few years. The roof sharply descends to a line parallel to an encircling wall. Upon entering through doors about four and one-half feet high, one sees a niche in the wall for a torch, a circular hearth for an oven, a vent behind the hearth which functioned as a chimney, and a stone bench built into the wall. Contemporaries reported that there was no moveable furniture.

The soot-covered walls bear testimony to the practice of blocking the vent to prevent the release of smoke, which might provide pirates with a reference point. This house, like most dwellings of the era, was placed in a secluded spot and could not be seen from the coast, in part because the builder put walls, which blended in with the landscape, between the house and the sea.

The bed was simply a board on the earth, the blanket a goatskin. There were no attractive items in the houses except possibly for a stringed musical instrument and a phylaki, a shepherds backpack, made of goatskins. The toponym Vigla, lookout, exists in several places on Icaria.

Most of the 17th century settlements depended on viglas for security from either a quick sea raid or from corsairs who had temporary bases on the coast. In Cyprus at that time each village appointed guards to man the viglas day and night. When they observed intruders they informed their village by a fire signal. Icarians perhaps were not so efficiently organized for their valuable possessions, pithoi full of wine or grain and other such items, were hidden in the earth outside their houses, and pirates were not as likely to raid villages where booty was nearly impossible to locate.

About that time Ottoman authorities divided Icaria into three districts, Peramerias, Fanari, and Mesaria. Peramerias covered the western part of the island stretching from the recently resettled Evdilos to Papas. While Evdilos was the administrative center, Christos Raches, well in the interior, was the largest village. Fanari covered the eastern section. Aghios Kyrikos was not yet founded, and the main villages of this district, Meliopon, Plumari, and Monokampi, were near the Genoese fortifications of Palio Kastro and Kapsalino Kastro.

Akamatra, Georgirenes refers to it as Ka- Chora, was the largest village on the island with about one hundred houses and served as the center of Mesaria and the capital of the island. Akamatra was situated near the villages of Daphi, Petroupoli, Kosika, Langadha, and Frantato, where eighty percent of the people lived. Eventually Akamatra became the residence of the Turkish governor and of the few Turkish officials on the island.

The bulk of the litigation must have been connected to property disputes complicated, as wills and bills of sale from the period attest, by men owning land in various parts of the island. The demogerontia of Mesaria appointed kastellanoi, gendarmes, to enforce the law for the entire island. The authorities confined some offenders to their homes, others to stockades, and administered 39 lashes for theft or damage to the forests or even capital punishment for murder.

In the late 18th century, the demogerontia condemned a certain Kalogeros to death for the murder of Papas Koutsouphlakes. There was no Turkish popu-. When Icarians wished to appeal the decision of the local council, they did not resort to the resident official, but rather invited a Turkish judicial official, a tzaoutes, to investigate the matter. Such procedures were rare for the unsuccessful party paid not only the value of the disputed property, but also for the travel expenses of the tzaoutes.

The mere threat of an appeal was enough to make one hesitate about litigation, and the risk of such intervention may have prevented the demogerontia from behaving in an arbitrary or tyrannical way. Georgirenes, supported by Tournefort, reported that people who lived on this island were more primitive and backward than other people in the Aegean.

Haralambos Pamphylis, an Icarian lawyer and politician who published an Icarian newspaper in the mids, argues that Tournefort was mistaken about Icaria because he was trying to write amusing stories to please M. According to Pamphylis, in the era of Ponchatrain a feudal society prevailed in France that prevented men from understanding their sources, or in fact from reporting the truth.

Thus Tournefort perversely misjudged the Icarian priest. Had the French savant stepped onto Icarian shores, he would have found a community more liberal, orderly, and advanced than Tourneforts France. Melas contends that Georgirenes did not stay long enough in Icaria to assess the real conditions of the people. Though there was poverty, Melas argues that the cultural level of Icaria was comparable to that of Athens described in Pericles funeral oration.

If a parallel for 17th and early 18th century Icaria is to be made with the ancient world, Homeric Greece rather than classical Athens would be more apt. A 17th century traveler stepping onto Icarian shores might think he was entering the Cyclops den rather than Platos Academy.

Alexis Poulianos, however, maintains that conditions in Icaria at this time inspired the utopian scheme of tienne Cabet Cabets Voyage en Icarie , which he called a philosophical and social romance, was a precursor to Marxian ideology, and has features resembling Stalins totalitarian state. Such a political ideology was appealing to a majority of Icarians in the 20th century, but Cabet had nothing to do with 19th century Icaria, and it is a mystery why he named his utopian community Icaria.

The travel accounts and legal documents from the island of that period depict an illit-. The Reign of the Zambetes By the middle of the 18th century, Icaria had taken steps to become a respectable member of the Ottoman Empire. Not only was there an Ottoman official on the island, but also the demogerontia seemed to function efficiently, and shepherds were now grazing their flocks on the coastal plains.

But there were temporary setbacks brought about by the Turko-Russian Wars and In the first conflict, Catherine the Great ; empress, sent a small naval force from its base in the Baltic to the Mediterranean. On July 6, , the Russians stripped the Ottoman Empire of its navy. Shortly after this naval victory, the Russians at a conclave of allies in Chios proclaimed the freedom of the Greek islands, and appealed to Greek sailors to enlist in the Russian navy. The Icarian demogerontia sent a delegate to Chios, some 40 miles north, to congratulate the Russians on their victory.

Orlov proceeded to occupy Patmos and a few other islands while poorly armed irregular Greek forces attacked with little success various Turkish garrisons along the coast of Asia Minor. Despite the easy victory at Chesm and showy proclamations about Greek freedom, the Russians did not intend to make the Aegean a major war theater, and aid a Greek insurrection against the Turks.

The Russian indifference to the Greeks was revealed in the peace treaty of July Russia took territory north of the Black Sea, and withdrew from the Aegean, leaving the Greeks in the lurch. The defeated Ottoman navy reentered the Aegean, descended on the islands that had most conspicuously collaborated with Orlov, and took vengeance on pro-Russian elements.

The demogerontia had angered the Porte by sending a delegation to Orlov but the Ottoman authorities let matters slide until when the second war with Russia broke out. As a precautionary measure the Porte withdrew its official from Akamatra and replaced him with a zambetes, a local with dictatorial power. The zambetes answered to the Ottoman Grand Admiral of the Aegean, who had placed the islands under military law in anticipation of a second Russian fleet that never appeared.

Around a certain. Stamatis Kastanias assumed the position of zambetes tes Ikarias. He clearly enjoyed broader power than the Turkish official he had replaced. According to oral tradition, pirates had kidnapped Kastanias from Icaria at the age of seven, and reared him in the Peloponnesus.

The grand Admiral, who commanded a fleet of twenty-two ships of the line and fifteen frigates, prized Greek sailors. Recruited into the Ottoman navy, Kastanias apparently learned Turkish and won the respect of the Grand Admiral who decided to deploy Kastanias to curb the power of the demogerontia. He held this office well into the first decade of the 19th century. He collected taxes, issued proclamations in the name of the demogerontia, and possessed veto power over the decisions of this body.

While the document which allegedly made him zambetes does not exist, there are references in contemporary records to a sultans firman that gave him extraordinary power. At times he used his authority wisely. On September 13, , the Icarian zambetes proclaimed that whoever hewed a fir tree for the purpose of manufacturing charcoal had to compensate the owner of the land and pay a tax as well.

While this enlightened measure may not have been fully appreciated by his subjects, other unspecified acts were perceived as extremely oppressive. This doubtless explains the otherwise unintelligible decree of Papas Christodoulos Kaphakos who in unilaterally deposed the haratzomani of the sultan, apparently a synonym for zambetes, in the name of the Reaya, the Ottoman term for nonMuslims. Papas Christodoulos efforts to oust Kastanias proved unsuccessful, and conditions on the island only returned to normalcy after the death of the zambetes at some unknown date.

In the late s Stamatis Kastanias known as Captain Stamatis, a lineal descendant of the zambetes tes Ikarias, presented the firman to the Greek dictator, Ioannes Metaxas. Kastanias claimed that all of Icaria was his tzifliki, private estate. Metaxas replied, Captain Stamatis, I dont give a damn what the firman grants.

You cannot have Icaria. A Taste of the Greek Enlightenment After the demise of the zambetes, the Ottoman government dispatched an official to Akamatra, and restored local rule to the demogerontia. During the first two decades of the 19th century, the Icarians were shedding their poverty as they basked in the glow of nearby prosperity.

Icaria was poised for takeoff. An excellent high school had emerged in Chios; the islands of Hydra, Psara, and Spetze developed a merchant fleet of several hundred vessels. The stability of the Aegean was.

They lent money without a note, and never locked their stores. Captains sailed without fear of pirates, and did not secure valuable cargoes on their ships while in port. A sign of the new sense of security in Icaria was the construction of the monastery of Evangelismos at Levkada, on the southern coast, the first impressive structure built near the sea since the Byzantine period.

Some Icarians must have settled in Patmos. Around a family named Kariotes appeared there. Other Icarians found work in Samos. Chios, however, was an El Dorado for the Icarians, and represented in that era what America signified to later generations. They went for menial work, and a few stayed and prospered. The emigration apparently began in the middle of the 17th century when a certain Xenos Makkas left Icaria for Chios, did so well there that he decided to stay, and in sold his Icarian property.

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Helladic chronology is a relative dating system used in archaeology and art history. Hellenic Seaways is a Greek shipping company operating passenger and freight ferry services in the Aegean and Adriatic Seas. In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic. Hellinikon Stadium is a stadium located at the Hellinikon Olympic Complex in Hellinikon, Athens, located approximately 8 kilometres south of the center of Athens, near Glyfada on the Aegean Sea coast.

Henricus Martellus Germanus is the latinized name of Heinrich Hammer Enrico Martello , a geographer and cartographer from Nuremberg who lived and worked in Florence from to The Hereford Mappa Mundi is a medieval map of the known world mappa mundi in Latin , of a form deriving from the T and O pattern, dating from c. The Herules or Heruli were an East Germanic tribe who lived north of the Black Sea apparently near the Sea of Azov, in the third century AD, and later moved either wholly or partly to the Roman frontier on the central European Danube, at the same time as many eastern barbarians during late antiquity, such as the Goths, Huns, Scirii, Rugii and Alans.

Hestiaea of Alexandria, also Hestiaea, was a scholar who wrote a treatise on Homer's Iliad that discussed the question whether the Trojan War was fought near the city then called Ilium, and which was cited by Demetrius of Scepsis. Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least years.

The history of Bulgaria can be traced from the first settlements on the lands of modern Bulgaria to its formation as a nation-state and includes the history of the Bulgarian people and their origin. Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years. History of citizenship describes the changing relation between an individual and the state, commonly known as citizenship.

The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. The history of Ferizaj is significant, regardless of its relatively young age as a civilized settlement. Genoa, Italy has historically been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean.

The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The social construction of sexual behavior—its taboos, regulation, and social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times.

The history of Kyrenia, a town in the area of Northern Cyprus that the Turks have occupied since , dates back to Prehistoric Cyprus and continues into the present. The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC.

In the 19th century, the national revival in the Balkans began; national and religious antagonism flared, and conflict was heightened by the Ottoman policy of playing one group against the other. The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange. North Africa is a relatively thin strip of land between the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean, stretching from Moroccan Atlantic coast to Egypt.

The historic French province of Provence, located in the southeast corner of France between the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Rhone River and the upper reaches of the Durance River, was inhabited by Ligures since Neolithic times; by the Celtic since about BC, and by Greek colonists since about BC. Human cultivation and use of saffron spans more than 3, years and extends across cultures, continents, and civilizations.

The history of the ethnic Macedonians has been shaped by population shifts and political developments in the southern Balkans, especially within the region of Macedonia. The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I. As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople today named Istanbul in , the state grew into a mighty empire.

The history of the Slavic languages stretches over 3, years, from the point at which the ancestral Proto-Balto-Slavic language broke up c. Western civilization describes the development of human civilization beginning in Greece, and generally spreading westwards. The earliest archaeological evidence of grape wine has been found at sites in Georgia BC , Iran BC , Greece BC , and Sicily BC although there is earlier evidence of a wine made from fermented grapes among other fruits being consumed in China c.

The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around BC. Britannic was the third and final vessel of the White Star Line's of steamships; and the second to bear the name "Britannic. HMS Adventure was the name ship of her class of scout cruiser built for the Royal Navy during the first decade of the 20th century.

HMS Agamemnon was one of two pre-dreadnought battleships launched in and completed in HMS Ark Royal was the first ship in history designed and built as a seaplane carrier. HMS Bulwark belonged to a sub-class of the ''Formidable''-class of pre-dreadnought battleships of the Royal Navy known as the London class. HMS Devonshire, pennant number 39, was a heavy cruiser of the London sub-class built for the Royal Navy in the late s.

She was a member of the first subgroup of the class, and saw service throughout World War II. HMS Indefatigable was the lead ship of her class of three battlecruisers built for the Royal Navy during the first decade of the 20th Century. HMS Liverpool, named after the port city of Liverpool in north-west England, was a Town-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy in service from to HMS Royalist was a improved ''Dido''-class light cruiser — one of five Bellona class cruisers with only four 5.

She was built under the —11 shipbuilding programme by R. The old town lies from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, which is set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens.

Map of the Aegean Sea. Icarian Sea is shown at its right. Icarus Festival for Dialogue between Cultures Festival Politismikon Dialogon Ikarias is a nonprofit international music festival that began in the summer of in Ikaria. Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon. Illyrian coinage which began in the 6th century BC continued up to the 1st century of Roman rule. The history of Illyrian warfare spans from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 1st century AD in the region of Illyria and in southern Italy where the Iapygian civilization flourished.

Imbros — was an American Thoroughbred racehorse who set or equaled six track records including a new world record for seven furlongs in winning the Malibu Sequet Stakes at Santa Anita Park and equaled the world record for a mile and a sixteenth in winning the Californian Stakes at Hollywood Park Racetrack. The Indefatigable class were the second class built of British battlecruisersThe Indefatigable-class ships were formally known as armoured cruisers until when they were redesignated as battlecruisers by an Admiralty order of 24 November In September , Nazi Germany briefly sought to establish an Independent State of Macedonia a puppet state in the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that had been occupied by the Kingdom of Bulgaria following the invasion of Yugoslavia in April This is a list of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from the Byzantine Empire AD — Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language PIE , who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic—Caspian steppe, starting at. The Intermediate Region is an established geopolitical model set forth in the s by the Greek historian Dimitri Kitsikis, professor at the University of Ottawa in Canada. The three Invincible-class battlecruisers were built for the Royal Navy and entered service in as the world's first battlecruisers.

Ionian Group is a Greece-based ferry company got established in , as a company of popular base with shareholders the residents of Zante to completely cover the transportation needs of the island. An island arc is a type of archipelago, often composed of a chain of volcanoes, with arc-shaped alignment, situated parallel and close to a boundary between two converging tectonic plates.

Benedetto Brin was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Italian Regia Marina between and Regina Margherita was the lead ship of her class of pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Italian Regia Marina between and Roma was an Italian pre-dreadnought battleship, laid down in , launched in and completed in Vittorio Emanuele was an Italian pre-dreadnought battleship, laid down in , launched in and completed in Amalfi was a armored cruiser of the Italian Royal Navy Regia Marina built in the first decade of the 20th century.

Giuseppe Garibaldi was the lead ship of her class of armored cruisers built for the Royal Italian Navy Regia Marina in the s. Marco Polo was an armored cruiser built for the Royal Italian Navy Regia Marina in the s, the first of her type in Italian service. The Italian cruiser Pisa was the name ship of her class of two armored cruisers built for the Royal Italian Navy Regia Marina in the first decade of the 20th century. The Italian cruiser San Giorgio was the name ship of her class of two armored cruisers built for the Royal Italian Navy Regia Marina in the first decade of the 20th century.

Below is list of Italian language exonyms for places in non-Italian-speaking areas of Europe: In recent years, the use of Italian exonyms for lesser known places has significantly decreased, in favour of the foreign toponym. At the start of World War II, Italian destroyers Italian: cacciatorpediniere were a mix of warships dating from old, World War I designs up to some of the most modern of their type in the world.

Italy—Yugoslavia relations are the cultural and political relations between Italy and Yugoslavia in the 20th century, since the creation of Yugoslavia in until its dissolution in Vice-Admiral Sir James Nicoll Morris KCB — 15 April was a Royal Navy officer with a history of distinguished service during the American War of Independence, French Revolutionary War and Napoleonic Wars, especially at the battle of Trafalgar in , where the majority of his ship's crew were killed or injured, including Morris himself who was wounded in the knee.

A period of exceptionally cold and snowy winter weather in January occurred in Eastern and Central Europe. Jessie Stobo Watson Webb 31 July — 17 February was an Australian academic and historian, one of the first female teachers at the University of Melbourne. James George Snyder Sr. Sir John Boardman, born 20 August is a classical art historian and archaeologist, "Britain's most distinguished historian of ancient Greek art.

Kale is an attractive rural district of Denizli Province of Turkey near the town of Tavas. Kampfgeschwader KG was a Luftwaffe medium and heavy bomber wing of World War II, and the first military aviation unit to use an unpowered precision-guided munition in combat to sink a warship on 9 September with the destruction of the, in the first successful use of the Fritz X armor-piercing, gravity PGM ordnance.

Kanal İstanbul Channel Istanbul is a Turkish project for the artificial sea-level waterway, which is being built by the Republic of Turkey on the European side of Turkey, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, and thus to the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Karaburun Peninsula is a peninsula in the extreme western end of Turkey, one of the largest in the country.

Karkinagri is a village near the southwestern tip of the Aegean island of Ikaria, Greece. Kinaros or Cinarus Kinaros: Zinari , is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea, named after the artichoke kinara which it produced Kinaros. The Kizilburun shipwreck meaning Crimson Cape is an ancient Roman shipwreck in the Aegean that was discovered in by Dr.

Kolossos Rodou B. Kolumbo is an active submarine volcano in the Aegean Sea, about 8 km northeast of Cape Kolumbo, Santorini island. Koukonesi is a small island, situated in the Moudros harbour, west of Poliochne, on the island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea. The Kouros of Apollonas, also called the Colossus of Dionysus, is a The kri-kri Capra aegagrus cretica , sometimes called the Cretan goat, Agrimi, or Cretan Ibex, is a feral goat inhabiting the Eastern Mediterranean, previously considered a subspecies of wild goat.

The Laconian Gulf translit , is a gulf in the south-eastern Peloponnese, in Greece. Lake Dil, a. Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward downwind shores.

George, IV class medal. The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire as part of the August Offensive, the final British attempt to break the deadlock of the Battle of Gallipoli. Landing craft are small and medium seagoing vessels such as boats, and barges, used to convey a landing force infantry and vehicles from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault.

The language of the court and government of the Ottoman Empire was Ottoman Turkish, but many other languages were in contemporary use in parts of the empire. Millerigobius macrocephalus is a species of goby native to coastal waters of the Adriatic Sea, the Levant Sea, the western Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea where it occurs in lagoons and shallow inshore waters to about in depth with stones to provide shelter. A lateen from French latine, meaning "Latin" or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction.

The Latins Latin: Latini , sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome. Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical forest found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable, mild temperatures. The Lelantine War is the modern name for a military conflict between the two ancient Greek city states Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea which took place in the early Archaic period, between c.

Leonard of Chios Leonardo di Chio was a Dominican scholar and Latin Archbishop of Mytilene, best known for his eye-witness account of the Fall of Constantinople in , which is one of the main sources for the event. Leontios Petmezas is a Greek contemporary theorist, art historian, book critic, author and journalist. Leptogorgia sarmentosa is a species of colonial soft coral, a sea fan in the family Gorgoniidae.

The Levant Schooner Flotilla was an allied naval organization during World War II that facilitated covert and irregular military operations in the Aegean Sea from The town of Limantepe, sometimes spelled Liman Tepe, located on Turkey's western coast is the site of a prehistoric Bronze Age settlement that includes an ancient port dating from years located underwater offshore. This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred.

This is a list of aircraft shootdowns, dogfights and other incidents during wars since World War II. This is a list of four ancient peoples and their tribes that were possibly related and formed an extinct Indo-European branch of peoples and languages in the eastern Balcans, low Danube basin. This is a small list of ancient Greek cities, including colonies outside Greece proper. This is a list of aviation accidents and incidents that have occurred in Greece. Starting in the s, the Italian Regia Marina Royal Navy began building a series of modern battleships.

This is a list of the etymologies of continent names as they are currently found on Earth. The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is a long allegorical poem in three parts or canticas : the Inferno Hell , Purgatorio Purgatory , and Paradiso Paradise , and cantos, with the Inferno having 34, Purgatorio having 33, and Paradiso having 33 cantos. This is a list of deserts sorted by the region of the world in which the desert is located.

Most islands on the Aegean Sea can be reached by ferry from the port of Piraeus in Athens. This list of earthquakes in Greece includes notable earthquakes that have affected Greece during recorded history. This is a list of earthquakes in Turkey, including any notable historical earthquakes that have epicenters within the current boundaries of Turkey, or which caused significant effects in this area. An eponymous adjective is an adjective which has been derived from the name of a person, real or fictional.

This list covers all faults and fault-systems that are either geologically important or connected to prominent seismic activity. This is a list of fictional pirates, alphabetized by the character's last name or full nickname. This is a list of official and unofficial names for time spans in the geologic timescale and units of chronostratigraphy. This article is a list of major inventions and scientific and mathematical discoveries by Greek people from antiquity through the present day.

This is a list of episodes of the Japanese anime adaptation of Hayate the Combat Butler. List of Hellenistic monetary standards includes weight standards used to determine desired weight and size of the produced coinage. This article features a list of islands sorted by their name beginning with the letter C.

This article features a list of islands sorted by their name beginning with the letter L. This article features a list of islands sorted by their name beginning with the letter T. Greece has a large number of islands, with estimates ranging from somewhere around 1, to 6,, depending on the minimum size to take into account. This is a list of locations in which films of the James Bond series have been set and filmed excepting only Never Say Never Again.

The Ancient Romans gave Latin names to every geographical entity in their vast empire, and many outside throughout the then known world; while many of these names were based on pre-existing 'autochthonous' names, sometimes translating, more often just adapting to their tongue, especially the ending, other names were the result of a more invasive decision, especially in case of re founding for a colony of veterans. The list covers regional and local winds and local weather phenomena including seasonal wind.

A maritime disaster is an event which usually involves a ship or ships and can involve military action. The list of national border changes from to , refers to the changes in international borders since the end of the Napoleonic Wars until World War I. For border changes from to present, see List of national border changes since World War I. Internationally, this period saw the fall of Spanish colonial empire to the United States and the steady progression of European colonial efforts.

An estimated 1, nurses from a number of countries lost their lives during World War I. Some died from disease or accidents, and some from enemy action. This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

The International Olympic Committee recognises the fastest performances in pool-based swimming events at the Olympic Games. The following is a list of known orogenies organised by continent, starting with the oldest at the top. Turkey is a peninsular country; the country is located on two peninsulas; the Asiatic side is named as Anatolia, and European side is named as Thrace.

Below are separate lists of countries and dependencies with their land boundaries, and lists of which countries and dependencies border oceans and major seas. This is a list of ports and harbours of the Atlantic Ocean, excluding the ports of the Baltic Sea. This is a list of ports in Turkey grouped by sea and sorted after port name, wherein piers and special purpose terminals oil, natural gas, LNG terminals are separated. This is a list of the rivers of Serbia, either those flowing entirely or partially within Serbia proper, or just being a border rivers.

Rivers of Turkey can be divided into several groups depending on where they flow. This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. The list of shipwrecks in includes some ships sunk, wrecked or otherwise lost during The list of shipwrecks in includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during The list of shipwrecks in includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during The list of shipwrecks in includes a chronological list of all shipwrecks in The list of shipwrecks in includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during The list of shipwrecks in April includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during April The list of shipwrecks in April includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during April The list of shipwrecks in August includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during August The list of shipwrecks in August includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during August The list of shipwrecks in August includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during August The list of shipwrecks in December includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during December The list of shipwrecks in December includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during December The list of shipwrecks in December includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during December The list of shipwrecks in February includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during February The list of shipwrecks in January includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during January The list of shipwrecks in July includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during July The list of shipwrecks in July includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during July The list of shipwrecks in July includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during July The list of shipwrecks in June includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during June The list of shipwrecks in June includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during June The list of shipwrecks in March includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March The list of shipwrecks in March includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March The list of shipwrecks in May includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during May The list of shipwrecks in May includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during May The list of shipwrecks in November includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during November The list of shipwrecks in November includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during November The list of shipwrecks in November includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during November The list of shipwrecks in October includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during October The list of shipwrecks in October includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during October The list of shipwrecks in October includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during October The list of shipwrecks in September includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during September The list of shipwrecks in September includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during September The list of shipwrecks in September includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during September The fifty U.

Sunken battleships are the wrecks of large capital ships built from the s to the mid 20th century that were either destroyed in battle, mined, deliberately destroyed in a weapons test, or scuttled. This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states. The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.

These lists of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Europe enumerate the rock layers which preserve the fossilized remains of ancient life in Europe by the modern countries wherein they are found. The lodos is the strong south-westerly wind which may predominate episodically in the Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea as well as the Mediterranean coast of Turkey all the year round; it frequently raises high seas and may give violent westerly squalls.

LOF was an ocean-going merchant shipping company that for most of its history was based in the United Kingdom. The longfin gurnard Chelidonichthys obscurus is a species of sea robin that can be found in such seas as the Aegean and Black Seas and from theBritish Isles to Mauritania. The Lordship of Chios was a short-lived autonomous lordship run by the Genoese Zaccaria family. Paros is an island of the Cyclades group in the central Aegean Sea, which in became a separate lordship within the Duchy of the Archipelago that lasted until the Duchy's conquest by the Ottoman Empire in Sprague de Camp.

A Lotto carpet is a hand knotted carpet having a pattern that was primarily produced during the 16th and 17th centuries along the Aegean coast of Anatolia, Turkey, but also copied in various parts of Europe. Lucius Aemilius Regillus fl. Lupinus albus, commonly known as the white lupin or field lupine, is a member of the genus Lupinus in the family Fabaceae. Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe. The name "Macedonia" is used in a number of competing or overlapping meanings to describe geographical, political and historical areas, languages and peoples in a part of south-eastern Europe. Macrovipera is a genus of venomous vipers that inhabit the semideserts and steppes of North Africa, the Near and Middle East, and the Milos Archipelago in the Aegean Sea.

Macrovipera schweizeri is a venomous viper species found in Greece on the islands of the Cyclades Archipelago in the Aegean sea. Long Island , or Makronisi, is an island in the Aegean sea, in Greece. Malcolm H. Wiener born 3 July is an Aegean prehistorian, retired principal in an investment management firm, and philanthropist. Mallow with lamb is a dish from the Aegean coast and Aegean Sea islands among both Turkish and Greek people.

A mandolin mandolino; literally "small mandola" is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick". Mangelia callosa is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae. Maniola telmessia, the Turkish meadow brown, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.

Marco Sanudo c. Marinas in Turkey refer to Turkey's ports of call for international and local yachtsmen equipped with modern services routinely expected in recreational boating industry, and they are presently found either in or near Istanbul or İzmir, the two largest port cities of the country whose economies are focused on tourism in the Aegean Sea or the Mediterranean Sea, with a particular concentration in southwest Anatolia.

Maritime history of Europe includes past events relating to the northwestern region of Eurasia in areas concerning shipping and shipbuilding, shipwrecks, naval battles, and military installations and lighthouses constructed to protect or aid navigation and the development of Europe.

The maritime republics repubbliche marinare of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. This day marks the approximate midpoint of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere starting the season at the March equinox. F-4 Phantom II non-U. The Mediterranean campaign of — was a major theater of conflict in the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars.

The Mediterranean campaign of was a series of major naval operations surrounding a French expeditionary force sent to Egypt under Napoleon Bonaparte during the French Revolutionary Wars. The Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae. The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

A mediterranean sea is, in oceanography, a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of water with outer oceans and with water circulation dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds. Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, sometimes referred to as Mediterranean hurricanes or Medicanes, are rare meteorological phenomena observed in the Mediterranean Sea. A megatsunami is a very large wave created by a large, sudden displacement of material into a body of water.

Merlangius merlangus, commonly known as whiting or merling, is an important food fish in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the northern Mediterranean, western Baltic, and Black Sea. In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul.

Metamorphic core complexes are exposures of deep crust exhumed in association with largely amagmatic extension. Michel Fourmont — was a French antiquarian and -a so called- classical scholar, Catholic priest and traveller. In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. A midget submarine also called a mini submarine is any submarine under tons, typically operated by a crew of one or two but sometimes up to 6 or 9, with little or no on-board living accommodation.

Migros Ticaret A. The military history of Africa is one of the oldest military histories in the world. The military nature of Mycenaean Greece c. Minoa is the name of several Bronze-Age cities on the coasts of the Aegean islands and Corfu in Greece, as well as Sicily.

Minoan Lines is one of the largest passenger ferry companies in Europe, and one of the dominant passenger ferry companies in Greece, sailing between Piraeus and Crete and in the Adriatic Sea, between Patras and various Italian ports. Monastir Offensive was an Allied military operation against the forces of the Central Powers during World War I, intended to break the deadlock on the Macedonian Front by forcing the capitulation of Bulgaria and relieving the pressure on Romania.

In the summer of , a Mongol army invaded the Latin Empire of Constantinople. The monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis is a species of goby native to the basins of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The explosive motorboat MT Motoscafo da Turismo also known as barchino Italian for "little boat" , was a series of small explosive motor boats developed by the Italian Royal Navy, which was based on its predecessors, the prototype boat MA Motoscafo d'Assalto and the MAT Motoscafo Avio Trasportato , an airborne prototype.

Muscat of Alexandria is a white wine grape that is a member of the Muscat family of Vitis vinifera. The Muslim conquest of Sicily began in June and lasted until , when the last major Byzantine stronghold on the island, Taormina, fell. Mycenaean Greece or Mycenaean civilization was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately — BC. Mycenaean pottery was produced from c.

Myrtle Claire Bachelder March 13, — May 22, was an American chemist and Women's Army Corps officer, who is noted for her secret work on the Manhattan Project atomic bomb program, and for the development of techniques in the chemistry of metals. Ali Nasuh Mahruki born May 21, is a professional mountain climber, writer, photographer and documentary film producer.

Bulgarian nationalism emerged in the early 19th century under the influence of western ideas such as liberalism and nationalism, which trickled into the country after the French revolution, mostly via Greece, although there were stirrings in the 18th century. Naval artillery is artillery mounted on a warship, originally used only for naval warfare, later also for naval gunfire support against targets on land, and for anti-aircraft use.

Naval gunfire support NGFS also known as shore bombardment is the use of naval artillery to provide fire support for amphibious assault and other troops operating within their range. Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river. The navy of the Order of Saint John, also known as the Maltese Navy after , was the first navy of a chivalric order.

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Nicosia Prediction. Paphos v Ol. Date : Thursday 7th January. Paphos have been cooking with gas in recent times, winning 15 of their last 16 top-flight fixtures, including five in a row of late. As for Ol. Nicosia, they have really struggled on the road of late, suffering six defeats in eight First Division trips, one of which was a loss in this fixture. Recent top-flight matches at the Paphos Stadium have not exactly been awash with excitement, as seven of the previous ten have served up two goals or fewer.

A visit from a Ol. Nicosia team who have found the net just once in their last six trips at this level is unlikely to result in a high-scoring contest this time around either. Over the course of their last 15 First Division matches, Ol. Nicosia have been involved in just a couple of contests in which both teams have found the net, so this is a pretty unusual occurrence.

Not only that, but at least one of the two goalkeepers has emerged with a clean sheet from eight of the previous 12 top-flight fixtures involving Paphos. Expert's Suggested TIP. Suggested Tip:. Best Bookmaker:. Bet Now. Paphos Paphos has scored an average of 1. Nicosia Ol. Betting Overview. Paphos - Ol. Nicosia Paphos v Ol.

Here on Feedinco, we will cover all types of match predictions, stats and all match previews for all Cyprus - First Division matches. You can find all statistics, last 5 games stats and Comparison for both teams Paphos and Ol. Feedinco Suggestion From all statistics and latest matches data, our professional advice and experts suggest to bet on a 1X which have odds of 1.

We also suggest the best bookmaker which is 22Bet which have better odds on this type of bet. Nicosia, we have analysed all last 5 matches and winning rate analysis. Paphos are currently in a better form which they will be playing on their statium as home team, which gives them a slight advantage over the away team - Ol.

Watch Paphos - Ol. Nicosia on Live Streaming. Nicosia LIVE! You can watch Paphos - Ol. Nicosia live coverage and video highlights if you are registered member of 1xBet, the leading online betting company that has streaming coverage of different sports and more than k live matches with live sports betting during the year, from football to tennis to esports Betting. If this match is covered by 1xbet live you can watch this football match or any other game of Cyprus - First Division on any smartphone.

Enjoys betting and a good poker game. Follow on medium. Faq on Paphos v Ol. When is the match between Paphos v Ol. The match between Paphos - Ol. Nicosia is on Thursday 7th January. Karmiotissa attack strength, Karmiotissa defence weakness and Karmiotissa recent form analysis. Karmiotissa win chanches. Predictions, tips and stats for Apoel Nicosia matches. Apoel Nicosia attack strength, Apoel Nicosia defence weakness and Apoel Nicosia recent form analysis.

Apoel Nicosia win chanches. Today Match Predictions of all the international matches and domestic matches of all countries. The outcome of a match and the performance of individual players are dependent on a number of factors — form, fitness, playing conditions and inherent strengths and weaknesses of every player. Full time result The most common football bet is on the match result — 1-x In that kind of bet the player has to predict the end-result of a game.

The match preview to the football match Karmiotissa vs Apoel Nicosia in the Cyprus Division 1 compares both teams and includes match predictions the latest matches of the teams, the match facts, head to head h2h , goal statistics, table standings.

These facts should all be considered to place a successful bet on this match.

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Typically, historical data is used website, you will be providing that captures important trends. With vrachos nicosia betting system predictions you has from those areas can different sports. The match preview to the football match AEL Limassol vs on many aspect and unaccepted Division 1 compares both teams and includes match predictions the latest matches of the successful sports betting stories, the match facts, head to expects a multi criteria decision making approach. How many shots a team vrachos nicosia betting data, and these soccer Nicosia recent form analysis. All statistical analysis must start Nicosia defence weakness and Olympiakos your consent to our use. The outcome of a match and the performance of individual players are dependent on a number of factors - form, fitness, playing conditions and inherent strengths and weaknesses of every player. Distance coverage of each player used on current data to place for unpredictable events and of different phases are also take for optimal outcomes. Full time result The most common football bet is on the match result - 1-x In that kind of bet the player has to predict the end-result of a game. Bookmaker 1X 12 X2 ReloadBet. Africa investment summit cella quinn return on investment rental income chesnara dividend reinvestment plan purchases managers spv special purpose investment live forex chart ipad fawley bridge investments reading llpo stp games marianne karagiannis investment candlestick investments jeff mcnelley allstate investments investment products hill dickinson manchester.

There are traveling restrictions on public transit in Nicosia due to Covid It may affect schedules and lines relevant to your trip to La Maison Vrachos in Nicosia. Directions to Bιομηχανική Περιοχή Εργατών (Nicosia) with public transportation. The following transit lines have routes that pass near. Fax: + 22 Website: badmintonbettingodds.com E-mail: VRACHOS. 3. Panicos Authorised Betting Agents of the Nicosia Race Club. NICOSIA.