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This has to be one of the most historical and exciting matchups that we've seen in a while, with the Read More. The Super Bowl is the most popular betting day of the year, and as such, there are plenty of prop bets to consider taking. We're going to take a look at the strangest Super Bowl prop bets. Coin Toss If you'd believe it, the Super Bowl coin toss is the Wednesday night offers a large slate of games in the NBA.

That means that there are plenty of options for your parlay, especially now after seeing most of these teams in action for 20 games or more. Here are three teams to bet on for Wednesday. This may be the best field we have ever seen for this The betting market for UFC Fight Night odds show a stacked card with an impressive main event showdown.

Looking at the main event, the fifth- and sixth-ranked heavyweight contenders will square off Monday's five-game NHL slate has an interesting mix when you look at odds. In two of the games, the road teams are favored, while another one is basically a pick 'em.

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The levels of 3-MCPD released by hydrolysis of these esters bound 3-MCPD ranged from the limit of detection microg kg - 1 , expressed on a fat basis to microg kg - 1 ; with a mean level of bound 3-MCPD of microg kg - 1 , which corresponded to The presence of bound 3-MCPD was confirmed using orthogonal gas chromatography coupled with high-speed time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for four randomly selected breast milk samples.

Six breast milks collected from one of the nursing mothers days after childbirth contained bound 3-MCPD within the range of microg kg - 1 fat mean microg kg - 1 fat. The calculated bound 3-MCPD content of these samples was within the range of 6 and 19 microg kg - 1 milk mean of 12 microg kg - 1 milk. Sedation was subjectively assessed and recorded on a visual analogue scale. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant 6MW.

In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues i. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.

The total concentrations of Cd 25 mg kg - 1 ; d. According to the leached amounts of Cr 38 mg kg - 1 ; d. Atipamezole in the management of detomidine overdose in a pony. A pony undergoing elective castration accidentally received an overdose of IV detomidine microg kg - 1 before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam.

A further microg kg - 1 IV dose of detomidine was administered during anaesthesia. The mistake was recognized only when the animal failed to recover from anaesthesia in the expected time. The overdose microg kg - 1 in total was treated successfully with atipamezole, initially given IV and subsequently IM and titrated to effect to a total dose of microg kg - 1. The pony regained the standing position.

A further injection of atipamezole 76 microg kg - 1 IM was given 5 hours later to counteract slight signs of re-sedation. Atipamezole proved an effective antagonist for detomidine in a pony at an initial dose 3. A comparison of the dietary arsenic exposures from ingestion of contaminated soil and hyperaccumulating Pteris ferns used in a residential phytoremediation project. Arsenic As hyperaccumulating ferns are used to phytoremediate As-contaminated soils, including soils in residential areas.

This use may pose a health risk if children were to ingest these plants. Spider brake Pteris cretica L. The fronds were subjected to a physiologically-based extraction test to estimate As bioaccessibility, which ranged from 3. A scenario for human dietary exposure to As in an urban setting was then estimated for a child consuming 0. The calculation of dietary exposure took into account the As concentration in the fern pinnae, the bioaccessibility of As in the tissue, and the typical absorption of inorganic As by the gastrointestinal tract.

The pinnae As concentrations and the calculated dietary exposures were used to create a non-linear regression model relating tissue As concentration to dietary exposure. Data from a phytoremediation project in a residential area using Pteris cretica and Pteris vittata L. These exposures were compared to estimates of dietary As exposure from the consumption of soil. The results showed that dietary exposures to As from consumption of soil or pinnae tissue were similar and that estimates of dietary exposure were below the LOAEL value of 14 microg As kg - 1 d The results suggest that the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris ferns during growth in moderately contaminated residential soils e.

Cadmium, lead, nickel and mercury were contamination in gill, liver and muscle of B. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia. Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.

All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. Potassium K and sodium Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples A.

Full Text Available A company, majorly company that active in commercial profit orientation need to analyze their sales performance. After collecting the data, next is data extraction and transformation. Data transformation is making some change to the data afte r extracted to be more consistent.

After transformation processing, data are loaded into data warehouse. Query reporting are sales based on cement type, sales area, plant and customer. Hydrodynamic SPH interpolation approach, which is used to evaluate the robot density in the swarm, is applied as the key factor for identifying the K-nearest neighbours taken into account when aggregating the robots. The intra virtual physical connectivity.

The sustainability and climate friendliness are evaluated by life cycle assessment LCA. Molecular methods based on qPCR are being developed and implemented to quantify bacteria in different functional groups, such as those responsible for nitrification. This allows for development of diagnostic tools to detect This filter will also be used to validate the mathematical models build for the biological filters at full scale Stanek, K.

The analgesic effects of intrathecal xylazine and detomidine in sheep and their antagonism with systemic atipamezole. Prospective, randomized, cross-over. Pain threshold TH was tested by applying pulsed and stepwise incremental direct current to the skin overlying the pastern. The current at the point of foot lift was recorded as the TH. Outcomes were derived as differences between baseline assessment and measurements after treatment.

Two-way anova was used to analyse drug effects, treatment differences between groups were examined with an F-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test in case of non-parametric data distribution. Atipamezole 5 microg kg - 1 IV antagonized some side effects without affecting analgesia. Intrathecal XYL may be useful as an analgesic in sheep. Polonium and Caesium in lynx Lynx lynx , wolverine Gulo gulo and wolves Canis lupus.

Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway.

The liver samples were analysed for Po and Cs. Only Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter and , while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from Using a wet weight ratio of 3. Content and in-vitro accessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids from Sri Lankan cooked non-leafy vegetables and their estimated contribution to vitamin A requirement.

Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Sri Lanka, which affects especially pre-school children. Carrots Daucus carota , pumpkins Cucurbita maxima , squashes Cucurbita moschata and sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas of orange, yellow-fleshed varieties are good sources of provitamin A carotenoids, but have not been studied in Sri Lanka in terms of the food as eaten. The content of carotenoids in each preparation method and the in-vitro accessibility of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

The in-vitro method simulates the conditions in the human intestinal tract. The mean contents in dry weight DW in different carrot preparations ranged from The content of carotenoids in different pumpkin preparations varied from The squashes preparation had The results showed that the contribution to the recommended daily allowance is greater when these vegetables are prepared as a curry with coconut milk.

The percentage contribution to recommended daily allowance from each vegetable cooked with coconut milk was Existing evidence suggests that administration of intravenous fluids has been shown to improve outcomes including pain in gynecological laparoscopic surgery but the optimum fluid dose has not been determined. By the method of artificial freezing, this paper made a comparative study on the cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. The results showed that the cold hardiness of these three species was in the sequence of P.

These differences might be the reasons resulting in the different cold hardiness of these three species. Therefore, though the test species are all of cold hardiness, their inherent mechanisms may be different. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp.

Hybanthusfloribundus Lindl. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg - 1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis.

Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of mg kg - 1 dry weight DW in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis 10, mg kg - 1 DW and reached a maximum of up to 10, mg kg - 1 DW in the leaf margin.

Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues mg kg - 1 versus mg kg - 1 DW , respectively , however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.

A dynamic compartmental food chain model of radiocaesium transfer to Apodemus sylvaticus in woodland ecosystems. A study was undertaken to quantify the activity concentrations of Cs in Apodemus sylvaticus the woodmouse in two woodland sites, Lady Wood and Longrigg Wood, adjacent to British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. A deterministic dynamic compartmental food chain model was also constructed to predict Cs activity concentration [Bq kg - 1 dry weight dw ] in A.

Fungal concentrations ranged from Bq kg - 1 dw. The modelled activity concentrations fell between the confidence intervals of the observed data in four of the six seasonal cohorts sampled. Disparities between predicted and observed activity concentrations are attributed to uncertainties surrounding the fundamental feeding ecology of small mammals.

The excessive enrichment of trace elements in migratory and breeding red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis in China. The excessive enrichment of trace elements, such as Pb and Cd, from food may contribute to the decline of migratory red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis in China. To test this prediction, we determined the concentrations of Pb and Cd, as well as further macro and trace elements Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn in the target species and their prey sediment, reed root, mollusk, arthropods, and common fish species in both the wintering Yancheng wetland and breeding sites Zhalong wetland of cranes in China.

Indeed, Pb and Cd contents of essential foods, i. Approximately 80, Nevertheless, the increased Pb and Cd levels in the prey and bodies of the red-crowned cranes did not induce the levels of Ca and Mg depletion. Average contents of the macronutrients, Ca 1. Consumption of Ca-rich foods, e.

Incidence of trichothecenes and zearalenone in poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia. The acetyl-derivatives of DON were in just four samples, while NIV was not detected in any of the samples investigated.

Despite the limited number of samples investigated during this study poultry feed mixtures may represent a risk from a toxicological point of view and should be regarded as a potential source of the Fusarium mycotoxins in Central Europe. This is the first reported study dealing with zearalenone and trichothecene contamination of poultry mixed feeds from Slovakia. Polonium and Lead in marine biota from a coastal region with high natural radioactivity. Zafrul Kabir, M. Coastal sediments and marine fish from a region with high natural radioactivity in Cox Bazar Bangladesh, were analyzed in order to investigate the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides.

Sediment from the sea shore in high ambient radiation dose rate areas contained naturally occurring radionuclides at high concentrations. The presence of sand deposits with high concentration of uranium series radionuclides could potentially originate high accumulation of alpha emitting radionuclides such as Po in marine biota, and food chain transfer to man. Determination of Po in marine fish and shrimp from the area lead to concentration values ranging from 4.

Similar concentrations are commonly reported in marine biota from several regions. Therefore, in spite of the deposits of heavy mineral sands containing high concentrations of radionuclides such as Pb and Po no significant raise in the accumulation of these radionuclides in biota seems to occur, which suggests that radionuclides are tightly bound in sediment grains and are not significantly bioavailable. Behaviour of I added to limnocorrals in two Canadian Shield lakes of differing trophic states.

The main objectives of our investigation were to determine the loss rate of iodine from water to sediment and to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of iodine in Shield lakes. Iodine and tritium 3 HHO were added to the epilimnion of limnocorrals enclosures in mesotrophic Lake and eutrophic Lake , Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario.

Loss rate coefficients, k , ranged from Iodine behaves as a conservative element in Shield lakes, although it is available for uptake by biota. The persistence of I in water and its accumulation by fish emphasizes the potential importance of these pathways in the radiological dose to humans. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - III. The apparently non-binary long-period and hybrid pulsators are described here.

The V Her periods range from 1 to 4. Three stars also exhibit short periods indicative of p Reed, M. We present the discovery of non-radial pulsations in five hot subdwarf B sdB stars based on 27 d of nearly continuous time series photometry using the Kepler spacecraft. Three stars also exhibit short periods indicative of p-modes with periods of min and in addition, these stars exhibit periodicities between both classes from 15 to 45 min.

All of these pulsators are quite rich with many frequencies and we are able to apply asymptotic relationships to associate periodicities with modes for KIC Kepler data are particularly well suited for these studies as they are long duration, extremely high duty cycle observations with well-behaved noise properties.

Asymptotic expansions close to the singularity in Gowdy spacetimes[ Dw Singularities and cosmic censorship;. We consider Gowdy spacetimes under the assumption that the spatial hypersurfaces are diffeomorphic to the torus. The relevant equations are then wave map equations with the hyperbolic space as a target. In a paper by Grubisic and Moncrief, a formal expansion of solutions in the direction towards the singularity was proposed.

Later, Kichenassamy and Rendall constructed a family of real analytic solutions with the maximum number of free functions and the desired asymptotics at the singularity. The condition of real analyticity was subsequently removed by Rendall. In a previous paper, we proved that one can put a condition on initial data that leads to asymptotic expansions.

The main point of the present paper is to demonstrate the existence of certain monotone quantities and to illustrate how these can be used to weaken the assumptions to one derivative in the sup norm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the false spikes do not appear in the disc model. Finally, we show that knowledge concerning the behaviour of the solution as time tends to the singularity for one fixed spatial point in some situations can be used to conclude that there are smooth expansions in the neighbourhood of that spatial point.

Exploitation of secondary standard for calibration in units of Dw ,1cm and assessment of several HDR brachytherapy planning systems. A secondary standard of the BEV, calibrated at the PTB in terms of D w,1c m, was used for calibration of the well-type chamber-based measuring systems used in clinics. In addition to the calibration, we tried to employ it for assessment of treatment planning systems TPS used for each particular after-loader.

The dose to water at 1 cm distance from the source position was calculated by the TPS, using reference data from the source producer certificate. The values were compared directly with the dose measured at the same distance from the source. Nevertheless, it is higher than generally accepted in the case of external beam radiotherapy.

Additional direct measurements in terms of D w,1c m may improve the safety and reliability of patient treatment. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis Gastropoda following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure. Accumulation of free microcystins MCs in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far.

Here, we follow the accumulation of total free and bound MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i dissolved MC-LR 33 and microg L -1 and ii Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 microg MC-LR equivalents L -1 over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.

Snails exposed to MCs producing P. After depuration, up to Copyright c Elsevier Ltd. Capability of selected crop plants for shoot mercury accumulation from polluted soils: phytoremediation perspectives. High-biomass crops can be considered as an alternative to hyperaccumulator plants to phytoremediate soils contaminated by heavy metals. In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Hg in shoots, barley, white lupine, lentil, and chickpea were tested in pot experiments using several growth substrates.

In the first experimental series, plants were grown in a mixture of vermiculite and perlite spiked with 8. The mercury concentration of the plants' aerial tissues ranged from 1. In a second experiment carried out using a Hg-polluted soil This marked difference was attributed to the low availability of Hg in the original Almadin soil and its subsequent increase in the Hg-spiked soil. However, since the crops tested can effectively decrease the plant-available Hg level in this soil, their use could, to some extent, reduce the environmental risk of Hg pollution in the area.

Russia's military and civilian nuclear powered maritime fleets operate in the Kola and Motovsky Bays on the northwest Arctic coast of Russia. Levels of anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in sediment grab samples collected from approximately stations in areas near military and civilian nuclear installations and in the open waters of the two bays. However, the presence of 60 Co up to 27 Bq kg - 1 d.

Some of the highest 60 Co activities were detected in sediments collected near the civilian nuclear installation, Atomflot. The sediments also contained higher Cs activities compared to samples from other regions of the study area with similar particle size distributions. Routine discharges of purified radioactive waste from the Atomflot facility are the likely source of 60 Co and enhanced Cs levels.

With this investigation, we have detected evidence of radioactive waste leakage in the marine environment, but the environmental impact on the bays has been minimal. Copyright c Elsevier Science B. Estrogenic effect of propylparaben propylhydroxybenzoate in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after exposure via food and water. Plasma vitellogenin was measured before and during the exposures and the concentrations of propylparaben in liver and muscle were determined at the end of experiments.

Increases in average plasma vitellogenin levels were seen at oral exposure to 33 mg propylparabenkg -1 2 d The ED 50 values for increase in vitellogenin synthesis were 35, 31 and 22 mg kg - 1 2 d -1 at day 3, 6 and 11, respectively. Exposure to microg propylparabenl -1 increased vitellogenin synthesis, but exposure to 50 microg l -1 did not Propylparaben showed little tendency to bioaccumulation in rainbow trout; less than 1 per thousand of the total amount of propylparaben administered orally at mg kg - 1 2 d -1 over the d experimental period was retained in muscle and liver 24 h after the end of the experiment.

Exposure to microg Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hyper-g, and to simulated and sounding rocket micro-g. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 2. We investigated the effect of sequential administration of intrathecal IT hyperbaric bupivacaine after the initial administration of IT hypobaric fentanyl on the duration of spinal analgesia. The two components of the IT injectate were administered sequentially fentanyl 25 micro g diluted in 2 mL of normal saline, immediately followed by 0.

Patients were then positioned with their torso elevated at 30 degrees for 30 min. Patients in Group H had a longer median duration of analgesia min; range, min than Group P 95 min; range, min P hyperbaric bupivacaine conferred an increased duration of IT analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine. Mercury distribution in the main compartments of the eutrophic Lake Candia Northern Italy.

Full Text Available Total mercury T-Hg and organic mercury mainly methylmercury, MeHg concentrations in the most important compartments water, sediment, macrophytes, zooplankton, mussels and fish of the shallow and eutrophic Lake Candia Turin, Northern Italy were measured.

The content of mercury in mussel tissues increased with the size of the animal, but the relationship between Hg concentration and tissue weight was negative, indicating that the rate of mercury accumulation was lower than the tissue growth rate. The amount of mercury accumulated in the mussels living in the lake sediments was estimated to be 0. The importance of mercury biomagnification is also discussed. Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling.

In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations 25— g DW kg - 1 over a range of agitator. Lipophilic Fraction of Cultivated Bifurcaria bifurcata R. Macroalgae have been seen as an alternative source of molecules with promising bioactivities to use in the prevention and treatment of current lifestyle diseases.

In this vein, the lipophilic fraction of short-term three weeks cultivated Bifurcaria bifurcata was characterized in detail by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS. Considerable amounts of sterols, namely fucosterol In vitro tests demonstrated that the B. Enhancement of antibiotic activity of drug families of major clinical importance was observed by the use of B. This enhancement of antibiotic activity depends on the microbial strain and on the antibiotic. This work represents the first detailed phytochemical study of the lipophilic extract of B.

Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers Solanum tuberosum L. The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector HPLC-DAD and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols including anthocyanins in colored tubers were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD.

Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.

The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin petunidinp-coumaroyl-rutinosideglucoside. The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

All three Suillus mushroom species independent of the site characterized were by small mercury content. The arithmetic mean values of mercury concentration in caps and stipes, respectively, were: 0. A level of surface soil pollution with mercury was low and averaged from 0. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in a tropical rain forest environment.

To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments.

The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. In the mineral soil, perylene PERY was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments on average 8 and 15 microg kg - 1 compared to atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs.

Andean potato cultivars Solanum tuberosum L. Potato tubers were evaluated as a source of antioxidants and minerals for the human diet. A genetically diverse sample of Solanum tuberosum L. This size-manageable collection of 74 landraces, representing at best the genetic diversity among potato germplasm, was analyzed for iron, zinc, calcium, total phenolic, total carotenoid, and total vitamin C contents.

The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of each genotype was also measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC assay. The iron content ranged from Total phenolic content varied between 1. The range of hydrophilic ORAC values was Principal component analysis on the studied nutritional contents of the core collection revealed that most potato genotypes were balanced in terms of antioxidant and mineral contents, but some of them could be distinguished by their high level in distinct micronutrients.

Correlations between the micronutrient contents observed in the sample and the genetic distances assessed by microsatellites were weakly significant. However, this study demonstrated the wide variability of health-promoting micronutrient levels within the native potato germplasm as well as the significant contribution that distinct potato tubers may impart to the intake in dietary. Methylmercury determination in fish and seafood products and estimated daily intake for the Spanish population.

The mercury content of 25 samples of fish and seafood products most frequently consumed in Spain was determined. A simple method comprising cold vapour and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine separately inorganic and organic mercury. In all samples inorganic mercury content was below 50 microg kg - 1.

There was wide variability, among not only the mercury levels of different fish species, but also for different samples of the same species - with the methylmercury content ranging from below 54 to microg kg - 1. The highest mean methylmercury content was found in fresh tuna. The selection of trace element tolerant species is a key factor to the success of remediation of degraded mine soils.

Mining activities generate a large amount of waste rocks and tailings, which get deposited at the surface. The degraded soils, the waste rocks and tailings are often very unstable and will become sources of pollution. The direct effects will be the loss of cultivated land, forest or grazing land, and the overall loss of production. The indirect effects will include air and water pollution and siltation of rivers.

These will eventually lead to the loss of biodiversity, amenity and economic wealth. Restoration of a vegetation cover can fulfil the objectives of stabilization, pollution control, visual improvement and removal of threats to human beings.

Plant community responds differently on their ability to uptake or exclude a variety of metals. The highest concentrations of metals in soils dry matter were With respect to plants, the higher concentrations of Pb and As were recorded in the semi-aquatic species Juncus conglomeratus with Thymus mastichina also showed high content of As in the aboveground parts, Overall, the results indicate accumulation of various metals by.

Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose. Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain.

Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with some kind of off-odour were selected from Swedish granaries. The samples were evaluated with regard to moisture content, fungal contamination, ergosterol content, and levels of ochratoxin A OA and deoxynivalenol DON. Volatile compounds were also analysed using both an electronic nose and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry GC-MS. Samples with normal odour had no detectable ochratoxin A and average DON contents of 16 microg kg - 1 range , while samples with off-odour had average OA contents of 76 microg kg - 1 range and DON contents of 69 microg kg - 1 range Data were evaluated by multivariate data analysis using projection methods such as principal component analysis PCA and partial least squares PLS.

The results show that it was possible to classify the OA level as below or above the maximum limit of 5 microg kg - 1 cereal grain established by the Swedish National Food Administration, and that the DON level could be estimated using PLS. Samples with OA levels below 5 microg kg - 1 had higher concentration of aldehydes nonanal, 2-hexenal and alcohols 1-pentenol, 1-octanol. Samples with OA levels above 5 microg kg - 1 had higher concentrations of ketones 2-hexanone, 3-octanone. The GC-MS system predicted OA concentrations with a higher accuracy than the electronic nose, since the GC-MS misclassified only 3 of 37 samples and the electronic nose 7 of 37 samples.

No correlation was found between odour and OA level, as samples with pronounced or strong off-odours had OA levels both below and above 5. Chelant-assisted phytoextraction and accumulation of Zn by Zea mays. Zn concentration in plant tissues increased in conjunction with the metal concentration of the soil.

The more effective uptake of Zn by plants for the control treatment distilled water only than for CI and OX was attributed to the neutral or slightly alkaline pH of the two chelant irrigation solutions. Instead, EDTA had a favorable effect on Zn uptake from soil due to its additive chelating and acidifying properties.

Although Z. Controls governing the speciation and accumulation of Se in a 3. Total Se concentrations in the marsh outflow were lower than the inflow by 0. Redox stratification in the shallow water column has a marked effect on Se speciation and behaviour, illustrating bottom water removal of dissolved selenate in suboxic horizons and increased mobility of dissolved organo-Se.

The rate of accumulation as calculated from the mass balance agrees with independently measured rates of Se accumulation in sediments for the site 3. This article is protected by copyright. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants. Arsenic As is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen.

Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah Hoogly , Porbosthali Bardhman , and Birnagar Nadia ] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake SAU; mg kg - 1 dw in total number of 13 8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial collected plants.

SAU was higher in aquatic plants mg kg - 1 dw than in terrestrial species mg kg - 1 dw. The level of As was lower in medicinal plants MPs than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit 1 mg kg - 1 dw. The concentration of other elements Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants MP.

Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU avg. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species Marsilea and some aquatic plants Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields.

The concentrations of other nuclides of the Th and U chains in the food were low, ranging from LOD of 0. The average annual committed effective dose to adults in the study region was estimated and it ranged from 0. The committed effective doses to adults due to ingestion of regular diet in the Red River delta region, Vietnam are within the range determined in other countries worldwide.

This finding suggests that Vietnamese food is safe for human consumption with respect to radiation exposure. Effect of potassium application on root uptake of radiocesium in rice. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March , the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice that has been produced in some area has exceeded the provisional regulation value. In order to decrease the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice, we investigated the effect of the application of potassium fertilizer in rice paddy fields on the root uptake of radiocesium.

The observed concentration ratio of "1"3"4Cs to "1"3"7Cs was 0. The results showed that the vertical distribution of radiocesium was not uniform, although the rice paddy fields had been plowed. The concentration of radiocesium at a depth of cm in soil collected from the 5 different rice paddy fields was in the range of Bq kg "-" 1 DW , showing an approximately 3-fold variation between the upper and lower limits of the range. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice cultivated in 5 different fields, was in the range of Bq kg "-" 1.

The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice was found to be not correlated with that in the soil, and the soil-to-brown rice transfer factor was found to lie in the range of 0. However, the radiocesium in brown rice decreased with an increase in exchangeable potassium in the soil. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice also decreased from to Bq kg "-" 1 upon the application of a top dressing of potassium fertilizer. Thus, the application of potassium fertilizer is shown to reduce the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice.

Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt. The concentrations of arsenic As , copper Cu , cobalt Co , lead Pb and zinc Zn in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed.

An enrichment index EI was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants As, Co, Cu, mercury Hg , Pb and Zn in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as mg kg - 1 Cu total dry weight [ dw ].

Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower up to mg kg - 1 Cu dw. The concentrations of Co up to 78 mg kg - 1 dw , As up to 8 mg kg - 1 dw and Zn up to mg kg - 1 dw in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly.

The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.

The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard.

Dopamine natriuresis in salt-repleted, water-loaded humans. The purpose of the present study was to define the dose-response relationship between exogenous dopamine and systemic haemodynamics, renal haemodynamics, and renal excretory function at infusion rates in the range 0 to Preliminary UK experience of dexmedetomidine, a novel agent for postoperative sedation in the intensive care unit. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective and potent alpha2-adrenergic agonist, has a potentially useful role as a sedative agent in patients requiring intensive care.

As part of a larger European multicentre trial, a total of postoperative cardiac and general surgical patients requiring ventilation and sedation in an intensive care unit were enrolled in four centres in the United Kingdom. One hundred and five patients were randomly allocated to receive either dexmedetomidine or placebo with rescue sedation and analgesia provided by midazolam and morphine, respectively. Cardiovascular effects and adverse events could be predicted from the known properties of alpha-2 agonists.

In conclusion, dexmedetomidine is a useful agent for the provision of postoperative analgesia and sedation. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean Sea: Types, occurrence and distribution along Adriatic shorelines. Small plastic debris in sediments from five beaches were investigated to evaluate their occurrence and abundance in the Northern Adriatic coast for the first time.

Plastic debris extracted from sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR. A total of items of debris Fragments were the most frequent type of small plastics debris detected. In terms of abundance, microplastics emergent and priority contaminant. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland. Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements PGEs and rare-earth elements REEs , the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species 10 above ground and 10 growing on wood , mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road.

The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies 0. The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0. Mean contents of REEs were 1. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs.

No limits have been established for both the groups until now. Transfer of Cs to plants from two types of soil. Transfer of Cs from soil to plants was studied in two types of soil: sandy soil I and sandy loam soil II. The study was performed on an experimental field for of soil I and for soil II. Transfer of Cs from soil I was examined for spring barley, spring wheat, red beet, lettuce and kale; transfer from soil II was examined for winter barley, grass, alfalfa, potato tubers, red beet, radish, bean, spinach and lettuce.

The concentration of Cs in the soil I was over five times lower than in soil II, being equal to 8. The soils differ in their chemical characteristics and texture. Soil I contains 6. Soil II contains The lowest concentrations of Cs for both soils were observed in cereals spring wheat - 0.

The highest concentrations of this isotope were found in red beet leaves 9. Transfer of Cs to plants from the sandy loam soil was from about 2 up to about 7 times lower than from the sandy soil. The lower transfer of Cs from soil II to plants in comparison to soil I might be associated with the presence of clay which binds Cs strongly.

The strong binding of Cs in soil II can also be. Preda, Lorenzo; Summers, Paul E. To assess the independent prognostic value of standardized uptake value SUV and apparent diffusion coefficient ADC , separately and combined, in order to evaluate if the combination of these two variables allows further prognostic stratification of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas HNSCC. Mean follow-up was Reassessing the clinical affinity between Melanie Klein and D.

Winnicott : Klein's unpublished "Notes on baby" in historical context. The author investigates the clinical affinity between Klein and Winnicott asa way to historically situate Winnicott 's later criticism of Klein's 'temperamental' inability to understand the impact of the environment on the infant's development. By setting out Klein s theories at the time when Winnicott began supervision with her in , a context is established for the analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Klein 'Notes on baby'.

The author argues that this direct and extensive infant observation demonstrates Klein's sensitivity to the familial environment. While Winnicott as a paediatrician showed enthusiasm for Klein s ideas, he also demonstrated a difference of opinion in emphasising the maternal environment of provision after his wartime evacuation experiences with London children.

The factors leading to their mutual distancing are outlined as follows: 1 the post-Controversial Discussion atmosphere of the British Psycho-Analytical Society in The new non-aligned psychoanalytic 'middle group' allowed Winnicott to take a pick and choose attitude towards available analytic theories; 2 Winnicott us new clinical practices and theory differed from Klein 's, leading to a widening gap between and Winnicott's new theory and practice simultaneously represented his technical marginalisation of Klein s emphasis on the direct analysis of the patient s destructiveness by the time he delivered the 'Transitional objects' paper in The fairy tale film is a second only to the comedy of manners flagship genre of Czech cinema.

Its popularity in Bohemia is associated with a rich tradition of literary fairy tale, as well as with socio-political conditions, favoring the production of such films. There is prevailed a specific pattern of fairy tale — good-natured and comical.

Herz introduces the elements of horror to th A search for right-handed dW bosons in bar pp collisions with the D0 detector at Fermilab. This thesis reports on a search for right-handed W bosons W R. In addition, limits on m W R valid for larger values of the N R mass were obtained assuming that N R decays to an electron and two jets. Full Text Available tissue disease.

The main symptoms are atrophy and fibrosis of the connectivetissue stroma, preceded by changes in the small blood vessels. Pathogenesis of morphea is still unknown. The possible role of geneticfactors, immunological abnormalities, especially in cell-mediatedimmunity, trauma, viruses or infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is suspected. Several types of localized scleroderma can be distinguished: plaque morphea, generalized morphea, bullous morphea, linear morphea scleroderma and deep morphea.

To present two cases of bullous morphea and therapeuticdifficulties connected with this disease. Case report. Two cases of bullous morphea are presented in and year-old women. Each of them was treated with individually chosentherapy. Initially they were treated with crystalline penicillin, hydrocortisone,vascular drugs; and UVA phototherapy. Afterwards, thepatients were treated with pulses of methylprednisolone andmethotrexate. The treatment led to suppression of the disease — blistershealed and the indurations diminished.

The treatment of localized scleroderma is not satisfactory. It causes difficulties due to limited effectiveness of applied drugsand their side effects. It is crucial to start treatment as early as possible,when the pathological changes are in the initial stage. Cauchy horizons in Gowdy spacetimes[ Dw Singularities and cosmic censorship; Ex Initial value problem, existence and uniqueness of solutions;.

We analyse exhaustively the structure of non-degenerate Cauchy horizons in Gowdy spacetimes, and we establish existence of a large class of non-polarized Gowdy spacetimes with such horizons. Our results here, together with the deep new results of Ringstroem, establish strong cosmic censorship in toroidal Gowdy spacetimes. The fine structure of Gowdy spacetimes[ Dm Numerical relativity; The approach to the singularity in Gowdy spacetimes consists of velocity term dominated behaviour, except at a set of isolated points.

At and near these points, spiky features grow. This paper reviews what is known about these spikes. Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed.

The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

From to , peregrine falcon productivity rates were very low and coincided with periods of low rainfall. However, low productivity also was suspected to be caused by environmental contaminants. To evaluate potential impacts of contaminants on peregrine falcon populations, likely avian and bat prey species were collected during and breeding seasons in selected regions of western Texas, primarily in Big Bend National Park.

Tissues of three peregrine falcons found injured or dead and feathers of one live fledgling also were analyzed. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1. The electricity generation not only sufficiently meets the electricity needs of process requirement, but also generates more than half of electricity surplus selling to the grid.

Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina. The Argentine government's Agua y Energia Electrica is planning to construct a hydroelectric power- generation facility on the middle Parana River, which is already heavily infested with aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth. These species will probably proliferate in the lakes that will be formed by the power project and perhaps seriously interfere with the facility.

As a solution to this problem, Argentine biochemists propose mechanical harvesting and anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic plants to produce biogas and fertilizer. According to an evaluation of this potential resource, gross methane production could reach billion CF 1.

Biogas is a flammable gas produced from the fermentation of organic materials by anaerobic bacteria originating from household waste manure and organic waste including palm oil mill effluent POME. POME is mainly discharged from the sterilization unit of palm oil processing into crude palm oil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of Otto engine generator fueled with biogas that generated from POME, then comparing its performance fueled by gasoline.

The performance included power, torque, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and the air-fuel ratio. Experiment was conducted by using a variation of the lamp load of , , , , and W. The results revealed that the use of biogas as fuel decreased in power, torque, brake thermal efficiency, and air fuel ratio AFR , while there is an increasing of value specific fuel consumption SFC.

Exploitation of algal-bacterial associations in a two-stage biohydrogen and biogas generation process. Photosynthetic microorganisms grown on marginal or deserted land present a promising alternative to the cultivation of energy plants and thereby may dampen the 'food or fuel' dispute.

Microalgae offer diverse utilization routes. A two-stage energetic utilization, using a natural mixed population of algae Chlamydomonas sp. The microalgal-bacterial biomass generated hydrogen without sulfur deprivation. Algal hydrogen production in the mixed population started earlier but lasted for a shorter period relative to the benchmark approach. The residual biomass after hydrogen production was used for biogas generation and was compared with the biogas production from maize silage.

The gas evolved from the microbial biomass was enriched in methane, but the specific gas production was lower than that of maize silage. Sustainable biogas production from the microbial biomass proceeded without noticeable difficulties in continuously stirred fed-batch laboratory-size reactors for an extended period of time.

Co-fermentation of the microbial biomass and maize silage improved the biogas production: The metagenomic results indicated that pronounced changes took place in the domain Bacteria, primarily due to the introduction of a considerable bacterial biomass into the system with the substrate; this effect was partially compensated in the case of co-fermentation. The bacteria living in syntrophy with the algae apparently persisted in the anaerobic reactor and predominated in the bacterial population.

The Archaea community remained virtually unaffected by the changes in the substrate biomass composition. Through elimination of cost- and labor-demanding sulfur deprivation, sustainable. This study analyses technical potential and ex ante socioeconomic impacts of biogas production using cassava waste from agroprocessing plants.

An analysis was performed for two biodigesters in two cassava processing communities in Ghana. The results showed that the two communities generate an excess of 4, tonnes of cassava peels per year. If used internally as process fuel, the potential gas available could replace over tonnes of firewood per year for cassava processing. The displacement of firewood with gas could have environmental, economic, and social benefits in creating sustainable development.

The project will create 10 full-time unskilled labour positions during the investment year and 4 positions during operation years. Biogas from bio-waste- potential for an ecological waste and energy management in resort hotels.

This paper gives an overview about waste management in holiday resorts. The objective is to determine the composition of waste and the specific waste quantities per guest. This data represents the basis for planning recycling measures and corresponding treatment facilities.

The sorting analyses show the great potential of organic material suitable for biological treatment. Because of the characteristics water content, structure of these organic materials, composting is not as suitable as fermentation. Fermentation tests with hotel bio-waste turned out a much higher rate of biogas compared with communal bio-waste.

Using biogas as an additional source of energy and the fermentation products as fertilizer would be a further step to an ecologically beneficial tourism. Evaluation of biogas production potential of kitchen waste in the presence of spices. Anaerobic digestion AD of kitchen waste KW for biogas production is a major challenge to all over the world due to significant compositional variations in KW, such as different types and quantities of spices used for preparing food.

Spices may affect the AD process owing to their antimicrobial activity. In this paper, the effect of spices garlic, red chili, cinnamon, coriander, clove, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper on AD of KW has been investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the maximum biogas production potential , methane production rate and lag phase for biogas production. Analysis of the results revealed different magnitude of inhibition of the AD process of KW in the presence of different spices.

Elemental analysis showed high concentration of heavy metals in the spices, which along with other bioactive components of the spices could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of the spices on biomethanation. Microbial examination of the digestate also showed a decrease in population of fermentative and methanogenic bacteria in the presence of spices. Chemical-oxidative scrubbing for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from raw biogas : potentials and economics.

In the present work chemical-oxidative scrubbing as a novel method for the desulphurisation of raw biogas is presented with a special focus on the process potentials and economics. The selective absorption of hydrogen sulphide from gas streams containing high amounts of carbon dioxide using caustic solutions is not trivial but has been treated in literature. However, the application of this method to biogas desulphurisation has not been established so far. Based on rigorous experimental work, an industrial-scale pilot plant has been designed, erected and commissioned at a biogas plant with biogas upgrading and gas grid injection in Austria.

Data collected from the month monitored operation has been used to elaborate performance as well as economic parameters for the novel desulphurisation method. The proposed technology offers significant operational advantages regarding the degree of automation and the flexibility towards fluctuations in process boundary conditions. Furthermore, the economic assessment revealed the high competitiveness of the chemical-oxidative scrubbing process compared with other desulphurisation technologies with the named advantageous operational behaviour.

Ammonia tolerant inocula provide a good base for anaerobic digestion of microalgae in third generation biogas process. This study investigated the ability of an ammonia-acclimatized inoculum to digest efficiently protein-rich microalgae for continuous 3rd generation biogas production. Subsequently, anaerobic digestion of those two substrates was tested in continuous stirred tank reactors CSTR. Despite of the high ammonium levels 3. These results demonstrated that ammonia tolerant inocula could be a promising approach to successfully digest protein-rich microalgae and achieve a 3rd generation biogas production.

Biogas utilization. Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes.

Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects less than 65 cfm generally use biogas as produced as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine- generators to produce electricity. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost.

Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment. The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated.

The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined.

It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1. Internal combustion engine run on biogas is a potential solution to meet Indonesia emission target. In this paper, the BAU emissions and emissions reduction target of these two targets are elaborated. In addition, the characteristics of emissions from transportation sector are discussed. One of the potential mitigation actions is switching fuel in transportation sector.

The results the most promising mitigation action in the transportation is switching oil fuel with biofuel. The Government of Indonesia GoI focuses on using biodiesel and bioethanol to run internal combustion engine in transportation sector and biogas is aimed to fuel power plant unit.

However, there is very limited of success stories on using biogas in the power plant. The barriers and challenges will be discussed here. It is suggested to run internal combustion engine with biogas. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity.

Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues.

Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue.

Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity EC than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils.

However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis. In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production.

They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane CH4 production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested.

The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration.

In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation RSDr for all batch methods was very low 4. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method LRM were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography GC.

This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. Wet air oxidation pretreatment of biomethanated distillery effluent: mapping pretreatment efficiency in terms color, toxicity reduction and biogas generation.

Wet air oxidation WAO pretreatment of biomethanated distillery effluent resulted in substantial enhancement in the biodegradability index BI up to 0. The HPLC analysis indicated that the pretreatment facilitated degradation of major color containing compounds-namely melanoidins, up to Comparative genotyping of Clostridium thermocellum strains isolated from biogas plants: genetic markers and characterization of cellulolytic potential.

Clostridium thermocellum is among the most prevalent of known anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. In this study, genetic and phenotypic variations among C. At least two C. One novel approach - the amplification of unknown target sequences between copies of a previously discovered Random Inserted Mobile Element RIME - was also tested.

The genotyping method with the highest discriminatory power was found to be the amplification of the sequences between the insertion elements, where isolates from each biogas plant yielded a different band pattern. Cellulolytic potentials , optimal growth conditions and substrate spectra of all isolates were characterized to help identify phenotypic variations.

Irrespective of the genotyping method used, the isolates from each individual biogas plant always exhibited identical patterns. This is suggestive of a single C. The genotypic groups reflect the results of the physiological characterization of the isolates like substrate diversity and cellulase activity.

Conversely, strains isolated across a range of biogas plants differed in their genotyping results and physiological properties. Both strains isolated from one biogas plant had the best specific cellulose-degrading properties and might therefore achieve superior substrate utilization yields in biogas fermenters. A model-based assessment of the potential role of irrigated cropland for biogas production in Europe.

For the European Union, the increasing use of renewable energy sources is an important instrument to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and to achieve greater independency from energy imports. Here, agriculture has the chance to become an important contributor by the cultivation of bio-energy crops. In this paper, the potential role of irrigated cropland for the cultivation of silage maize for biogas production is analyzed on the European level.

A methodology is developed to identify suitable locations for maize cultivation and to evaluate their performance in respect of the amount of irrigation water and land needed for energy production. For this purpose, GIS analysis techniques are combined with simulation results from the process-based vegetation model LPJmL for maize yields and irrigation water requirements.

The generated information can serve as input for the development of European-scale bio-energy policies and for further analysis of the water footprint and energy balance of bio-energy systems. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households.

Murto, Marika, E-mail: marika. Box , SE 00 Lund. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor.

Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added.

Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease.

Besides, 3. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Development of a low-cost biogas filtration system to achieve higher-power efficient AC generator.

The paper focuses on the development of a low-cost biogas filtration system for alternating current generator to achieve higher efficiency in terms of power production. The filtration system composes of six stages: stage 1 is the water scrubber filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide; stage 2 is the silica gel filter intended to reduce the water vapor; stage 3 is the iron sponge filter intended to remove the remaining hydrogen sulfide; stage 4 is the sodium hydroxide solution filter intended to remove the elemental sulfur formed during the interaction of the hydrogen sulfide and the iron sponge and for further removal of carbon dioxide; stage 5 is the silica gel filter intended to further eliminate the water vapor gained in stage 4; and, stage 6 is the activated carbon filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide.

The unfiltered biogas is capable of generating The increased in methane concentration resulted to The outcome resulted to better engine performance in the generation of electricity. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors. Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic A1 and two hybrid bioreactors C1 and C2 , were constructed and operated for about 10 months.

Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids VFAs reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia—nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively.

However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration.

Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively.

Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. Can anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp support the circular economy? Anaerobic digestion AD , known as a biological process without oxygen to convert complex organic materials into biogas , is capable of processing large tonnage quantities of biomass, such as sugar beet pulp SBP.

In addition to biogas production, its use allows nutrients and organic carbon recycle back to agriculture through the spreading of digestate. Digestate still contains high amount of nutrients N, P, K for use as biofertiliser. The Biochemical Methane Potential BMP test was performed in triplicate against blank and positive controls over a period of 28 days with gas measured at regular intervals.

Semi-continuous AD of SBP was operated under mesophilic and thermophilic condition for and days. Under semi-continuous operation, SBP also demonstrated positive results. These results suggest that digestate has the potential to be utilised on agricultural and arable land. This study illustrated the positive effects of applying AD to the achievement of economic savings and environmental-friendly performance. At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated.

Whole farm impact of biogas generation and use on a New York dairy farm. Many mitigation strategies are required to meet this goal, but the use of anaerobic digesters for biogas production is considered to be an important component. Anaerobic digestion removes Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy.

Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas.

The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Ensiling of fish industry waste for biogas production: a lab scale evaluation of biochemical methane potential BMP and kinetics. Fish waste FW obtained from a fish processor was ensiled for biogas production.

A first-order kinetic model and the modified Gompertz model were also used to predict methane yield. There were smaller differences between measured and predicted methane yield for FW silages when using a modified Gompertz model 1. Production of biogas methane and hydrogen from anaerobic digestion of hemicellulosic hydrolysate generated in the oxidative pretreatment of coffee husks.

Ozone pretreatment of coffee husks CH was evaluated to generate hydrolysates for biogas production and to preserve cellulose of the solid phase for 2G ethanol production. Press fluid pre-treatment optimisation of the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass IFBB process approach.

The integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass IFBB system is an innovative approach to maximising energy conversion from low input high diversity LIHD biomass. In this system water pre-treated and ensiled LIHD biomass is pressed. The press fluid is anaerobically digested to produce methane that is used to power the process. The fibrous fraction is densified and then sold as a combustion fuel.

Two process options designed to concentrate the press fluid were assessed to ascertain their influence on productivity in an IFBB like system: sedimentation and the omission of pre-treatment water. The additional energy requirements for pressing more biomass in order to generate equal volumes of feedstock were accounted for in these calculations.

Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems. In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste FW and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown.

To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe.

The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems.

Nutrient contributions and biogas potential of co-digestion of feedstocks and dairy manure. This study focused on collection of data on nutrient flow and biogas yield at a commercial anaerobic digester managed with dairy manure from a cow dairy and co-digestion of additional feedstocks. Feedstocks included: blood, fish, paper pulp, out of date beverages and grease trap waste.

Mass flow of inputs and outputs, nutrient concentration of inputs and outputs, and biogas yield were obtained. It was determined that manure was the primary source of nutrients to the anaerobic digester when co-digested with feedstocks. The percentage of contribution from manure to the total nutrient inputs for total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, phosphorus and total solids was On average, manure contributed the greatest amount of total nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen.

Results demonstrated that a reliable estimate of nutrient inflow could be obtained from the product of the nutrient analyses of a single daily composite of influent subsamples times the total daily flow estimated with an in-line flow meter. This approach to estimate total daily nutrient inflow would be more cost effective than testing and summing the contribution of individual feedstocks.

It was demonstrated that the ash concentration in solids before and after composting could be used to estimate the mass balance of total solids during the compost process. For future energy supply systems with high proportions from renewable energy sources, biogas plants are a promising option to supply demand-driven electricity to compensate the divergence between energy demand and energy supply by uncontrolled sources like wind and solar. Apart expanding gas storage capacity a demand-oriented feeding with the aim of flexible gas production can be an effective alternative.

Furthermore, the long-term process stability was not affected negatively due to the flexible feeding. The flexible feeding resulted in a variable rate of gas production and a dynamic progression of individual acids and the respective pH-value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. We propose and demonstrate a novel system for simultaneous ammonia recovery, carbon capture, biogas upgrading, and fertilizer production in biogas production.

Biogas slurry pretreatment adjusting the solution pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand plays an important role in the system as it significantly affects the performance of ammonia recovery. Vacuum membrane distillation is used to recover ammonia from biogas slurry at various conditions. The recovered ammonia is used for CO 2 absorption to realize simultaneous biogas upgrading and fertilizer generation.

CO 2 absorption performance of the recovered ammonia absorption capacity and rate is compared with a conventional model absorbent. Theoretical results on biogas upgrading are also provided. After ammonia recovery, the treated biogas slurry has significantly reduced phytotoxicity, improving the applicability for agricultural irrigation. The novel concept demonstrated in this study shows great potential in closing the CO 2 loop in biogas production by recycling ammonia as an absorbent for CO 2 absorption associated with producing fertilizers.

Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment. This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas -derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas , capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

The study presents an analysis and suggests about how renewable sources of energy can be an alternative option to produce electricity in an off-grid area. A case study is done by surveying households in an off-grid area. Although the COE is higher than grid electricity, this system offers a cheaper option than using kerosene oil and solar home systems SHSs.

Use of biogas for cogeneration of heat and electricity for local application: performance evaluation of an engine power generator and a sludge thermal dryer. The unit consisted of an engine power generator adapted to run on biogas , a thermal dryer prototype and other peripherals compressor, biogas storage tank, air blower, etc. The heat from engine power generator exhaust gases was directed towards the thermal dryer prototype to dry the sludge and disinfect it.

The results showed that the experimental apparatus is self-sufficient in electricity, even producing a surplus, available for other uses. Although the drying of sludge was not possible only thickening was achieved , the disinfection process proved very effective, enabling the complete inactivation of helminth eggs.

Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy. The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops EC , manure, agro-industrial Plants B and C and organic fraction of municipal solid waste OFMSW Plant A.

EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector.

Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction--a case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain. Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas.

Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes WMS and fossil fuel consumption reduction.

This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year , in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution.

It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0. Drinking water treatment sludge as an effective additive for biogas production from food waste; kinetic evaluation and biomethane potential test.

The effect of drinking water treatment sludge DWTS as a mixture additive, on biogas and methane production from food waste was studied. It was found that DWTS can significantly enhance biogas and methane yield. This is equal to 65 and 58 percent increase in comparison with the control digester. The calculated lag time for methane was found to be in between 3. The DWTS also reduced the lag phase and retention time.

The biogas experimental data was fitted with the modified Gompertz and the first-order kinetic models with R 2 higher than 0. Biogas purification with biomass ash. The aim of the study was to investigate the option to purify biogas from small-scale biogas plants by entrapping CO 2 and H 2 S with regionally available biomass ash. With the process conditions chosen, for a period of a few hours CO 2 was trapped resulting in pure methane. The removal of H 2 S was much longer-lasting up to 34 d.

The cumulative H 2 S uptake by the biomass ash ranged from 0. The pH of the ash and the leachability of Lead and Barium were reduced by the flushing with biogas , however toxicity towards plants was increased thus reducing the potential of ash use in agriculture. It can be concluded that biomass ash may be used for removal of hydrogen sulphide from biogas in small and medium biogas plants.

The economic evaluation, however, indicated that the application of this system is limited by transport distances for the ash and its potential use afterwards. Potential short-term losses of N2O and N2 from high concentrations of biogas digestate in arable soils. Biogas digestate BD is increasingly used as organic fertilizer, but has a high potential for NH3 losses.

Its proposed injection into soils as a countermeasure has been suggested to promote the generation of N2O, leading to a potential trade-off. Furthermore, the effect of high nutrient concentrations on N2 losses as they may appear after injection of BD into soil has not yet been evaluated. To determine the potential capacity for gaseous losses, we applied anaerobic conditions by purging with helium for the last 24 h of incubation. However, emissions did not increase with the application rate of BD.

Our results suggest a larger potential for N2O formation immediately following BD injection in the fine-textured clayey silt compared to the coarse loamy sand. By contrast, the loamy sand showed a higher potential for N2 production under anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that short-term N losses of N2O and N2 after injection may be higher than probable losses of NH3 following surface application of BD.

Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of food waste and relevant air quality implications. Biopower can diversify energy supply and improve energy resiliency. Increases in biopower production from sustainable biomass can provide many economic and environmental benefits. For example, increasing biogas production through anaerobic digestion of food waste would increase the use of renewable fuels throughout California and add to its renewables portfolio.

Although a biopower project will produce renewable energy, the process of producing bioenergy should harmonize with the goal of protecting public health. Meeting air emission requirements is paramount to the successful implementation of any biopower project. A case study was conducted by collecting field data from a wastewater treatment plant that employs anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease FOG , food waste, and wastewater sludge, and also uses an internal combustion IC engine to generate biopower using the biogas.

This research project generated scientific information on a quality and quantity of biogas from anaerobic codigestion of food waste and municipal wastewater sludge, b levels of contaminants in raw biogas that may affect beneficial uses of the biogas , c removal of the contaminants by the biogas conditioning systems, d emissions of NO x , SO 2 , CO, CO 2 , and methane, and e types and levels of air toxics present in the exhausts of the IC engine fueled by the biogas.

The information is valuable to those who consider similar operations i. Full-scale operation of anaerobic codigestion of food waste with municipal sludge is viable, but it is still new. There is a lack of readily available scientific information on the quality of raw biogas , as well as on potential emissions from power generation using this biogas. This research developed scientific information with regard to. H2S and volatile fatty acids elimination by biofiltration: clean-up process for biogas potential use.

In the present work, the main objective was to evaluate a biofiltration system for removing hydrogen sulfide H 2 S and volatile fatty acids VFAs contained in a gaseous stream from an anaerobic digestor AD. The elimination of these compounds allowed the potential use of biogas while maintaining the methane CH 4 content throughout the process.

The biodegradation of H 2 S was determined in the lava rock biofilter under two different empty bed residence times EBRT. Microcosms biodegradation experiments conducted with VFAs demonstrated that acetic acid provided the highest biodegradation rate.

Chinese Biogas Digester. A Manual for Construction and Operation. Reprint No. This book provides the basic knowledge and guides for the construction and operation of a small-scale, family-size biogas unit. The first chapter discusses the benefits of biogas production and the Chinese biogas model. The second chapter shows the components, design formulas, and sizing units of the biogas model.

Chapter 3 describes actual…. The immediate goal is a system based on the integration of the suite of modules developed solar thermal, biogas , ORC, absorption-chiller that can be assembled together to create systems tailored to the unique demands of individual communities and climates, optimized for effic Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. In a second approach, C. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease.

According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Life Cycle Assessment of landfill biogas management: sensitivity to diffuse and combustion air emissions. Result sensitivity to data inventory is accounted for through the implementation of scenarios that help examine how waste landfilling should be modeled in LCA.

Four landfill biogas management options are environmentally evaluated in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective: 1 no biogas management open dump , conventional landfill with 2 flaring, 3 combined heat and power CHP production in an internal combustion engine and 4 biogas upgrading for use as a fuel in buses. Average, maximum and minimum literature values are considered both for combustion emission factors in flares and engines and for trace pollutant concentrations in biogas.

Biogas upgrading for use as a fuel in buses appears as the most relevant option with respect to most non-toxic impact categories and ecotoxicity, when considering average values for trace gas concentrations and combustion emission factors. Biogas combustion in an engine for CHP production shows the best performances in terms of climate change, but generates significantly higher photochemical oxidant formation and marine eutrophication impact potentials than flaring or biogas upgrading for use as a fuel in buses.

However the calculated environmental impact potentials of landfill biogas management options depend largely on the trace gas concentrations implemented in the model. The use of average or extreme values reported in the literature significantly modifies the impact potential of a given scenario up to two orders of magnitude for open dumps with respect to human toxicity.

This should be taken into account when comparing landfilling with other waste management options. Also, the actual performances of a landfill top cover in terms of oxidation rates and combustion technology in terms of emission factors appear as key parameters affecting the. Knowledge of the microbial consortia participating in the generation of biogas , especially in methane formation, is still limited. To overcome this limitation, the methanogenic archaeal communities in six full-scale biogas plants supplied with different liquid manures and renewable raw materials as substrates were analyzed by a polyphasic approach.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH was carried out to quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the reactor samples. Five of the six biogas reactors were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. Within this order, Methanoculleus was found to be the predominant genus as determined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. Additionally, in three biogas reactors hitherto uncharacterized but potentially methanogenic species were detected.

These results point to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as a predominant pathway for methane synthesis in five of the six analyzed biogas plants. Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara, E-mail: gara. Biogas and methane yield in response to co- and separate digestion of biomass wastes. The impact of co-digestion as opposed to separate digestion, on biogas and methane yield apparent synergetic effects was investigated for three biomass materials pig manure, cow manure and food waste under mesophilic conditions over a 36 day period.

In addition to the three biomass materials digested separately , 13 biomass mixtures co-digested were used. Two approaches for modelling biogas and methane yield during co-digestion, based on volatile solids concentration and ultimate gas and methane potentials , were evaluated.

The dependency of apparent synergetic effects on digestion time and biomass mixture composition was further assessed using measured cumulative biogas and methane yields and specific biogas and methane generation rates. Results indicated that it is possible, based on known volatile solids concentration and ultimate biogas or methane yields for a set of biomass materials digested separately, to accurately estimate gas yields for biomass mixtures made from these materials using calibrated models.

For the biomass materials considered here, modelling indicated that the addition of pig manure is the main cause of synergetic effects. Co-digestion generally resulted in improved ultimate biogas and methane yields compared to separate digestion. Biogas and methane production was furthermore significantly higher early days and to some degree also late above 20 days in the digestion process during co-digestion.

Biogas and energy production from cattle waste. Biomass is one of the longest used energy sources employed in human activity. The bioconversion of organic matter to biogas is a complex anaerobic fermentation process involving the action of microorganisms such as methane producing bacteria. In this paper, biogas and energy production from cattle waste is investigated. There are two significant reasons that motivate this study. First, treating animal waste with the technology of anaerobic digestion can reduce environmental pollution and generate a relatively cheap and easily available source of energy in dairy farms.

It also has the potential to run other small industries. Second, it is an effective way of managing cattle waste as well as producing a quick acting, non-toxic fertilizer for agricultural use. A working model of biogas plant is studied in this paper and its economic value as an alternative energy source is examined.

An alternative to direct generation of electricity, is to convert the methane from the biomass to methanol. Upgrading the hydrolytic potential of immobilized bacterial pretreatment to boost biogas production. In this study, surfactant dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate DOSS -mediated immobilized bacterial pretreatment of waste activated sludge WAS was experimentally proved to be an efficient and economically feasible process for enhancing the biodegradability of WAS.

The maximal floc disruption with negligible cell cleavage was achieved at surfactant dosage of 0. The pretreatment was swift in deflocculated sludge with a rate constant of about 0. Biochemical methane potential BMP assay resulted in significant methane yield at 0. Economic assessment of the proposed method showed a net profit of about Assessment of biogas production in Argentina from co-digestion of sludge and municipal solid waste.

In Argentina, there is an important potential to utilize organic waste to generate bioenergy. This work analyzes the environmental impacts and the energetic and economic requirements of the biogas produced by digesting the sewage sludge SS produced in a wastewater treatment plant in a medium city in Argentina. First, the transport of the raw materials to the biogas plant was defined. Then, the co-digestion and the biogas treatment for final use were evaluated.

The co-digestion was improved with glycerol, and the generation of biogas was estimated using the GPS-X software. Two alternatives for the end use of biogas were considered: combined heat and power CHP and biomethane generation. For the first, H 2 S and water vapor were removed from the raw biogas stream, and for the second, also CO 2 was removed.

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