These rules introduce new uses to the healing kits. This kit is a leather pouch containing bandages, salves and splints. The kit has ten uses. As an action, you can expend one use of the kit to stabilize a creature that has 0 hit points, without needing to make a Wisdom Medicine check. This kit contains a variety of instruments such as clippers, mortar and pestle, and pouches and vials used by herbalists to create remedies and potions.
The kit has 10 uses. Proficiency with this kit lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability check you make to identify and apply herbs. Also, proficiency with this kit is required to create antitoxin and any potion of healing. You can refill one use of the Herbalist Kit with a Wisdom Nature check gathering herbs from their environment, with the DC value dependent on their availability. Heavy 2 Bulk This kit contains scalpels, scissors and saws, grasping forceps, and vials of alcohol.
You must be proficient in Medicine to use Surgeon's Kit. This kit lets you use the First Aid action and benefit from advantage to the Wisdom Medicine check. Also, you can attempt the Perform Surgery actions. A Surgeons Kit can be reused when all uses are spent, and can be refilled with 10 uses for 40 gold. By spending a use of Healer's or Surgeon's Kit, you attempt to tend to an injured person until full medical treatment or rest is possible.
If you provide First Aid to yourself, you suffer disadvantage to the roll. On success, you close one Open Wound. If you score a critical or exceptional success on the Medicine check, you close an extra Open Wound. Once you attempt a First Aid on a creature, you cannot attempt again until the creature completes a long rest.
By spending one use of Healer's or Herbalist's Kit, you can ease the suffering of one injured creature during its long rest. While spending Hit Dice to recover hit points during the long rest, the creature can choose one of the dice and change it to the maximum value of the die.
Also, the creature benefits from an advantage to its next Constitution saving throw made during the long rest. In addition, the creature's Open Wounds are immune to festering effects see pg. By spending a use of Healer's Kit, you attempt to stabilize and return creature to life despite clinical death. Attempt a Wisdom Medicine check against DC 30 - 5 for each successful death save the creature had before dying. If you succeed, the creature can immediately repeat one of its death saves with advantage.
If it succeeds on it, it can repeat another death save with advantage. It can continue to do this until it scores one failure. Upon scoring one failure, it dies and can not be Resuscitated again. A creature may not be Resuscitated more than once until it finishes a long rest. By spending a use of Herbalist's Kit, you provide immediate assistance against the effect of poison. The creature gains resistance to the next damage it receives from the poison and can immediately repeat the saving throw against the effect of poison.
If you succeed, the creature gains advantage to its saving throw. You cannot Treat Poison again until the creature completes a long rest. By spending a use of Herbalist's Kit, you provide relief from a disease and prevent is further spreading. The creature can immediately repeat the saving throw against the effect of disease. In addition, any check against contracting the disease from the sick creature is made with advantage.
You cannot Treat Disease again until the creature completes a long rest. By spending a use of Surgeon's Kit, you perform a complex procedure on specific Lasting Injury pg. Attempt a Wisdom Medicine check against DC 30 - 2 points for each position below the first the Injury holds in its Lasting Injury table pg. The procedure requires minimum of 1 hour of uninterrupted work, plus another hour and an extra use of the Surgeon's Kit for each 5 points of DC.
A creature proficient in Medicine can attempt to Help by spending an additional use of the Surgeon's Kit. On success, the Injury recovery effect improves. If the Injury requires natural healing, it recovers twice as fast. If the Injury requires magical healing of a specific level or higher, magical healing of up to two levels lower achieves the same result.
If the Injury effect lists a Constitution check or saving throw, the roll benefits from advantage for the next one week. On failure, the Injury remains the same. If you fail by 5 points or more, for each point below DC the creature suffers one Open Wound and may become dying during surgery. Once you attempt a Surgery on a specific Lasting Injury, you cannot attempt again for one week.
You can however attempt Surgery on another Injury on the same creature. The lingering marks of combat and physical pain affect your appearance and actions. People can read the signs of bodily damage and may act sympathetically or aggressively. When you lose half of your Max HP, you are bloodied. Your body has open wounds or massive hematomas, and you feel intense pain during physical feats requiring Strength or Dexterity. Your body is a mess of bleeding open wounds, cracked or splintered bones, or much worse.
You experience severe pain simply by moving around. When you become beaten for the first time in combat and you have 2 or fewer levels of Exhaustion, you gain 1 level of Exhaustion that only comes into effect after the combat ends and the adrenaline rush wears off. When you drop to 0 hit points and start dying , you gain one level of Exhaustion that comes into effect immediately when you are stabilized. When performing a Death Save, you must meet or exceed a DC with a natural d20 roll.
An ally can attempt a DC 10 Wisdom Medicine check to help stabilize you. A normal success on that roll lowers your DC as shown below, while exceptional or critical success stabilizes you immediately. For more dramatic and engaging close encounters with death, the DM may allow the following variant rule. When you gain the dying condition at 0 hp, your condition depends on the number of failed death saves.
The Exhaustion condition covers all effects from casual exhaustion to life drain. These rules allow differentiation between normal fatigue and more dangerous effects. Levels of Exhaustion called Soft often happen with strenuous activity like working, training or fighting.
Soft Exhaustion accumulates easily but is recovered quickly with a short or longer rest. Any rule or DM decision that makes you gain Soft Exhaustion increases your Exhaustion only if your current Exhaustion is level 2 or less. Levels of Exhaustion come in play when you push past your limits or your life is being drained. If you have 4 or more levels of Exhaustion, you may recover a level of Exhaustion only during long or full rest. The wording "if you have 2 or fewer levels of exhaustion When you attempt an action that has a chance to increase your Exhaustion to a level that has a listed Ignore DC, you must make either a Constitution saving throw to muster the strength to do it.
If you fail, you find an excuse not to do it. If you have reached the maximum level of Soft Exhaustion and you take another level of it, instead of increasing your Exhaustion level you lose one hit die. If you have no hit dice left, your Exhaustion increases as normal. Intense mental activities such as studying, deciphering, solving a problem that takes longer than an hour, may inflict a level of Mental Exhaustion.
This variant of Soft Exhaustion is strictly limited to brain activity. Mental Exhaustion is tracked separately from Exhaustion. Effects that lower Exhaustion also lower Mental Exhaustion by the same number of levels. The following rule is useful only when you are engaged in prolonged combat on a battlefield or in a duel with a heavily armored opponent and physical exhaustion plays a big role in deciding the outcome.
During long combat encounters, you gain a level of Soft Exhaustion after a number of combat rounds equal to your Constitution score. Each Heavy weapon you wield and each Bulky or Cumbersome armor you wear decreases the number of rounds until exhaustion by 2. Taking a breather see pg. While you have no hit dice left to spend on recovering hit points or closing Wounds, you experience Combat Stress.
Your character is under duress and may act anxious or aggressive, and experience cold hands, rapid heartbeat or stomach craps. Communication with the rest of the party may strain or stir petty conflicts. Negative traits that are usually repressed may come to dominate its behavior. The DM should reward realistic role-play of stress with Inspiration Points pg. While you are affected by Combat Stress you suffer the effect of the bane spell to Intelligence Investigation , Wisdom Insight or Perception and Charisma Performance or Persuasion skill checks in noncombat situations; however, you also benefit from the effect of the bless spell to the same skills during combat.
Pinned creatures are usually pressed against a hard surface, their limbs held in a lock and struggling under body weight. A shaken creature is dealing with the initial shock from a horrifying sight or a powerful enemy attack. Unless stated otherwise, the effect ends on the end of your next turn. An unspeakable dread can break the will of weaker creatures and send them running for their lives. Nauseated is a lesser variant of the Poisoned condition. It can be caused by consumption of spoiled food or exposure to toxic conditions without direct contact with poisons.
Unless stated otherwise, the effect persists while exposed to its source. Dazed is a lesser variant of Stunned. You may become Dazed after taking guaranteed Wound damage taken equal or more than twice your Constitution score , taking Massive Damage or when failing a saving throw against a Stunning effect by just one. Susceptibility is lesser variant of Vulnerability. Creatures susceptible to a damage type take extra damage from that damage type. You can use this effect instead of Vulnerability to lessen the damage type expoits in your campaign.
Susceptibility has damage type and a value typically 5 or a die size. If a creature has Fire Susceptibility 1d10, then any time it takes fire damage it takes an extra 1d10 fire damage. The creature is experiencing excruciating pain that inhibits its ability to maintain control over its actions. It can suffer the Pain-Wracked condition along with ongoing damage due to burning alive, dissolving into acid, being eaten by a swarm of bugs or rats, extreme torture or surgery without anaesthesia, or when its mind is crushed by a powerful psychic entity.
Amorphous creatures immune to the Grappled condition are also immune to the Restrained and Pinned condition. Creatures immune to fear are also immune to the Shaken and the Panicked condition. Creatures immune to pain are also immune to the Pain-wracked condition, such as undead and constructs.
When a melee attack or a melee spell attack is an exceptional success or a critical hit, any conditions applied by that attack become aggravated. Abilities and spells that apply conditions that are used after the attack roll is made cannot be aggravated. Aggravated conditions have lasting effects that may be hard to overcome. Any time an aggravated condition's effect states the condition should end, the affected creature must make a saving throw usually Dexterity, Constitution or Wisdom, up to DM at DC 10 plus your proficiency modifier.
If it fails, the aggravated condition remains in effect. The affected creature can repeat the saving throw every time the condition's ending condition is met. Taking a breather is a short period of rest, at least 5 minutes long, after a strenuous activity. During that time you may rest, slake your thirst and hunger, or check on a single wound and bandage it.
During a breather, you may spend one Hit Die for healing or removing a Wound. If a Hit Die is spent to heal, you roll the die and add your Constitution modifier to it. You regain hit points equal to the total. A short rest is a period of downtime, at least 1 hour long, during which you do nothing more strenuous than light activity like eating, drinking, reading, and tending to wounds. For each Hit Die spent in this way, you roll the die and add your Constitution modifier to it.
If you have exactly 1 level of Exhaustion, you can remove that level. You can't benefit from more than two short rest in a hour period, and you must have at least 1 hit point at the start of the rest to gain its benefits. A long rest is a period of extended downtime, at least 8 hours long, during which a character sleeps for at least 6 hours and performs no more than 2 hours of light activity, such as reading, talking, eating, or standing watch.
If the rest is interrupted by a period of strenuous activity - at least 1 hour of walking, fighting, casting spells, or similar adventuring activity - you must begin the rest again to gain any benefit. Xanathar's Guide to Everything pg. To improve realism, assume that Constitution checks and Exhaustion kick in not after 24 hours but after 48 hours of no sleep. Also, if going without sleep makes you get to a second level of Exhaustion, you automatically progress to a third level of Exhaustion.
During a long rest, you must consume at least 2 pints of water and 1 ration. If you consume at least one sustenance, food or water, you do not gain any exhaustion. If you consume both food and water, you remove one level of exhaustion. Sleeping in Hard armor pg. At the end of a long rest, your hit points do not increase to maximum. You regain up to half of your total number of Hit Dice, rounded down and you can spend any number of Hit Dice in that order to recover hit points or close wounds.
Any Hit Dice above the maximum amount for your level must be spent, otherwise they are lost. You can't benefit from more than one long rest in a hour period, and you must have at least 1 hit point at the start of the rest to gain its benefits. A full rest is a period of downtime, at least 24 hours long, during which you sleep at least 6 hours, and perform light activity or nonstrenuous labor for up to 2 hours. A full rest cannot be attempted while in the wilderness, while sleeping on dirt or stone, or while wearing Hard armor pg.
You must be in a safe location where you do not feel the need to keep watch or constantly be on guard. You must consume at least 1 rations and 4 pints of water a waterskin during your rest. If you do not consume water, you gain 1 level of Exhaustion. If you cannot consume food, you cannot recover Exhaustion during this day.
If you can provide both, you lose 1 level of Exhaustion and if you have exactly 1 level of Exhaustion after that, you lose it as well. At the end of a full rest, you recover all lost hit points and regain all spent Hit Dice. A full rest also counts towards recovery for any serious Injuries. You must have at least 1 hit point at the start of the rest to gain its benefits. When using the Grapple action Player's Handbook , pg.
If the target has an advantage to resist a grapple the DC is increased by 3, or decreased by 3 if it suffers a disadvantage instead. Instead of your whole action Player's Handbook , pg. If you succeed, you lose the Grappled condition. If your roll a natural 1 or your result is an exceptional failure, you fail and can't attempt any more Escape attempts until your next turn.
Grappled creatures with the Multiattack ability may use this ability as Multiescape instead. For each attack described as part of the Multiattack, they get one escape attempt. If the Multiattack includes more than one set of attacks, use the set with the most attacks. Dungeon Master's Guide pg. To make it more realistic, at the beginning of your turn while being flanked you may choose one of the attackers that are flanking you and deny them the benefit of flanking until the start of your next turn.
You can choose a different attacker that is flanking you during each of your turns. When using the Disarm action Dungeon Master's Guide , pg. The attacker has advantage on their attack roll if they grappled using Opportunity Grapple pg. The attacker has disadvantage on their attack roll if the target is holding the item with two or more hands, or if they are smaller than the target. If you succeed, the weapon, shield or item is no longer held by the target.
You can use your item interaction to either kick the weapon into an adjacent area your choice or take the item if you have a free hand, otherwise the target may use its item interaction on their turn to take it back. The Dungeon Master's Guide pg. This rule overrides the original effect.
When you use the Mark action, you gain a second reaction that can only be used for opportunity attack provoked by your marked target, and only this attack benefits from advantage. However, you cannot perform reactions against any hostile creatures other than your marked target until the end of your next turn. By spending an action or a bonus Action, you are able to pass through hostile creatures as part of your movement.
If you succeed, you do not provoke an Opportunity Attack when leaving the hostile creature's reach that you passed through. If you fail your check, you may still choose to pass through hostile creature's space. If you choose so, treat the space as difficult terrain and you provoke an Opportunity Attack or a Grapple check from the hostile creature their choice.
If you miss by 5 or more, you are denied this option. If you attempt to move through more than one hostile creature per turn, all checks after the first are made at disadvantage. Combat Options are common martial techniques available to anyone of any class. You can perform Combat Options only if you are proficient with the weapon you are wielding. Combat Options with the icon take your whole Action. Options with replace one of your Attacks and if you can make multiple attacks only one can be used as a Combat Option.
Options with use your Movement. Options with can be used anytime you can use your reaction. Options with can be used instead of an opportunity attack. Combat Options with icon allow classes with access to superiority dice to spend a die and add its total to both Attack and Damage roll.
Before you make an attack with a melee weapon, you can choose to take a -5 penalty to the attack roll and attempt to put more of your raw strength behind a powerful blow. Before you make an attack with a finesse melee weapon that you are proficient with, you can spend your bonus action and perform a feint to deceive your target. Make an attack roll opposed by the target's Passive Insight. If you succeed, you have advantage on your next attack and you benefit from Dominance against your target until the start of your next turn.
If you fail you have disadvantage on the next attack roll and you cannot succeed a Feint against this target for the rest of the encounter. While wielding a melee weapon with the Reach property, or any Polearm weapon, you can spend one of your attacks to perform the Shove a Creature action see Player's Handbook pg.
Make an Attack roll instead of a Strength Athletics check. Rising from a throw or fall is a difficult thing in the heat of battle. It takes training and skill to do so very quickly and even more so when faced with an aggressive adversary. If any opportunity attack roll beats your AC by 10 or more, you remain prone. Creatures that are knocked prone usually fall in supine position.
In order to attempt a Strength Athletics saving throw to stand up, they must spend an additional 5 ft movement to turn around. If you beat the Stand from Prone DC by 5 or more, you may also choose to tumble 5 feet into unoccupied space and stand up there. When you have advantage on your attack rolls against your target and your target doesn't have the same benefit against you, or a hostile creature that attacks you has disadvantage to its attack rolls and you don't suffer the same penalty, this condition is called having Dominance.
You also benefit from Dominance if your target is standing on difficult terrain while you are not, or you hold the higher ground position on steep terrain. Some Combat Options pg. Some combat options or abilities may also allow you to benefit from Dominance even if the conditions above are not met.
If your game uses Critical Hits pg. Before you make a melee attack with a bludgeoning weapon, you can choose to take a -5 penalty to the attack roll and try to disrupt the movement of your target while attacking. If the target takes damage, the target's movement speed is reduced by 10 until the end of its next turn. If its speed is reduced to 0 in this way, it immediately drops prone. Until the target recovers its movement speed to full it cannot use the Dash, Disengage and Dodge actions.
When a creature that you can see declares a melee attack against you and you have Dominance over your target, you may use your reaction to attempt to deflect the attack. You can attempt to deflect only before damage is rolled. Attacks by Flexible weapons such as flails cannot be deflected. If you do and you are proficient with the weapon that you are currently wielding, roll your weapon damage dice without any modifiers.
The damage is reduced by that result. If your weapon has the Parry property and your Deflect result negates all attack damage, you can follow up with a single melee attack against the same target. When a creature misses you with a melee attack by 10 or more and you have Dominance over it, you may use your reaction to perform a single melee attack against that creature.
You cannot Counter while using the Dodge action. If you are wielding a shield and another creature hits you with a melee attack you may use your reaction to interpose your shield between yourself and the attack and increase your AC by 2 potentially causing the attack to miss you. Your shield is damaged in the process and suffers a -1 penalty to its AC each time you block in this fashion.
If your shield's AC reaches 0, it is destroyed. Magical shields self repair AC equal to their enchantment bonus each long rest and may block critical hits that meet the above criteria. Make a Grapple check pg. If this opportunity grapple is provoked by a movement and you succeed, both you and the opponent move 5 feet in the direction the target tried to move into and the target's speed becomes 0. When you are hit with a melee attack and you haven't moved during your last turn, you can use your reaction to move 5 feet away from the creature, reducing the damage you take by 1d6 points minimum of 1 , as long as your movement speed is greater than 0.
This movement does not provoke an opportunity attack from the attacker, and the attacker may immediately follow you into the space you just left as a free action. You cannot Give Ground while you are grappled by any creature, or knocked prone.
You cannot Give Ground if you are already on, or would walk into difficult terrain. If your target hasn't moved during its previous turn, you can spend your movement to stand still, hold your breath and aim with a ranged weapon. Until the end of this turn, your next ranged attack against that target has advantage. Aiming requires concentration. If you maintain spells requiring Concentration, Aiming causes them to end. When you or a mount you ride moves at least 20 feet towards a target, you may declare a charge attack as an action.
You must have a clear path towards your target, and nothing should hinder your path such as difficult terrain. If you finish your movement within reach of your target, you may use your action to follow it with one of these options:. You may make a single melee attack with advantage. The attack deals additional damage equal to the distance you charged divided by 5, up to your Strength or Constitution modifier your choice, minimum of 1.
If you are riding a mounted animal that provides the movement instead of you, you may use its Strength or Constitution instead your own. You may perform the Shove action Player's Handbook , pg. If you succeed, the creature is shoved twice the normal distance, or shoved as normal then knocked prone. You may choose to move up to five feet in the direction you are shoving your target.
If you fail, you provoke an attack of opportunity from your target. You may make a single Grapple attempt with advantage. If the Grapple fails, you provoke an attack of opportunity from your target and are knocked prone. If you succeed, both you and your opponent are knocked prone and your target is subjected to the Grappled condition. Using one of your Attacks, you attempt to force back a standing creature. The target must be no larger than you in size.
If you have Dominance over your target, you have advantage to your Intimidation check. If you win the contest, the target backs away from you by 5 feet. As part of this attack, you can move 5 feet in the direction of the target. If you lose the contest, you provoke an attack of opportunity from the target or it may choose to use its reaction to perform a Drive Back action. You can spend your movement to move up to half your speed to a solid object and brace yourself for additional support.
This requires the use of both hands. For as long as you maintain your grip, any checks to move you or knock you prone are made with disadvantage. Furthermore, saving throws to resist being moved or knocked prone are made with advantage. Once braced, you can maintain this effect as long as you do not release your grip or use your hands for anything else. If you are moved further than 5 feet away from the braced object, or knocked prone, the effect ends.
If you have Dominance over your target, you can make a special melee weapon attack that extends the reach of your weapon by 5 feet. You provoke opportunity attacks from enemies within 5 feet of you. Dirty fighting is a catch-all name for many socially rejected grappling techniques that exploit the opponent.
If you have Dominance over your target, you can change one of your attacks into a dirty move from the list below. Engage in a contested Grapple check with your target. If you fail, you provoke an attack of opportunity from your opponent. If you succeed, apply the dirty move effect. The target is grappled by you and suffocating Player's Handbook , pg. The target is Blinded until the end of its next turn. You may also Shove the creature as part of the Dirty Trick, but at disadvantage. Groin shot.
The target is Stunned until the end of its next turn. Once you use a dirty move against a target, you cannot succeed with the same trick again until end of combat. You can spend your action to deliver a series of blows aimed at chinks in a creature's armor or shield. Instead of damage to the target, you attempt to apply the Sundered condition to Heavy Armor or a component with the Hard property, if you use Realistic Armors, pg. Flexible armors such as chain mail, and materials such as leather cannot be Sundered.
Make a single melee attack against the target, and you get advantage to that attack. If it hits, roll for damage. You cannot apply class abilities or spells that award extra damage dice such as Smite or Sneak Attack. For each extra attack you can do in a round, add 2 to the damage. If the target is Grappled or Prone, add 2 to the damage for each condition. If your weapon has the Sundering property, add 5 to the damage.
If the damage total is equal to or higher than the creature's armor Hardness the hardness of Iron and Steel is 19, for others check the Dungeon Master's Guide , pg. Sundered armor or shields decrease their bonus to AC by 2 until repaired. Sundered armor or shields cannot be sundered again. For optional rules, check Armor Degradation pg. You can also sunder smaller items if held in a hand up to DM's decision but the Sunder attack roll must be made at disadvantage.
While a creature is Restrained or Pinned pg. If the creature you shield yourself with becomes stunned, paralyzed or unconscious, when attacked make a Strength Athletics check at DC 15 plus 5 for each size category above yours.
On a failure, you do not benefit from the cover. Players may be overwhelmed by the amount of Combat and Stealth Actions in this book. To avoid confusion and choice paralysis during combat, you can help your players by using Fighting Style. Fighting Styles are a set of Combat Options that a creature has been trained to use in combat.
Every time a creature learns a Fighting Style, or gains the Extra Attacks feature from its class progression, it learns one Combat Option. Anytime they level up or spend 15 or more downtime days in training, players can change one or several options in their Style.
A few examples are below:. Enemies and villains should also get Fighting Styles. Minions should be limited to 1 or 2 options, while important NPCs and villains get a full Fighting Style. Include the descriptions of the combat options in your enemy statblock notes the way you would include creature abilities.
While you are hidden from a creature, you throw a pebble or make a sound meant to confuse and distract them. You must be aware of the creature's approximate location or direction of movement. Make a Dexterity Sleight of Hand or Charisma Performance check depending on your distraction method, contested by Wisdom Insight or Intelligence Investigation check the targets choose the ability to use.
If the creatures is alert, Passive Insight or Passive Investigation applies. If you succeed, the creature is Distracted until the end of its next turn. Distracted creatures have disadvantage to Wisdom Perception skill checks and cannot use their Passive Perception.
You have advantage on attacks and grapple checks against any Distracted creature, and if grappled while Distracted it is Surprised until the end of its next turn. If you fail, you provoke a Wisdom Perception check with advantage from your targets opposed by your Dexterity Stealth skill. Your Passive Stealth pg.
While you are hidden from your target, as long as your Stealth check total or Passive Stealth are above the Passive Perception of all nearby targets, you can come out of stealth and perform a Grapple check with advantage. If you succeed, you may use your reaction to follow it with one of the following effects. If you fail, you provoke an attack of opportunity or grapple of opportunity from your target. The chosen effect applies as long as the stealth grapple is maintained.
While maintaining it, creatures other than your target have advantage on attack rolls against you, and you have disadvantage on Dexterity saving throws. You attempt to gag the target's mouth to prevent it from making any sound. Make another Grapple check with your target. On a success, the target is gagged until the grapple ends. A gagged creature cannot cast spells with verbal components and its speech is muffled and difficult to understand.
Choke Hold. You try to grab the creature by the throat and prevent it from breathing. On a success, the target is also gagged and suffocating until the grapple ends. Player's Handbook , pg. Silent Takedown. If your target is already grappled and gagged, you may attempt to strike it with a weapon with the Finesse or Concealed property.
Make a Grapple check to maintain the hold on your target. If you succeed, you can make a single special melee attack. Your target has vulnerability towards the damage dealt by that attack. While you are grappling a creature that is unable to speak, you may attempt to return to stealth. The Stealth check is made at disadvantage. On a success,the movement speed penalty from dragging a grappled creature does not apply.
When you make an attack that qualifies as an automatic critical hit against a defenseless target, roll a regular Attack roll. If you hit the target's AC minus Dexterity modifier, the creature takes damage equal to its current HP and is dying. If an attack misses a creature only due to an AC bonus from cover, the attack hits said cover. If that cover was another creature, that creature suffers the effects of the attack.
Theatre of the Mind combat are intense, exciting and very fast. They can bring a lot of emotion to your most violent encounters, without the use of a grid or miniatures. In Theatre of the Mind there are only two ranges to keep track of: Near and Far. The Near range comprises everything that you can reach by using a single Move Action of approximately 30 feet. All creatures and things that are Near to each other comprise a Combat Zone. A pirate ship, for example, could be divided into multiple Combat Zones.
Beyond that, everything is considered to be in the Far range, without the need to measure exact distances between them. Each Combat Zone is considered to be Far from the rest. During your turn, you can move anywhere within Near range. For each Very attached to it, an additional Dash action is needed to reach that zone. In order to attack a creature with a melee weapon, it must be Near and you must Engage that creature.
You must use your Move action to approach that creature and declare that you become Engaged with each other in combat. When you do so, it instantly becomes Engaged with you. While Engaged with a creature in combat, you can perform melee attacks against it and impose disadvantage to ranged attacks and spells. You also end up Engaged with multiple creatures if these creatures decide to become Engaged with you as part of their movement, in their turn.
If you're already Engaged, attempting to become Engaged with another creature will break your current engagements. You also break your current engagements when you Dash to exit the Combat Zone or Engage another creature. Doing so provokes Opportunity Attacks against you from the creatures you were Engaged with, unless you Disengage them first. While Engaged, you're still free to move around as you wish, without that affecting any of your engagements.
The creature you're Engaged with can track you around and maintain engagement, if they choose to do so. During Theatre of the Mind combat, you can perform three different types of action: Engage, Dash and Intercept. With the exception of Dash, all other actions in combat work as described in the Player's Handbook pg. While not engaged, you can Engage a creature by simply Moving into it and declaring engagement.
If you are Engaged, you can use a bonus action and become Engaged with an additional Near creature of your choice, without breaking your current engagements. However, this engagement attempt can be Intercepted by another unengaged creature. You need to Dash in order to move Far. If you do so, you can become Engaged with a creature from another Combat Zone as part of your Dashing, but this attempt can be Intercepted normally.
You can also Dash into a Near creature to become Engaged with it without the opportunity of being Intercepted by any of its Near allies. When you Dash, you break all your current engagements, and provoke Opportunity Attacks from all Engaged creatures. Unless otherwise stated, a successful hit from an Opportunity Attack doesn't stop your Dash. If you are unengaged and any Near creature tries to become Engaged with one of your Near allies, you can immediately use a Reaction to Intercept, forcing it to become Engaged with you instead.
You can still make Opportunity Attacks against a creature that you Intercepted, if it breaks the engagement with you on the same turn. If you are Engaged with a creature and it Disengages, you cannot Intercept it until the end of its turn. You also won't be able to Intercept an engagement attempt if a Near creature Dashes into one of your Near allies. In order to interact with terrain or objects and activate or disrupt their effects e.
Being Engaged with Cover grants the usual bonuses to Armor Class until you break the engagement. If a creature attempts to Engage with a terrain feature, it can be Intercepted as usual, unless the creature Dashes. Every core Race is considered to have the same movement range while in combat.
If you have any Class Feature that increases your movement speed e. Multiple Class Features that increase your movement speed, such as those gained through multiclassing, don't ever stack. If you already have a Class Feature that allows you to Dash as a Bonus Action, and yet you also get the benefits of Movement Advantage, they stack: You're now able to Dash once per turn for free as part of your normal movement, Dash again as a Bonus Action, and Dash once more as an Action.
Effects that reduce your movement speed temporarily e. Difficult Terrain , Prone impose Movement Disadvantage. Having Movement Disadvantage means you cannot usually Dash at all. If you have a Class Feature that specifically allows you to Dash as a Bonus Action, you are able to Dash normally by using an Action instead. You can still move Far by spending your entire turn moving, and you cannot become Engaged with anything as part of this movement. If an Engaged creature attempts a melee attack against another armed with a weapon with wider Reach, it must spend a bonus action to step forward, or attack with disadvantage.
The range of weapons should be converted from their value in feet into Near and Far. If the original range of a weapon is 30 feet or less, it can only affect Near targets. If the range is beyond that, it can also affect Far targets. It's up to the DM to decide if something is too far to be hit. A creature with a reach weapon or natural reach can perform Opportunity Attacks with advantage against other Near creatures.
The range of spells should be converted following the same method used for ranged weapons. Spells that require touch can be targeted at any Near creature. If the spell requires a melee spell attack, you must be engaged with the target. Since the area size is beyond 30 feet, it can affect either Near or Far creatures. Area spells and some Class Features and Feats list their area shape and size in the description. To better adjudicate this, the area should be converted into the number of targets the spell can affect.
All targets must be within a single Combat Zone. When casting a spell, the caster simply chooses which targets are affected, within range. To convert the spell area into the number of targets that it can affect, check the table below from Dungeon Masters' Guide , pg.
A creature that is Engaged with one or more of your allies counts as 2 targets when targeted by an area spell. This extra cost can be avoided if any one of those Engaged allies at the caster's choice is included in the area of effect as well. Allies included in the area of effect suffer the full effects of the spell, unless they are protected by the Evoker's Sculpt spell or another similar feature.
Area spell's range should be written down with the reach of the spell and how many targets it can affect. Example spell: Zone of Truth range is listed as 60 feet and its area is listed as a foot radius sphere. Firstly, the spell can affect either Near or Far creatures. Secondly, checking the table shows that a foot radius sphere affects up to three targets. So it should be written down as Far 3. When you spend your Action to cast a spell while Engaged by one or more opponents, all opponents get advantage on their first melee attack against you.
This does not affect spells cast using your Bonus Action. This rule overrides the Flanking rules in the Dungeon Master's Guide pg. If you are Engaged with an opponent that is also Engaged with at least one other creature friendly to you, you may spend your Move action and declare that you are Flanking the opponent until the start of your next turn. When any creature friendly to you makes a melee attack against the opponent you are Flanking, they can spend their Move action and get advantage on their melee Attacks until the end of their turn.
This rule complements the Disarm rules present in the Dungeon Master's Guide pg. When you succeed at Disarming an opponent, the weapon becomes an object within the Combat Zone. The opponent can attempt to take their weapon only if they disengage first either by Disengage or the Dash action from all creatures they are currently Engaging.
When you succeed at Disarming an opponent and you are also Grappling them, you may attempt to grab their weapon from their hand. Doing so breaks the Grapple and you must make a Dexterity Sleight of Hand skill check opposed by your opponent's Strength Athletics skill.
If you succeed, you take the weapon with the same free hand used for grappling. If you fail, the opponent is still disarmed but you fail to grab their weapon. Your innate ability to automatically notice important things in your surroundings without a skill roll can act as a minimum result to your Active Perception rolls. For that to happen, you must declare that you are "Alert for While you are Alert, if the DM requests a Perception skill check he may allow you to take a minimum value of 10 if the die roll is lower.
In order to remain Alert, you must not engage in activities that require concentration such as talking except simple commands , working, fighting, casting or maintaining a spell. Some DMs may want to enforce a rule that distracted players engaged in small talk during play lose the Alert status, or even get disadvantage on their roll. Enemy creatures have various levels of Alertness that affect their Passive Perception.
High Alert creatures know they are in a dangerous situation and enemies could be nearby. Low Alert creatures guard their close vicinity but do not expect an immediate threat. Unaware creatures consider themselves completely safe in their environment.
When enemy creatures engage in activities that requires concentration such as talking, eating, taking a leak, etc. To attempt a Hide action, you must declare one or several targets you are hiding from, and your targets must not be able to see you clearly. You must be able to see or sense your targets' location at all times.
If you are unable to locate your targets, your Dexterity Stealth checks are at disadvantage. Your targets can see you clearly when you or any opponent you are Engaged with is in clear line of sight, and you are not Engaged with cover or inside a lightly dim light or heavily darkness obscured area.
While Invisible, you can forego your Movement action and gain advantage to Dexterity Stealth check to Hide. Also, you can use your Action to keep still and hold your breath. If you do, you can increase your Dexterity Stealth check total by your Proficiency. You must keep spending your Action to maintain this increase.
When you take the Move action at more than half your speed, or attempt to use an item such as picking a lock the DM may require a new Dexterity Stealth check that supersedes the previous Stealth value and is immediately compared to the Passive Perception of all enemy creatures.
If you take the Dash action, or your movement happens in a lightly or highly obscured area, you don't have to make the check. While hiding, you can Engage with cover that lets you benefit from your Passive Stealth value. Passive Stealth serves as a minimum result to your Dexterity Stealth check. If you are asked to reroll, you can choose between the check total or the Passive Stealth value of the cover you engage as part of the Movement or Dash action.
The table provides example Passive Stealth values that the DM may use. You can use your Action to keep still and hold your breath while hiding behind cover. If you do so, you may add your Proficiency to the Passive Stealth value. You need to keep spending your Action to hold still to benefit from this increase.
If your cover is a moving object such as a street crowd, you must match its movement speed and direction. If you do, you remain Engaged with the cover and you do not provoke a new Dexterity Stealth check. The DM may require a Charisma Persuasion or Deception check to convince the crowd to not react to your presence, or Wisdom Animal Handling to not scare off animals.
Alternatively, having two or more enemy creatures located on opposite sides of the cover decrease its Passive Stealth with a disadvantage -5 modifier. To take advantage of them while creating your character, use these updated equipment packs for each class. If a weapon proficiency is named after a table of weapons such as Simple Blades or Martial Axes , you are proficient with all weapons in that table. If a weapon name or weapon property is listed in parenthesis, you are proficient with that weapon, or only the weapons that have the weapon property.
Starting equipment assumes that all new characters have a Modest lifestyle and can easily afford quality equipment. If your character is among the poor, your access to equipment will be limited. Check Lifestyle levels and their descriptions on pg. For each Lifestyle level below Modest, you lack access to one item of starting equipment of your or DM's choice. These expanded rules are intended to accurately replicate medieval armor. Only use them if your players prefer historical accuracy and customization over fantasy.
Medieval armor consists of protective layers that combined provide the Armor Class as well as additional qualities to the wearer. You may wear one armor component on each of the three layers, and one supplemental component on your Head, Hands and Vitals. Your Armor Class is equal to 10 plus the AC bonus provided by each worn armor component. Underlay is the worn protection directly in contact with the body. It is usually soft and thick clothing that protects the skin from weapon materials.
These components are easy to conceal under civil clothing and soak damage from powerful hits that manage to penetrate your external armor. Mesolay is the worn protection on top of the underlay that is used to mitigate much of the damage from a blow that penetrates the Overlay.
These components provide solid damage reduction to specific types of melee damage and are considered a secondary layer of a warrior's suit of armor. Overlay is the worn protection on the outside, what a mere layman with no training would call armor.
An overlay serves as an impenetrable carapace that stops much of the strength of the blow. The overlay is the main source of Armor Class. Cloaks is a supplementary layer that covers the body and protects from environmental hazards such as rain or snow, or provides consealment for the facial features, clothing including light armor and hands movement. Head, Hands and Vitals components are intended to protect your exposed head and limbs, or any gaps in the armor.
Each provides a tiny bit of coverage that helps to protect from called shots and suffering open wounds. When wearing multiple armor components from different frames, the rules regarding the most rigid frame apply to your Dexterity bonus to armor. Jack: Requires Light Armor proficiency.
This armor is flexible and easy to move in. Most are made of canvas or leather, often stiffened and reinforced in places. When you only wear a jack, add your Dexterity modifier to your AC. Hauberk: Requires Medium Armor proficiency. The most common hauberk is made of interlocking links of steel or iron chain. Cuirass: Requires Heavy Armor proficiency.
The armor is uncomfortable when worn bare and needs an underlay to avoid chafing. When you wear a cuirass, do not add your Dexterity bonus to armor. You must deduct your Dexterity penalty if your Dexterity is below Cuirass armor parts have a restrictive design tailored to specific body proportions, such as height and bulk. Typically, fitted armor is made by special order and requires an armor smith to make it usable for other wearers. There are three distinctive body shapes and the armor fitting depends on its previous wearer or is decided by rolling a 1d6: lean , stout , and athletic If the wearer and armor's fit differ, the wearer takes disadvantage to Dexterity checks and saving throws.
When you wear multiple armor components with magical enhancement bonus, the highest bonus among them applies to your Armor Class. Alternatively, the DM may allow each layer of armor to apply its enhancement bonus to its signature armor property:. Check beatdown weapon property on pg. Bulky armor is usually exposed and may draw attention or even intimidate others, or provoke the use of a Heat Metal spell from hostile spell-casters if made of metal. Bulky armor cannot be hidden from plain sight and you cannot benefit from the Concealed armor property while wearing any Bulky armor component.
Bulky armor has a Strength score requirement of 9 or more. If your Strength score is less than the requirement, your are considered to carry Medium Load see pg. Bulky armor imposes disadvantage on Strength Athletics and Dexterity Acrobatics checks to swim, climb, run, and similar activities. These penalties can be avoided if your Strength score is at least 2 points higher than the armor's Strength requirement.
Bulky armor impedes your initiative in combat. When you roll for Initiative, subtract 2 for each Bulky armor component you wear. Bulky armor also impedes your movement when standing from Prone. This armor consists of protective reinforcement that can be inconspicuously worn under ordinary looking clothing. When only such armor is worn under clothes, the wearer appears unarmored unless an observer succeeds on a DC 15 Wisdom Perception check.
If the observer has physical contact with the wearer, this check is made with advantage. When rolling to confirm Wound Risk at the end of combat turn, add the total Coverage bonus from all worn armor components to your Wound Confirmation roll. Armors with the Cumbersome property do not distribute their weight across the whole torso. Wearing such armors for more than 8 hours results in prolonged shoulder and back fatigue, and you gain 1 level of Exhaustion. Armors made of mithral lose the Cumbersome property.
After damage is calculated and before damage resistance if any is applied, reduce the damage taken by the amount of Damage Reduction. If multiple armor components provide Damage Reduction to the same damage type, they stack together. Other names and marks are the property of their respective owners. San Antonio College staff and AV integrator create campus of the future. By Dan Daley. Expert opinion on Digital Signage Expo coming from two unique perspectives.
Amicus Therapeutics leverages emerging technology to boost innovation and productivity. By Noel Gish. Collaborative Learning: New technologies open up a new frontier in classrooms and beyond. By Chris Feldman. By Carrie Keele. Communicating On Campus: Education institutions are poised to move digital signage into the classroom.
By Eric Henry. Such a firm, even if its team were replete with talent, would struggle to sur vive in an age when IT-savvy technology managers have risen in importance and become the principal decision-makers on many projects. Imagine if an AV integrator, nostalgic for an age when folks drooled about specs and speeds, declined to move into the experiential age.
Such a company would be ill prepared for the user-experience-centered discussions in which contemporar y integration projects are grounded. In short, wistful though some of us might be for bygone eras, adaptation is necessar y. The latest illustration is our decision. We might even mix things up. After all, this change is rooted in being flexible. And, although these departments will not include the complete equipment lists that you find in our monthly installation features, the depth of reporting will match the gold standard to which you, our readers, have grown accustomed.
If you have feedback about this change, please share it. Editor Dan Ferrisi dferrisi testa. Iraggi riraggi testa. He delivers a future vision for brand-awareness growth within the AV community. Feldman currently manages market solutions and accessories, such as collaborative displays and SOC technologies.
His primary focus is on building strategic partnerships across technology providers to further strengthen the overall value of signage investments. Prior to joining Carousel, he worked at Tierney Brothers, a dealer and systems integration firm. Carrie Keele manages channel marketing for the pro audio business unit at Listen Technologies, a provider of assistive-listening technology for 21 years.
She is driven to advocate for the hearing impaired and to increase awareness of assistive listening. Andy McDonough has been a musician, freelance writer and technology consultant for more than 25 years. His company, LearningFirm Media, provides education, training and technology solutions for Fortune companies, arts institutions and government agencies.
Read his thriller novel, Sunrise Across America, which includes an AV mystery chapter; for information, contact him at wordsandmusique gmail. Periodicals postage paid at Port Washington, NY, and additional mailing offices. Reprint of any part of contents without permission is forbidden. Titles Registered in the U.
Patent Office. Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement Canada Returns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P. The combination of Broadsign and Ayuda, the companies said, will enable OOH media owners to streamline business operations across all of their inventory, digital and classic.
The OOH industry has never been in a better place. However, to accelerate growth even more, media owners and their advertisers need access to the most innovative capabilities available, such as tools for revenue optimization and the ability to sell via programmatic buying channels—both of which we can help them access. With the acquisition of Ayuda Media Systems, the company will employ people globally and power more than , signs around the world, including more than , digital signs.
In the role, Whipkey will cultivate relationships with integrators, manufacturers, serviceprovider partners and associations within the network. He will also manage programs and collaborate with the management and executive teams on the overall strategic direction of USAV.
Pittsburgh PA , a national provider of audiovisual, information and communications technology, acoustics consulting and design services. The company is a strategic fit with our fast-growing building technology group, and it significantly differentiates our mechanical, electrical and plumbing MEP design offerings to our national and international clients, specifically in the higher-education, hospitality, corporate, civic and healthcare market sectors.
Go to www. May Teamed with NV5, we will be able to offer greater opportunities to our employees and broader capabilities to our clients. According to L-Acoustics Group, the acquisition of DeltaLive UK vertically reinforces its expertise in all areas of professional audio—from conception through to manufacturing and operation in the field—widening the possibilities for fresh creative and collaborative approaches to the deployment of audio and visual technologies to enhance the audience experience.
SIGNET, Norwell MA has acquired Sideband Systems Peabody MA , a year-old technology systems integrator that specializes in high-performance wireless systems for high-capacity, licensed and unlicensed microwave systems, in-building wireless local area network LAN engineering studies and dependable in-building wireless communications support. The Sideband Systems office will remain in Peabody. All existing Sideband Systems technical support aspects will be operated from this north shore office.
AVIXA is especially fortunate to benefit from so many of their contributions. This latter practice is compounded by most impedance meters only being able to measure at this one frequency, though sometimes a lower frequency facility may also be provided. For example, I have impedance meters that read at , 1k and 10kHz, and another that measures at 63, , 1k, 4k and 8kHz.
This latter meter was, for many years, my favorite go-to device, as it enabled a much better insight to be obtained, enabling high- and low-frequency drivers, for example, to be checked. Oftentimes, however, a quick 1kHz measurement suffices when we are checking circuits, as we may only be looking to check the general circuit integrity or checking for shorted, open circuit or gross overload conditions.
However, many times, I want to have a more detailed view on what is happening. Let me give you some examples. Figure 1 is an impedance measurement I made on one of my reference monitor Hi-Fi speakers. They have an excellent frequency response and balance and image superbly. However, I noticed that, on some tracks, there occasionally appeared to be some just-noticeable clipping.
CRP Concept. No other solution offers the power, the performance, the multi-surface flexibility and seamless connectivity of an integrated DiGiCo system. Whatever the reason, the truth is, when a DiGiCo multi-surface mixing solution is specified, there is always a performance that is equal to or exceeds the original concept.
After buying a second, well-recorded CD and finding that this too produced occasional clipping, it was time to investigate the problem. The resulting impedance measurement is shown in Figure 1. The green curve is the magnitude and grey is the phase.
The third graticule line up from the bottom of the plot is at 7. Furthermore, if you look at where the cursor is placed toward the left of the figure, you will see that the impedance dips to just 3. Figure 2, for example, shows the impedance of a distributed, high-impedance loudspeaker circuit measured on site at a large stadium complex.
Figure 2 shows the impedance for two. At 1kHz as measured by an impedance. These impedances correspond to W and W, respectively, so both reasonable. Equally, at Hz to Hz, the sound projector circuit red cur ve exceeds the rated output value of the amplifier and does not have the percent spare capacity indicated by the 1kHz measurement.
Figure 3 shows another set of real loudspeaker circuit loudspeaker measurements. These circuits employ loudspeakers that are reasonably similar to each other—at least electrically—though, from the graph, it can be seen that their resonant frequencies are a little different at Hz and Hz.
Looking at the Hz to Hz region again confirms this, as continued on page Your Performance. From community theater to national touring companies, Renkus-Heinz brings sonic control center stage. We focus the sound, so you can focus on the performance. Global organizations are homing in on how to attract and retain top talent, particularly as automation and AI are changing the nature of the job pool. Thanks to their master y of technologies that might mystify previous generations, millennial workers have become key influencers in the Future of Work.
Reliable mobility enables peer collaboration via productivity tools specifically designed to facilitate virtual connectivity. Cloud-enabled virtualization has eliminated bandwidth considerations,. Geography is largely no longer a barrier to a virtual work style.
The Impact Transforming the traditional office space—Socioenvironmental factors and millennial expectations eschew traditional office layouts featuring closed-door sanctuaries for the elite surrounded by cubes for the masses. The Future of Work embraces lesshierarchical environments, and instead reflects the free and open nature of evolving work styles.
Consider the domino effect of these physical work arrangements on the corporate bottom line. If workers operate remotely on loose schedules, perhaps coming into the office three or four times per week, corporations can reduce desk space and therefore real estate costs by approximately 20 percent. The second-highest cost is real estate. Adopting flexible hiring practices and work styles—The technology and generational changes mentioned above have forced Human Resources HR departments to modify hiring and work policies to attract and retain the top talent of the millennial generation.
A downstream effect of these modifications is that managers must adapt to overseeing a global, virtual employee base. Unfortunately, the shifts toward hoteling and virtual workers can depersonalize the workplace. Corner-office executives and cube-dwellers alike might personalize their workspace with family pictures or plants, but hoteling eliminates this possibility.
Similarly, water-cooler conversations or the brief touchpoints with colleagues before and after meetings are extinct. The Benefits The Future of Work promises tremendous benefits for organizations that adopt an intentional strategy addressing all the necessar y changes and their potential impact. From a numbers perspective, millennials are driving the Future of Work—the officespace redesign, the social and cost implications, the flexible work schedules and more.
Companies must cultivate an attractive work environment embracing all these factors in order to draw in this highly sought-after slice of the workforce. Advancements in technology flow directly from this aspect of personnel driving the Future of Work. Cloud-based solutions and reliable, secure mobility are two of. For example, tech firms that want access to a pool of highly skilled talent can simply set up a satellite office close to the desired pool and channel their resources to the pool.
A law firm can establish a satellite office near Yale Law School and recruit employees directly from that location. This is a drastic advancement in HR and real estate policy—the companies go to the talent pool, rather than vice versa. Experienced guidance in this case is critical, as companies that rush to act without preparation can experience huge missteps, causing negative employee sentiment. An effective change-management plan can help organizations understand how to implement change while in the office, facilitate the transition out of the office and ensure user adoption of critical virtualization tools.
Companies should seek a changemanagement partner with Microsoft Certified Partner status and unified communications expertise spanning diverse IT environments. They will smooth your path to the Future of Work. The Critical Role Of Change Management As organizations undertake a digital workplace transformation initiative or make the decision to embrace the Future of Work, an effective changemanagement strategy can mean the difference between a painful trudge filled with pitfalls or a smooth ride along a successful path to growth.
Changemanagement expertise can guide you for the duration of your journey to digital transformation, from start to finish. An effective change-management approach will help you tackle the big questions, such as where you should acquire real estate and how much space you will need. How should you rethink your office space as your occupancy shifts? You will also want to consider the minutia of how technology implementation will impact your office design, collaborative capabilities and evolving workforce.
For example, how many screens should you have in this room? How should workers walk into this space and use it most effectively, according to their individual workflows? HR, management and operations need to account for this tremendous age spread and all the IT drivers and work styles that accompany it. Effective change management can ease this disruption.
For example, many companies are transitioning from all-office to all-virtual, or a hybrid. The customizable Smart Mic lets teachers start lesson capture, call the office, turn off projectors, and more, from anywhere in the classroom. Livestreaming In Worship A suitable tool for ministry? By David Lee Jr. The overarching question that drives the discussion is whether livestreaming is a suitable tool for ministr y.
There are three primar y perspectives among worship leaders as it pertains to this fundamental question. Those in the third categor y I respectfully refer to as the Luddites, because these leaders currently believe that livestreaming might cause congregants to stop physically attending HoW ser vices. However, to create business with these leaders, I believe we should understand their underlying perceptions of, and the values they associate with, livestreaming.
Because most HoWs if not all of them depend on offerings or donations from congregants to keep the doors open and continue the ministr y. Thus, the valid concern—if not outright fear—that leaders have is possibly losing those offerings. There is no value in livestreaming if the offerings dr y up. The Good News is that, now, we have evidence that indicates thriving HoWs that livestream their worship ser vices continue to thrive, and their offerings continue to grow. More specifically, HoWs that are thriving are those that do the following four things: 1 effectively address spiritual needs; 2 create powerful worship experiences; 3 address human struggles; and 4 create community.
For these reasons and others, people want to attend these thriving HoWs. In fact, attending ser vices at such a HoW can be the highlight of a busy week! Livestreaming, therefore, is primarily for congregants who must miss attending physically due to shift work, a vacation or a short-term illness, but who other wise attend church in person. The goal of these thriving HoWs is to create a livestreaming experience that approximates the physical experience.
They do this by using a host of professional audio and video production equipment, including many video cameras, substantial audio gear and lighting equipment. The media team uses that gear to create a livestream that has high production values and that enables viewers to engage in a shared experience with congregants. Thus, they feel fully connected to the physical campus. Livestreaming in HoWs is relatively new. However, new evidence continues to emerge, helping us understand the impact that livestreaming can have as a tool for ministr y.
I believe the evidence we have now is credible enough to use to motivate the late adopters and the Luddites—to help them embrace livestreaming as a tool for ministr y. There are a few clarifications I want to note, however. But there are also small and medium-sized HoWs that use livestreaming as an effective ministerial tool. One might also think that late adopters and Luddites are leading smaller HoWs…and one would again be correct. However, that is not a complete perspective.
In fact, many late adopters and Luddites lead large HoWs and megachurches. I believe that, ver y soon, they, too, will recognize the value of livestreaming ser vices. In conclusion, I believe we have a lot of potential business to create with these good people. That is what I believe. Please tell me what you believe. The greatest achievements begin with first steps. My company acts as a third party to commission these systems. These are our stories. Reasoning: Creating and adopting a QMS can be a daunting task.
The goal of any QMS is to provide a consistent experience for all your clients, regardless of which members of your team work on the project. It also defines what that experience should be. It sounds simple enough… until you get into the nitty gritty of it process owners, work instructions and corrective actions, oh my! But regardless of whether it sounds easy, not knowing where to start can stall the effort before it even begins.
Or, in other words, how incredible would it be to turn a profit on ever y project? Well…because I have four…. I have a problem; I admit it. I have no idea how to begin. How to begin?! It is incredibly easy to talk about QMSes and become excited for the outcomes. The idea of having all your test equipment calibrated ever y year is super geeky and reassuring. Documenting how anyone in the company can recommend improving things makes you want to belong to a team like that.
However, creating that type of system is tough. Where should you begin? Should you tackle the dreaded ser vice department workflow notoriously the most complex process in any organization? Should you take on something more straightfor ward, like the rack-fabrication process? Do you adopt a QMS from some other organization, rather than rolling out your own? Here are some easy, inexpensive ways to test the waters. Use Microsoft Teams to start a few channels where people can simply share information and collect data.
If your organization has an O account, ever y team can have its own wiki that can be used as a reference. Maybe someone from engineer-. Looking at the current state of the market and the want - and need - to push more pixels, the ImagePRO-4K is the logical step. Don Gaskill, Owner, Rentex. Think Big ImagePro-4k. The ultimate 4K problem solver.
From any digital source, the ImagePro 4K can up, down and cross convert your content to any desired resolution and format. Engage your audience by bringing experiences to life with Barco. Ensure that your video scales, converts and switches the way you intended and the way your audience expects. Switch and scale signals up to 60p bit with bit internal processing with ultra-low latency. Slice and dice LED or fill your screen with any projected image.
No Barco, no show. Need a demo or more information? Create a Google Form sur vey or another Teams Channel where people can offer company-wide improvements. Sharing information is critical to providing consistent. For more information visit www. Maybe a client became upset about something that could have been avoided. Maybe a form can be tweaked to save a few minutes here and there adding up to hundreds of hours saved during a year.
Having a company-wide, searchable, reviewed repositor y for those ideas will be more impactful than just voicing them at a company meeting. And speaking of company meetings…have them. Make sure the different silos or bubbles in your company all mix.
All too often, engineering is upset with sales for not gathering information accurately. Operations is upset with engineering for not including enough information in the drawings. Ser vice is upset with operations for not completing jobs. And sales is upset with ser vice because the clients are upset. Taken together, that equals a ver y upset company. If each group talked productively, checklists would start to form to provide more complete information at those critical handoffs during a project.
These are all quick, easy and free nibbles of what a QMS could do for your company. I recommend tr ying them for an entire year and seeing what happens. Most companies have a QMS in place—they just never document it. Documenting processes allows ever yone to understand them and follow them, and it makes it easier to improve them; ultimately, that yields a consistent user experience across the team. If I can look at a few items in my closet and ask myself if they spark joy or if they should be tossed, then you can spend a few minutes a day on Teams to improve your company.
A helpful hint: Checklists and profits always spark joy. The result is smart, seamless coverage for huddle rooms, small conference rooms and other meeting spaces. A few weeks ago, I participated in a three-day training from Crestron. It was a great experience, as usual, but, wow, things have changed!
Well, all this had little to do with the traditional AV we all know. Sure, by having taken courses like this, I now have the foundation to talk intelligently to an IT department for a project on which such products are being used, but, still, wow! I saw an old friend of mine, Geoff. We have been in training classes together for some years. Geoff is an embedded audiovisual engineer for the organization.
X down the road. In our industr y, meanwhile, many end users have been burned over the years. While employed by an integrator, I spent a good deal of time as the project engineer for many renovations undertaken by the CDC. But then something new transpired: the organization started to hire installers to do installations, design its own systems and just buy the equipment from the integrator.
Can you imagine that?! So, now, they and many other corporations and organizations of like size have decided to fend for themselves. This situation is a disaster! AV professionals are being trivialized and compartmentalized by IT, and, in many cases, large organizations now seem to look at us as an AV grocer y store from continued on page In its simplest form, this means consumers are buying into holistic experiences rather than just isolated transactions.
Or, rather than just buying the burger, they want not only the fries to go with it, but also the entire meal and ever ything wrapped around it. And that includes the social experience of talking about it after ward!
For an industr y like commercial AV that is based on creating a compelling value proposition, this is money in the bank. In theor y, this, in turn, increases improvement-project scopes and budgets as the decision-makers seek to ensure an exceptional experience. Integrators then benefit as these companies turn to the experts so as best to align technology with their needs.
The question is, does this happen in reality? AVIXA recently turned its research. Live performances are one part of the broader live-events market, and they often represent temporar y installations of AV hardware for touring shows across a diverse set of venues. Thus, leasing and support ser vice are common aspects of the AV provider solutions for the space.
Given the experience-related objectives of performances, one might expect show producers to be investing greater amounts in the various components of a show, one of which is AV in all its forms. Audio, lighting, video, staging, environmental effects, audience response, and even virtual reality VR and augmented reality AR can all play a role.
Furthermore, average ticket prices are rising, with consumers showing increasing willingness to spend more for a show. This is further supported by the data from the producers themselves. Furthermore, their level of investment in owned hardware as compared to leased hardware is increasing. The resource issue even crosses into the mid-to-late phases of show production, when AV is installed and operated—places where outsourcing has often occurred.
Collaborative Learning New technologies open up a new frontier in classrooms and beyond. As technology continues to influence education, and as students become increasingly digitally savvy, educational facilities must look for new ways to enhance collaboration and power the learning experience.
Digital whiteboards, displays and projectors are finding their way to the forefront of how educators structure lessons. However, administrators have much to consider when choosing what is right for a given school or district— and integrators can help direct them to the perfect solution. Three Segments Of Collaboration Techniques There are three main segments of inclassroom collaboration techniques that schools can use to supplement lessons: interactive whiteboarding, wireless presentation and enhanced team collaboration.
Teachers can use the technology to save time in the classroom by creating lesson-plan materials, such as graphs, images and tables, ahead of time within the board; then, they can pull the materials to the whiteboard in real time while teaching. With wireless presentation, student device usage within classrooms becomes a learning tool, rather than a distraction; moreover, it allows instructors to engage in and oversee work as it is completed. That helps students better understand ever y component of a given lesson.
Now, with the ability to collaborate across schools, states or even countries, learning has been further enhanced. For example, a physics class in rural Nebraska can use technology to reap the benefits of having an Ivy League professor facilitate a lesson remotely.
Technologies To Enhance Collaboration A plethora of technology offerings can facilitate the above-mentioned collaboration techniques for a school or district. For example, for a class that spends most of its time outside on nature walks, it might not make sense to incorporate a full suite of microphones and display technologies. In that type of setting, wireless presentation technologies that help facilitate real-time learning and sharing would be much more beneficial, as they would allow students to utilize individual tablets or devices to record their experiences and share them with the class in the moment.
There are solutions for any learning environment. Setting aside cost, the two main continued on page Smartphones and mobile devices can distract students and teachers and interfere with learning, but, when they are used judiciously, these ubiquitous devices can be quite helpful for amplification and assistive listening in the classroom.
To put that in context, the sound that a pin makes when it drops measures 10dB, whereas rustling leaves measure 20dB. Even mild hearing loss in only one ear can affect academic performance. The American Speech-Language Hearing Association ASHA reports that children who have mild to moderate hearing loss, who do not get help for their hearing loss, might fall one to four grade levels behind their peers.
Classrooms, by their nature, are noisy. Poor acoustics think hard surfaces and high ceilings that enable reverberation, or that ser ve to muffle sounds, also play a role; other factors include accents and the volume at which others speak. Where and how teachers address students matters, too. For instance, a teacher who has his or her back turned to the students as he or she speaks and writes on a smartboard will be more difficult to hear and understand than a teacher who faces his or her students while speaking.
Soundfield systems are designed to help students—regardless of where they are seated in a classroom—hear the teacher. The idea is to disperse sound throughout the space, thereby enabling students in the back and on the sides of the classroom to hear as well as those in the front of the classroom.
If a classroom does not have a soundfield system, or if a soundfield system alone is not enough for students who are hard of hearing or struggle with hearing loss, there are assistive-listening technologies that can help. The newest options involve delivering sound directly to each student, creating a personal listening experience. Assistive-listening systems that are Wi-Fi based leverage the power of the cloud and the prevalence of Wi-Fi a study reported at least 88 percent of US schools have classroom access to Wi-Fi and mobile products like smartphones and tablets to stream audio directly to the devices.
Audio over Wi-Fi is an affordable, simple solution that allows students to hear their teacher or other classroom audio clearly. How It Works Schools install an audio-over-Wi-Fi assistive-listening ser ver on their existing wireless network they do not have to invest in another separate wireless network ,. Students download the app on their iOS or Android smartphone or tablet, and they select the audio channel of their choice e.
Then, audio is streamed directly to their devices. Students can listen using headphones or via Bluetooth-enabled hearing aids. Students are able to control the volume, and they can hear regardless of where they are sitting in a classroom. Audio over Wi-Fi is helpful for all students, regardless of whether they are hard of hearing.
Wearing headphones that block out chronic or intermittent ambient noise e. Mark A. Parameters For Using Mobile Devices In The Classroom u Use headphones, as opposed to ear buds ear buds are associated with an increase in hearing loss in children. The solution is also ideal in mixed learning environments because students are able to plug into different audio channels for a personalized learning experience.
For instance, in a classroom that features accelerated and grade-level math lessons, students in one group could be watching an instructive video on a television screen and hearing the corresponding audio through headphones as it is streamed to a smartphone or tablet; meanwhile, the teacher could be. Both groups of students would be able to hear their respective lessons.
They also can be useful in student centers and university fitness centers, in which videowalls and multiple TV screens are common. Students in those environments can stream audio from the channel of their choice and hear regardless of where they are in a room and irrespective of surrounding noise. Audio over Wi-Fi presents an easy, affordable, personalized solution to the challenges of ambient noise, acoustics and distance that, when present in education environments, can make it difficult for students to hear clearly and learn.
Schools might want to revisit their cell phone policies and, rather than banning cell-phone use in the classroom, consider leveraging smart devices to provide assistive listening and amplification. Introducing the new WDT12 Snake From Whirlwind Whirlwind is proud to introduce a new generation of industry standard DT12 connectors to fulfill the ever growing needs of broadcast production professionals.
Our WDT12 series is fully compatible with all earlier generations of this connector. Designed and manufactured to the Whirlwind standard of quality, these connectors will provide years of reliable , and dependable service. Our innovative termination box has also been designed to offer a new set of features to front line technicians. Housed in a briefcase like SKB case, the drop box is easily portable, fully waterproof when closed, and the lid can act as a rain shield while in use.
Like all our Whirlwind Snakes, these are built to last, built to trust, and made right here in America. In high school, we progressed to CRT TV announcements, recorded by the video production kids, sent over the coax system to Channel 3 or was it Channel 4? We tuned in whenever the teacher actually remembered to turn on the TV at am sharp. Then we hit the big time in college, with all kinds of cool posters to highlight the events around campus.
Completely filling the stair wells with all those posters must have taken a really long time. It turns out we had a college radio station, too. Who knew?! I do remember paying particular attention to whatever the teacher wrote on the chalkboard, though. Maybe that was because my name and a few check marks often appeared there; then again, maybe it was simply because it was right in front of me.
Like father, like son, I guess. He also neglected to open his email. And, he never stopped to read the announcements on the signage displays in the main common area because he was too busy tr ying to get to his next class before the bell. As any good parent would, I concluded that I should probably blame the school.
The reality, though, is that these are truly challenging times for education institutions. We live in a world of constant communication and information availability; and yet, parents and students often feel uninformed, despite the best efforts of educators and administrators. We live in a fast-paced culture in which there are so many things to get done that it can be over whelming.
This seems especially germane relative to educators, who are embracing all the learning and collaboration platforms introduced in recent years. Perhaps most challenging is that we live in a time when, unfortunately, we are forced to implement new mechanisms just to help keep our kids safe while at school. So, are you really going to propose adding one more? I am proposing that bringing digital signage into the classroom, utilizing the right set of tools, can enhance communication without adding stress.
Projectors and flatpanel displays have become the modern-day chalkboard. For the past several years, the mission has been to find a way to place digitalsignage content on displays within classrooms. The complexity of deployment and management, along with the hardware cost, has always rendered the idea a nonstarter. It seemed unlikely we would ever see signage in classrooms without further technology convergence.
Goosenecks bend and kink The M65 swivots. Swivoting also ensures a uniform mic position for a more consistent gain structure when multiple M65s are in use and lets the M65 lie flat for an unobstructed view when not in use. Many institutions began to pursue one-to-one device initiatives earlier this decade, with Apple, Google and Microsoft investing heavily in the education space in hopes of getting their devices in the hands of students.
They developed new tools for deploying and managing thousands of devices at a single institution. They developed screen-sharing technology and new media devices that could play video content for lessons. As a result, countless tablet devices have been placed into the hands of students, along with media-playback devices within classrooms. Devices have become less expensive, and the management tools are quite robust.
Throughout the countr y, tremendous investments have been made to enhance the learning experience. And all of that has laid the groundwork to enhance the classroom experience in a different way—a way that helps students feel more connected. To illustrate the potential, imagine the following fictional depiction of an average school day at Central High School: Mr.
Anderson prepares for the day by using his Twitter feed to remind students that there is a test on Friday. After the morn-. Anderson starts his lesson by screen sharing from his device to the screen in front of the class. Thompson teaches in Room during second period, and the signage content has already switched to hers in advance of her arrival to the classroom.
Sam, following quickly behind, notices Mrs. That reminder, which she posted on her socialmedia feed, displays on the signage screen via an RSS feed. Fourth period begins with Mr. Anderson in Room The signage in. Again, without any inter vention. Anderson starts screen sharing his lesson, just as he does ever y other day. Today, however, his screen-sharing session ends abruptly, and a message appears on the screen to remind ever yone to come to the auditorium for a pep rally.
Following shortly after this is a message over the PA system to invite all students and teachers to the auditorium. As students and teachers make their way to the auditorium, they see all the signage displays in the common area also directing them to the auditorium. After the pep rally, the signage displays remind students to report to fifth period.
Anderson starts the period by screen sharing his lesson once again. Today was a good day. There were no mandator y tornado drills or fire drills. There were no suspicious individuals in the building or active threats in the community. If there had been any abnormal events, the administration would have had the ability to alert a single classroom, a floor or the entire campus, in seconds, by delivering a specific message.
The alert would have been triggered by a system utilizing the Common Alert Protocol CAP , the fire-alarm system, the phone system or other integrated systems within the facility. Today, that functionality was used to invite students to the pep rally; in the future, however, Central High will be ready in the event of a drill or an emergency.
K school districts and higher-education institutions around the countr y are beginning to utilize digital signage to enhance the student experience on campus in a big way. Oftentimes, the infrastructure investment has already been made, and the informa-. Adding the ability to deliver targeted visual alerts to all signage displays on campus further enhances the value of signage in education facilities. There is a real opportunity for AV integrators to work alongside education institutions to help them establish a.
Absen and Crown Design Group helped us engage with our congregation in a much deeper way for our worship experiences. Be it corporate lobbies, airports, museums, theme parks or shopping malls, Absen provides the latest in LED display solutions helping its customers create engaging visual environments. To learn more about Action Church and other Absen installations, go to usabsen.
By Jim Schwenzer Ashly Audio. With many different uses and users spread across a range of different audio types and platforms, audio systems within education environments can grow complicated quickly. Because of the mix of various audio genres involved with a typical campuswide audio installation, it would be best to enter such a project with experience that includes multi-zone paging, room combining, theatrical production and even large stadium sound reinforcement.
Schools tend to be one of the last bastions for systems based upon 25V CVA. The reason for their prominence in schools is that 25V systems are safe and affordable, as lower-voltage cabling can be pulled through ceilings and walls safely without conduit. Yet, 25V is notably the least-elegant utilization of CVA that one could imagine. With 25V, the effects of wire resistance line loss and intensified frequency-related impedance issues become a real concern.
Adequate headroom, proper high-pass filtering and clip-limiting accommodations being accounted for in the early stages will pay off later on with a notable decrease in ser vice calls. What follows are a few best practices and important considerations for working with 25V CVA. Because we deal with theoretical impedance in the world of CVA, it is best practice to assume a certain margin of.
Electromagnetic inefficiencies and component tolerances always factor in, and, as such, prudent design would typically include a safety margin of roughly 20 percent. For example, if the amplifier is rated for W, you load it with a speaker load of 80W or fewer. Therefore, it becomes crucial that the audio sent to the transducers is limited to the range of intended operation. Outside of that intended operating region, the impedance begins to drop. Any attempt to force the continued on page PoE capability on the new VXLP eliminates the need for a dedicated power amplifier and an assortment of flexible installation accessories makes integrating the VXLP into any venue quick and easy.
By Brandon Breznick Premier Mounts. Interactive displays, smart tools, artificial intelligence AI , virtual reality VR and other emerging AV applications are diversifying how education facilities can and do leverage technology. In education settings, the introduction of AI will allow teachers and schools to accomplish far more than was once imagined, even as there remains much room for AI to mature.
The goal is to enable teachers and students to leverage AI as a tool that drives efficiency and improved collaboration within the classroom. Many educators have even begun to integrate smart school technology that provides AV capabilities designed for better visualization of ideas when presented on touch-enabled LCD screens. AV capabilities create a sense of collaboration and interaction that students had formerly been lacking. Budget Considerations In addition to functionality, costs must be considered.
Of course, buyers have to consider initial costs, but they should bear in mind that poorly designed products and configurations cost more in the long run, in terms of both variable maintenance and early replacement. When integrating AV into education facilities, the cost of acquiring premium-quality hardware and software should be viewed through the prism of many years of ser vice, rather than being seen as one major, upfront outlay.
Any purchase should meet all the needs of the application and, in the process, add value, lower the total cost of ownership TCO and promote risk avoidance. Education budgets always present a challenge. As a vertical market, education facilities are generally budget-sensitive, with funding variations based on region, school and department.
AV manufacturers have to acknowledge the uniqueness of this vertical, and they must continue to create advanced solutions that offer these facilities a realistic return on investment ROI. That being said, the payoff that comes from focusing on a lower TCO is considerable. Utilizing powerful and advanced solutions may come at a price, but it does pay off over time.
Higher Learning To understand why the higher-education community is leading the way in digital continued on page Just a short walk from the Secaucus train station, set on the acre Frank J. The stages and studios at High Tech High School are fully equipped with the latest audio, video and lighting technology, all digitally tied together with a state-of-the-art network.
This technology translates directly into future opportunities for our students across many production disciplines. For many of our students, what they learn here could be their future. Past its striking architectural design and its cutting-edge technology, the comprehensive vo-tech complex was designed to meet LEED Gold green-building standards and requirements for sustainability. Environmentally friendly features to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases and wastewater emitted from the campus include water-efficient landscaping, underground parking, geothermal heating, a green roof and wind turbines.
A hydroponic rooftop garden provides students with space to grow food to be used in the culinar y kitchen lab. For cutting-edge technology in each space and the design of a supporting network infrastructure, the building planners engaged exper t system designer and acoustician Dave Kotch, President of Criterion Acous-.
Graduating students will have had experience with full-blown musicals and dance productions, including pit orchestras and complex lighting and stage effects; that being said, students who are just starting out might have little or no production experience. Early design activities allowed wire to be pulled well ahead of system installation. Having the building prewired helped us to keep on schedule.
Peskie coordinated the labor efforts on the all-union jobsite with as many as five workers installing systems and preconfigured, custom panels through the AV spaces, with CTCI Technology Clifton NJ providing labor. Peskie guided the team in the installation of a local data network built with Cisco SG Series gigabit data switches, over which Dante media-networking technology is presented to all the performing and recording spaces.
Dante allows for the sharing of selected audio channels between spaces, while also offering protection between spaces, where required. The versatile and reliable hubs allow direct routing of video between spaces, provide convenient converting of video formats and allow audio to be injected onto video streams prior to routing to another space.
For communications, crews remain in contact across venues via twochannel Clear-Com MS intercom systems installed in each space. L-Acoustics SB28 subs provide low end, and 5XT front fills were installed to complete coverage at the front of the stage. According to Peskie, one of the few complications for this installation involved having to open walls to find structural mount points that would provide the correct location for the arrays. As designed, the system can operate in a. In addition to Shure, Countr yman and Audio-Technica microphone technologies were specified for use onstage.
Video in the theater utilizes a Blackmagic Design Smart Videohub 20x20 as the primar y routing solution for multi-format video sources. Marshall Electronics MLYNXW dual seven-inch rackmounted displays allow for signal monitoring in the rack room, as well as stage manager stations.
An installed TSW touchpanel provides intuitive access to all system controls. Audio Accessories audio and video patchbays provide for rapid reconfiguration. Video and control are combined in this smaller venue with a Crestron DMPS presentation-control and signal-routing solution. Edge DSP.
Speaker configurations are divided for coverage of the bleacher seating areas, the gym floor or both areas simultaneously. A theater system provides video for event attendees, with a Blackmagic Design Smart Videohub 20x20 utilized as a primar y routing solution.
Audio Accessories patchbays facilitate connectivity for audio and video. System control is convenient via a Crestron TSW touchpanel. With that, talent in video productions can enjoy professional prompting. Digital Production Lab Spaces The digital production lab spaces provide students with an independent opportunity to use professional gear, including a Mackie PROFX16v2 audio mixer that offers 16 channels, four buses and onboard effects, with playback through Dynaudio BM15A active monitors.
Focusrite RedNet AM2 monitoring stations are used for pulling digital audio signals from the Dante audio system. The system allows for recording ver y high-quality uncompressed or compressed ProRes and DNxHD video formats to fast 2.
Sony, JVC and PTZOptics cameras and controllers are also available to young engineers and budding producers who are exploring these spaces. A Genelec A 5. A Mackie HRmk2 6. To supplement training by Masque Sound staff on all the new systems, Peskie arranged two days of training for students and staff specifically on the SSL console and control surface.
As in other spaces, video in the recording studio centers on a Blackmagic Design Smart Videohub 20x20 as the primary router. All system control is handled via a Crestron TSW touchpanel. With a solid network infrastructure, Dante-enabled devices and intercom links between the other AV spaces to allow for a clear, simple method of communication, budding engineers can collaborate across spaces.
The only limits are those imposed by their experience and their creativity. Next Stop For Students After nearly 20 years of teaching high schoolers about technology for the arts, Shepard has a growing list of former students who work with integrators as traveling sound engineers on the crews of Broadway shows, as well as for Jazz at Lincoln Center and in a wide variety of other arts-related jobs. With the experience they gain here, careers on the professional stages of New York are just a short train ride away.
Another one of those was Mt. Named for Mt. San Antonio, the snow-capped mountain popularly known as Mt. Baldy prominently visible in the distance above its campus, Mt. San Antonio College has evolved into a school that emphasizes, among other things, technology-focused and technology-driven education and training for the tens of thousands of students pursuing degrees and certificates.
In the process, according to Chris Rodriguez, Manager of Mt. Just as importantly, Rodriguez pointed. Three new buildings on Mt. That impacts the audio and video by putting an emphasis on quality, as well as technology. San Antonio College. Even Jason Bay-. A tiered lecture hall, able to hold 80 students, uses a unique video configuration due to sightline challenges in the stepped space.
Four projectors are ceiling mounted and illuminate four recessed screens. Two inch-diagonal screens face the front of the room, where ceiling height is greatest. Two inch-diagonal screens act as rear confidence monitors for the instructor. Fortunately, Centerpoint Communications has done AV systems work for the college for the last decade, and it was able to provide some input to the BCT project as it evolved over the past five years.
Many contractors were surprised when we came out with mixers. Learn for yourself! The kitchen classroom features an array of cameras and displays, including four PTZ cameras mounted above a grilling station, a baking station, the ovens and a food-prep station in the kitchen. That perspective helped, especially when it came to installing AV components. This provided what would ultimately become a blueprint for this project and Mt.
They all, however, share a rather advanced lectern design. And they learn it all via an array of cameras and displays.
A CD created from an image file would be identical to one created with on-the-fly recording, assuming that both would put the same files in the same places. The choice of which to use depends on user preference and hardware capability. Subject:  How does an audio CD player know to skip data tracks? Set to allow copies, clear to prevent them. Four-Channel Audio The Red Book standard allows four-channel audio, though very few discs have ever been made that use it. Pre-Emphasis Set if the audio was recorded with pre-emphasis.
The last two are rarely used. It used to be called CD-Erasable CD-E , but some marketing folks changed it so it wouldn't sound like your important data gets erased on a whim. Other than that, they are used just like CD-R discs. Let me emphasize that: they are used just like CD-R discs. Some software may handle CD-RW in a slightly different way, because you can do things like erase individual files, but the recorder technology is nearly identical.
CD-RW drives use phase-change technology. Instead of creating "bubbles" and deformations in the recording dye layer, the state of material in the recording layer changes from crystalline to amorphous form. The different states have different refractive indices, and so can be optically distinguished. Some Internet sites like to put the devices in completely separate categories, calling them "CD recorders" and "CD ReWriters", but the differences between them don't really merit such a distinction.
There is a limit to the number of times an area of the disc can be rewritten, but that number is relatively high the Orange Book requires , but some manufacturers have claimed as much as , Of course, this is under laboratory conditions. If you don't handle the disc carefully, you will add scratches, dirt, fingerprints, and other obstacles that make the disc harder for the drive to read.
It appears that CD-RW discs have speed ratings encoded on them, so discs that are only certified for 2x recording can't be written to at 4x or, for that matter, 1x. To make things more complicated, different media is required for high-speed CD-RW drives those that exceed 4x. If you're trying to decide if you want a drive that supports CD-RW, see section CD-R was designed to be read by an infrared nm laser. DVD uses a visible red nm or nm laser, which aren't reflected sufficiently by the organic dye polymers used in CD-R media.
If the box doesn't say that something is supported, assume that the feature isn't. With recent cost reductions to DVD hardware, there's no real reason to buy a drive that only handles CDs or only handles DVDs and in fact they're increasingly difficult to find. CDs are quickly surpassing the venerable 3. These days it's hard to buy a computer that doesn't support all formats.
DVD-R recorders and media were initially very expensive, but eventually came down to consumer levels. An example: electroweb. Subject:  What are "jitter" and "jitter correction"? The other form of "jitter" is used in the context of digital audio extraction from CDs. This kind of "jitter" causes extracted audio samples to be doubled-up or skipped entirely. Some people will correctly point out that the latter usage is an abuse of the term "jitter", but we seem to be stuck with it.
This section is concerned with the incorrect use of "jitter" in the context of digital audio extraction. The problem occurs because the Philips CD specification doesn't require block-accurate addressing. While the audio data is being fed into a buffer a FIFO whose high- and low-water marks control the spindle speed , the address information for audio blocks is pulled out of the subcode channel and fed into a different part of the controller.
Because the data and address information are disconnected, the CD player is unable to identify the exact start of each block. The inaccuracy is small, but if the system doing the extraction has to stop, write data to disk, and then go back to where it left off, it won't be able to seek to the exact same position.
As a result, the extraction process will restart a few samples early or late, resulting in doubled or omitted samples. These glitches often sound like tiny repeating clicks during playback. On a CD-ROM, the blocks have a byte sync pattern in the header, as well as a copy of the block's address.
It's possible to identify the start of a block and get the block's address by watching the data FIFO alone. With most CD-ROM drives that support digital audio extraction, you can get jitter-free audio by using a program that extracts the entire track all at once. The problem with this method is that if the hard drive being written to can't keep up, some of the samples will be dropped.
Most newer drives as well as nearly every model Plextor ever made are based on an architecture that enables them to accurately detect the start of a block. An approach that has produced good results is to do jitter correction in software. This involves performing overlapping reads, and then sliding the data around to find overlaps at the edges. Most DAE programs will perform jitter correction.
The first CD player was available in Japanese stores on October 1, CD-Recordable technology wasn't introduced until Back in the late s, CD recorders cost thousands of dollars, and were part of systems the size of a washing machine. Subject:  Why don't audio CDs use error correction? The error correction that keeps your CDs sounding the way they're supposed to, even when scratched or dirty, is applied at a lower level. So while there isn't as much protection on an audio CD as there is on a CD-ROM, there's still enough to provide perfect or near-perfect sound quality under adverse conditions.
Every CD has two layers of error correction, called C1 and C2. C1 corrects bit errors at the lowest level, C2 applies to bytes in a frame 24 bytes per frame, 98 frames per sector. In addition, the data is interleaved and spread over a large arc. This is why you should always clean CDs from the center out, not in a circular motion. A circular scratch causes multiple errors within a frame, while a radial scratch distributes the errors across multiple frames. If there are too many errors, the CD player will interpolate samples to get a reasonable value.
This way you don't get nasty clicks and pops in your music, even if the CD is dirty and the errors are uncorrectable. Interpolating adjacent data bytes on a CD-ROM wouldn't work very well, so the data is returned without the interpolation. It should be noted that not all CD players are created equal. There are different strategies for decoding CIRC, some better than others. This allows an audio extraction application to guarantee that the extracted audio matches the original.
By using sophisticated compression techniques they are able to compress audio by a ratio, allowing a capacity of 74 minutes with little or no audible difference in quality. As with CD recorders, there are MD recorders that connect to your computer and MD recorders that connect to your stereo.
There are stamped MDs that are similar to CDs in construction, and rewritable MDs that use magneto-optical technology. Audio MD recorders are generally more convenient than stand-alone audio CD recorders, because the playback mechanism allows a more flexible layout of audio data, so it's possible to delete a track from the middle of the MD and then write a longer one that is recorded in different places across the disc.
The current generation of MD technology is unlikely to replace CD-R or DAT, however, because the lossy compression employed is disdained by audio purists. MD is more often positioned as a replacement for analog cassette tape, which it matches in portability and recordability, and surpasses in durability and its ability to perform random accesses.
Computer-based MD recorders can write data, but may not be able to record audio. Check the specifications carefully. It used to be item 37 in the FAQ, but doesn't seem to be now. Subject:  What does finalizing and closing and fixating do? All data is written into the current session. When you have finished writing, you close the session. If you want to make a multisession disc, you open a new session at the same time. If you don't open a new session then, you can't open one later, which means that it's impossible to add more data to the CD-R.
The entire disc is considered "closed". The process of changing a session from "open" to "closed" is called "finalizing", "fixating", or just plain "closing" the session. When you close the last session, you have finalized, fixated, or closed the disc. An "open" single-session disc doesn't yet have the lead-in or lead-out written.
CD recorders are the only devices that know to look at the PMA, which is why you can't see data in an open session on a standard playback device. When the session is finalized, the TOC is written in the lead-in area, enabling other devices to recognize the disc. Something to try: write an audio track to a blank CD, and leave the session open. Put the disc in a CD player. Some players will deny the existence of the disc, some will spin the disc up to an incredible speed and won't even brake the spindle when you eject the disc, others will perform equally random acts.
The TOC is important! If you close the current session and open a new one, the lead-in and lead-out of the current session will be written. This process is repeated for every closed session, resulting in a chain of links from one lead-in area to the next. Typical audio CD players don't know about chasing TOC links, so they can only see tracks in the first session.
Your CD-ROM drive, unless it's broken or fairly prehistoric, will know about multisession discs and will happily return the first session, last session, or one somewhere in between, depending on what the OS tells it and what it is capable of. Some CD-ROM drives, notably certain early NEC models, are finicky about open sessions, and will gag when they try to read the lead-in from a still-open session.
They follow the chain of links in the lead-ins of each session, but when they get to the last, they can't find a valid TOC and become confused. Even though these drives support multi-session, they require that the last session be closed before they will read the disc successfully. Fortunately, most drives don't behave this way. If you use disc-at-once DAO recording, the lead-in is written at the very start of the process, because the contents of the TOC are known ahead of time. With most recorders there is no way to specify that more than one session should be created in DAO mode, so creating a multisession disc with DAO recording isn't generally possible.
This can cause the write process to fail, which is why Windows software automatically enables and disables AIN as needed. Otherwise, if recording in track-at-once mode, it will fail during finalization; in disc-at-once mode, it will fail near the beginning of the write process. In both cases, test writes will succeed, because the TOC doesn't get written during a test pass. Packet-written discs follow the same rules with regard to open and closed sessions, which is why they have to be finalized before they can be read on a CD-ROM drive.
Some people like to refer to packet writing as "PAO", for packet-at-once. There are gory details beyond what is written here. For example, the lead-in on a CD-R actually has a pre-recorded TOC that specifies physical parameters of the recording layer, such as required laser recording power, and information about the disc, like how many blocks can be written the "ATIP" discussed in section You don't usually need to worry about such things though.
The only difference between a "raw" For example, some software won't record from MP3 files, or from WAV files that aren't at the correct sampling rate. Similarly, you don't have to do anything special to audio extracted from a CD. It's already in a format that just about anything can understand.
Just put your audio into the correct format -- uncompressed All of the fancy error correction and track indexing stuff happens at a lower level. Don't get confused by programs such as Win95 Explorer that show ". CDA" files. This is just a convenient way to display the audio tracks, not a file format unto itself.
Subject:  What does MultiRead mean? Subject:  If recording fails, is the disc usable? If it failed while writing the lead-in, before any data was written, the disc probably isn't usable. Some drives, notably certain Sony models, have a "repair disc" option that forcefully closes the current session. This would allow you to add extra data in a second session on the disc, but anything written in the first session will be unavailable.
Failures when finalizing the disc may be correctable. Sometimes the TOC gets written before the failure, and the disc can be used as-is. Sometimes you can use a "finalize disc" option from a program menu that will do the trick. Other times the recorder will refuse to deal with a partially-finalized disc, and you're stuck. Some of the data will be there, some won't. The directory for the disc may show more files than are actually present, and you won't know which are actually there until you try to read them.
Audio CDs recorded in disc-at-once mode are a special case. Because the TOC is written up front, the disc is readable in a standard CD player even if the write process doesn't finish. You will be able to play the tracks up to the point where the recording failed.
Subject:  Why do recorders insert "00" bytes at the start of audio tracks? Very often the result of copying an audio CD is an exact copy of the original audio data, but with a few hundred zero bytes inserted at the front and a corresponding number lost off the end. The actual number of bytes inserted may very slightly from disc to disc, but a given recorder usually inserts about the same number.
It's usually less than one sector bytes. According to a message from a Yamaha engineer, the cause of the problem is the lack of synchronization between the audio data and the subcode channels, much like the "jitter" described in section The same data flow problems that make it hard to find the start of a block when reading also make it hard to write the data and identifying information in sync.
According to the engineer, no changes to the firmware or drive electronics can fix the problem. Making copies of copies of audio CDs would result in a progressively larger gap, but it's likely to be unnoticeable even after several generations. Subject:  How many tracks can I have?
Because the track number is stored as a two-digit decimal number starting with "01" BCD encoded, in case you were wondering , it's not possible to exceed this. Tracks must be at least 4 seconds long, according to the standard. In practice, CD recorders have different notions of how short a track can be, but most recorders will refuse to write a track shorter than one second.
The maximum number of files depends on the filesystem you're using. For ISO, you can in theory have as many as you want. In practice, DOS or Windows will treat the disc internally as a FAT16 filesystem, so you are limited to about 65, files if you want broad compatibility. The goal is to allow consumers to make a copy of an original, but not a copy of a copy.
Analog recording media, such as audio cassettes and VHS video tape, degrades rather quickly with each successive copy. Digital media doesn't suffer from the same degree of generation loss, so the recording industry added a feature that has the same net effect. SCMS will affect you if you use consumer-grade audio equipment.
Professional-grade equipment and recorders that connect to your computer aren't restricted. See section for more about the differences between these types of devices. The system works by encoding whether or not the material is protected, and whether or not the disc is an original. The value is handled as follows: Unprotected material: copy allowed. The data written is also marked unprotected. Protected material, original disc: copy allowed.
The data written will be identified as a duplicate. Protected material, duplicate: copy not allowed. Some of these reportedly introduce unacceptable artifacts into the audio. It's possible to "wash" the audio by converting it to and from analog format, but again the quality will suffer. If you're using a consumer audio CD recorder, SCMS will prevent you from making copies of copies of protected material.
It will not prevent you from making a copy of an original disc you have purchased, and it won't stop you from copying unprotected discs. It is composed of a brand name identifier, a type number, and a drive serial number. There does not appear to be any way to control this.
Some have suggested that the serial number is generated based on data found on the disc, similar to the way that audio CDs can mostly be uniquely identified by the number and durations of the tracks. On floppy disks and hard drives, the "serial number" is generated based on the date and time when the disk is formatted.
Subject:  What's a TOC? CD recorders write the TOC as part of "finalizing the disc. Section has some more details about finalizing discs. A "directory" is a list of files. If you're a Mac user, you're probably used to the term "folder". Audio tracks don't have files, so they don't have directories either. Whether or not you can read such a disc is a different matter. The Linux "mount" command should allow you to mount just about anything read-only, but Windows may not be so willing.
Subject:  What's an ISO? Depending on who you're talking to, "ISO" may refer to all disc image files or only certain kinds. Going by the more restrictive definition, an "ISO" is created by copying an entire disc, from sector 0 to the end, into a file. Because the image file contains "cooked" byte sectors and nothing else, it isn't possible to store anything but a single data track in this fashion. What does CIF mean? Nobody knows, though "Corel Image Format" is as good a definition as any.
DAT to. MPG, and recording programs like Nero can record them directly. There is no guarantee, however, that a ". And it is quite common to hear people refer to things as "ISO" which aren't. SUB" file appears to contain subchannel data.
Some programs pass these around in addition to one of the above formats. The rest of this section is a philosophical rant, and can safely be skipped. This is intended to be more illustrative than factual, and any relation to actual events is strictly coincidental. It does not define a disc image format. As it happens, the generated image files were no different in structure from the images that could be extracted from other CD-ROMs, so to keep things simple the extracted disc images were also called ".
Some programs used the more appropriate ". IMG", but unfortunately that was less common. This meant that, whether you extracted a data track from a disc written with the HFS filesystem or the ISO filesystem, it was labeled ". This makes as much sense as formatting a 1. It didn't really matter though, because no matter what was in the file, the software used the same procedure to write it to CD-R.
These days it's not altogether uncommon to see messages about "making an ISO" of an audio CD, which makes no sense at all. Because the organization's name would have different abbreviations in different languages "IOS" in English, "OIN" in French , they used a word derived from the Greek "isos", meaning "equal".
Subject:  Why was 74 minutes chosen as the standard length? They were trying to figure out what dimensions to use, and the length of certain performances settled it. There are several different versions of the story. Some say a Polygram then part of Philips artist named Herbert von Karajan wanted his favorite piece to fit on one disc.
Another claims the wife of the Sony chairman wanted it to hold her favorite symphony. Oga at Sony made the defining request. The relationship of Beethoven's ninth to the length is noted "believed true" in the alt. Subject:  Why is there a visibly unwritten strip near the CD-R hub? The lead-in area, which includes the TOC section , isn't written until the session is closed. A space is left for it that is large enough to see.
Read section for more details on what happens when you close a disc. You will see the narrow unwritten strip if you: write a disc, telling the program to leave the disc and session open. In some cases it's perfectly normal to see this space; it's where the lead-in area will be written when the session is closed. It's not necessarily a sign of failure. If you use disc-at-once recording, the lead-in area is written right away, so after a failure you won't see the gap.
The technology allows you to avoid buffer underruns by suspending and restarting the write process when the recorder's buffer is about to empty. See section if you're not familiar with buffer underruns. Ideally, the results of interrupted and uninterrupted writes would be identical. In practice, there may be a small glitch at the point where writing was suspended. The general consensus is that these technologies are effective and do not result in noticeable glitches. There are several different, competing technologies.
The first. Can restart the laser after a buffer underrun. JustLink Ricoh Can restart the laser after a buffer underrun. Data gap length is less than two microns. Just Link AOpen Can restart recording after a buffer underrun. Data gaps are less than 2 microns. Same as Ricoh's JustLink? ExacLink Oak Technology Can restart the laser after a buffer underrun.
Mitsui's pages refer to "Oak Technology's ExactLink tm ". Can restart the laser after a buffer underrun, and will reduce the recording speed if it thinks the media can't be written safely at the requested speed. Does some extra work to prevent the buffer underrun from happening in the first place, but won't save you if one actually happens. SafeBurn Yamaha Can restart the laser after a buffer underrun, and will reduce the recording speed it if thinks the media can't be written safely at the requested speed.
Data gap length is less than one micron. SafeLink Waitec Another one no details available? Power Burn Sony And another one. All of these are for situations where your computer is unable to send data to the drive quickly enough to keep the buffer full. They will not help you if your computer loses power, your software crashes, your media is of poor quality, or you smack the drive hard enough to disrupt the recording process.
Nearly all CD recorders announced in or after featured some variation of buffer underrun protection. Some related technologies: Just Speed AOpen Reduces the record speed if it doesn't think the media can handle it. Probably implies running OPC section Combined with Just Link.
It's unclear whether one manufacturer's implementation is really any better than the others, or in many cases what they even do. Those that can't play CD-Rs. Those that damage the discs. Kind 2 is the most common. Kind 3 comes with a warning in the manual you do read product manuals, right? It is possible that some players in category 2 are actually in 3 and just aren't labeled as such, and it may be the case that players in 3 will only damage CD-Rs with specific formulations.
It's a little unclear what the player is doing to damage the CD-R media. The playback laser would have to be operated at a wavelength and intensity that caused a change in the recording dye layer. Instead, they buy from other manufacturers and stamp their logo on the discs. Generally speaking, this isn't a bad thing, because the discs were certified good enough that the Big Brand was willing to put the company name behind the product.
If you have a picky recorder or player, though, it helps to be able to try several different pieces of media. If you buy several different brands, and they're all coming from the same manufacturer, chances are they'll all behave the same way, and your time and money will be wasted. The short answer is: you don't. It's tempting to believe that CD-R media identifier applications e.
Unfortunately, the data you get is unreliable at best. Charles Palmer, from cd-recordable. These two readings are next to worthless. These 3rd party sources either other disc manufacturers, or mastering houses encode the data that these 'Identification' programs read, at the time that the original glass master is encoded. The 'Manufacturer' information that is encoded is usually the name of the company that made the master.
Since stampers made from that master will be sold to disc manufacturers the world over, all of discs that those manufacturers produce from those stampers will contain the same 'Manufacturer' information. Information which is obviously quite erroneous and irrelevant. Very seldom will the 'manufacturer' information encoded on a CD-R actually tell you anything other than who made the original master.
This of course, does not assure that the manufacturer that buys and uses this stamper will be using it with the dye that it has been designed for. Therefore that information becomes as potentially misleading as the 'Manufacturer' data discussed earlier. See section for further remarks.
The chief difference is that the audio is encoded with DTS rather than If you put one into an audio CD player, it will recognize the tracks and try to play them, resulting in a hissing noise. Attempting to convert them to MP3 is a bad idea though -- they're already in a compressed format. Subject:  Why PCM is a fine choice for encoding audio, stereo is widely recognized and supported, and it's very easy to manipulate data in bit quantities with existing hardware and software.
Why ? Why not make it a round decimal value like , or a round binary quantity like ? Why not 32KHz or 48KHz? In general, the human ear can hear tones out to about 20KHz. According to a smart fellow named Nyquist, you have to sample at twice that rate to avoid "aliasing". Because of imperfections in filtering, you actually want to be a little above 40KHz.
Storing digital audio on a hard drive was impractical, because the capacity needed for significant amounts of 1 Mbps audio was expensive. Instead, they used video recorders, storing samples as black and white levels. If you take the number of bit stereo samples you can get on a line, and multiply it by the number of recorded lines in a field and the number of fields per second, you get the sampling rate.
This rate was carried over into the definition of the compact disc. The sampling rate for "professional" audio, 48KHz, was chosen because it's an easy multiple of frequencies used for other common formats, e. It also happens to be fairly difficult to do a good conversion from 48KHz to Well, okay, some consumer DAT decks can do There is relatively little difference in audible quality between Some inaudible tones produce "beats" with audible tones and thus have a noticeable impact, but the improvement from Subject:  What format are.
CDA files aren't really files at all. Windows shows the tracks on an audio CD as ". CDA" files for convenience. For example, you can create a file association for ". CDA" and invoke an audio CD player when you double-click on a track. The discs hold 1.
The recorders form a middle ground between CD-R and DVD-R in terms of storage capacity and price, but the lack of compatibility reduces their usefulness. The groove keeps the write head tracking properly, and the wobble sinusoidal with a frequency of In the lead-in area, which is at the start of the disc, the ATIP signal can be read to get some information about the disc.
The only really useful bit of information is the number of blocks on the disc, which is determined by the length of the pre-formed groove. The ATIP signal also holds some information about the disc's construction and manufacturer, but see section for some comments about their usefulness. Subject:  What are "ML" discs and devices? CD technology works by measuring the light reflected from the surface of the disc.
Traditional discs only have two levels "pit" and "land" , ML discs have more than one. By increasing the effective bit density of the media, you can write 3x as much data in one revolution of the disc, improving both the storage capacity and the recording speed. The technology requires minor changes to existing hardware, and requires discs optimized for ML recording. Zip disks. EasyWrite is a marketing logo for Mount Rainier compliant drives.
Drives may be sold with the logo if they pass compliance and robustness tests. This standard is being promoted by Compaq, Microsoft, Philips, and Sony. Discs created with Mount Rainier appear to organize the data slightly differently from other UDF solutions, so some compatibility problems exist.
This is not the kind of jitter addressed by "jitter correction" in CD rippers This is the "jitter" that people selling fancy stereo equipment talk about. Jitter is time-base error. It's not a corruption of the digital '1's and '0's, it's a distortion of the timing in which the '1's and '0's arrive at their destination. This doesn't affect extraction of audio, so you don't need to worry about this kind of jitter when reading a CD or ripping to MP3.
You do need to worry about it when listening to a CD. The digital signal is read from a CD via an analog process: bouncing a laser off of "pits" and "lands" on a CD. Various factors can prevent the signals from arriving at the right place at exactly the right time. High-end CD players can correct these anomalies, but many don't. AMQ extends the length of the pits and lands on the CD in an attempt to produce a more stable signal.
This reduces the recordable length of the CD -- a minute disc only holds 63 -- but produces noticeably improved audio says Yamaha. The process works because CD players automatically adjust the rotation speed. Subject:  Can I draw pictures on a disc with the recording laser? This is usually visible as a slight change in color. By controlling the write laser it's possible to mark the disc in a way that is meaningful to the human eye rather than to a CD player.
Unfortunately, the level of control required to do this isn't achievable without firmware support. In mid, Yamaha announced "DiscT 2" disc tattoo. This allows moderate-resolution approx. Yamaha claims to get shades of color green, blue, or whatever color the disc happens to be , though it works best on dark blue azo discs. In March , HP announced a different idea: flip the disc over, and burn a design on the label side.
This requires a modified drive and special media, but offers the possibility of high-resolution labeling without ink or adhesive labels. Subject:  What are the gory details about how are 1s and 0s encoded? You absolutely do not need to understand any of this to successfully record a CD.
You will come away with a greater appreciation for CD players, and also may better understand how some forms of copy protection function. The sections are written from the perspective of reading a disc.
Generally speaking, the process is simply reversed when writing. I tried to find a balance between not presenting enough information and presenting too much detail. My hope is that, when you are done reading this, you will have a broad understanding of how a CD player turns a lumpy piece of plastic into music, and will know exactly where to look if you need further details.
If you want the kind of detail found in a textbook, there are some good ones listed in section Subject:  How does the laser read or write a disc? The visible light spectrum is generally considered to be nm to nm; few people can see light past nm.
DVD, by contrast, uses a visible red nm or nm laser. The drive shines a laser through the polycarbonate plastic on the "bottom" of the disc. This bounces off the reflective layer, passes back through the polycarbonate, and is read by a photosensor in the drive head. The index of refraction for polycarbonate is about 1.
This minimizes the effects of dust and scratches, because the effects of any surface gunk are reduced as the laser's focus width is reduced. A um-wide piece of dust on the surface of a CD would completely block a laser focused down to um at the surface, but has little effect on a CD player.
If it sees a weaker response, it's traveling over a "pit". Technically, it's traveling "under" a pit or land, so from its perspective a "pit" is actually a bump. The light reflected from the pit and from the surrounding land thus cancel each other out. For example, pits are 0.
There are a lot of optical tricks involving polarization of light and the action of diffraction gratings going on. For example, the read head uses a three-beam auto-focus system that keeps the laser properly aligned on the spiral track and at the correct distance from the bottom of the disc.
Side note: if adjacent loops of the spiral are too close together -- the "track pitch" is too small -- the laser tracking can fail. This is why and minute discs are harder to write and read. It's also worth mentioning that, because light travels more slowly in polycarbonate, the wavelength of the laser inside the CD is closer to nm. The marks create the decreased reflectivity required by the read laser.
This is done by either heating it above its melting point C to C and letting it cool rapidly to convert it to amorphous form, or heating it to its transition point C and letting it cool slowly to return it to the more stable crystalline state. The lower reflectivity of CD-RW makes the discs unreadable on most older players. Subject:  How do pits and lands turn into 1s and 0s? The start and end of a pit i. The number of zeroes between pit edges is determined through careful timing. This is an efficient approach that produces an easy to handle electrical signal it's NRZI -- NonReturn to Zero Inverted -- which converts easily to NRZ where 1s are high voltage and 0s are low voltage.
The careful timing is possible because CDs are essentially self-clocking. Suppose you have a clock that ticks once per second. Plug your ears and count seconds to yourself, trying to keep the same pace as the clock. After ten seconds, unplug your ears. If you've drifted slightly, you can readjust to the clock without worrying that you've too far off. You might be missing the beat by a quarter of a second, but you can adjust forward or backward a fraction of a second and still be sure that both you and the clock got to 10 seconds at about the same time.
Now try the same experiment for 10 minutes. When you unplug your ears you can get back in sync with the clock's timing, but unless you have a very good internal timer it's unlikely you will reach 10 minutes on the same tick. With your ears plugged for so long, you are likely to be off by several seconds. CDs work the same way. Every pit edge represents an audible clock tick, while the insides of pits and lands represent inaudible ticks.
If a pit or land is too long, the drive's clock will drift too far and possibly get out of sync. This is why "blank" recordable discs aren't entirely blank: they have a pre-cut spiral groove with a "wobble" that the recorder can use as a timing signal. A clock accurate enough to produce a stable, reliable signal at these frequencies is too expensive to incorporate into a cheap consumer product.
The To guarantee pits of specific lengths, the CD standard requires that there are at least 2 and at most 10 zeroes between every 1. This is achieved by converting every 8-bit byte into a bit value, a process called Eight to Fourteen Modulation EFM. If a single bit requires time T to pass under the read head, then pits of these lengths can be referred to as 3T pits and 11T pits. If after seeking to a new location, the drive sees a pit shorter than 3T or longer than 11T, then it immediately knows that the disc is not spinning at the rate it was expecting, and can make appropriate adjustments.
Between each bit EFM word there are 3 "merging bits". Because CDs aren't allowed to have runs shorter than 3T or longer than 11T, it is sometimes necessary to follow an EFM code with a 1 or 0. The merging bits also serve to prevent the frame synchronization pattern from appearing where it isn't supposed to see next section.
If there is more than one possible arrangement of merging bits that satisfy the restrictions for run length and sync pattern, then a pattern is chosen that minimizes the low-frequency components of the signal. This is done by minimizing the Digital Sum Value DSV , computed by adding one to a counter for every T after a transition to a land, and subtracting one for every T after a transition to a pit.
Adding a 1 to the merging bits inverts the signal by causing a transition from a pit to a land or vice-versa. Minimizing the DSV is important because low-frequency signals can interfere with the operation of tracking and focusing servos. With EFM there are more bits to encode, but the highest frequency possible in the output signal is decreased. The ratio of the number of bits transmitted to the number of transitions on the medium is high, making this an efficient way to store the data while still being able to recover the clock.
It's also worth noting that a 3T pit is 0. If 2T or 1T pits were allowed, the laser would have a hard time detecting them. This is why it's important that transitions not occur too frequently: the laser is good at computing the time between transitions, but isn't so good at noticing transitions if they follow each other too quickly. Making the transitions more obvious requires making the pits and lands longer, which reduces the amount of data that will fit on the disc.
See the description of AMQ in section Subject:  What's a frame? A frame holds 24 bytes of user data, 1 byte of subcode data, and 8 bytes of parity error correction , for a total of 33 bytes. When read from the disc, each frame is preceded by a bit synchronization pattern and 3 merging bits.
The sync data has a unique pattern not found elsewhere on the disc, and it ensures the read head correctly finds the start of the frame. The pattern is , three transitions separated by 11T, which can't occur otherwise because the merging bits are specifically chosen to prevent it.
If you don't understand why having a sync field is important, remember that every time the read head seeks to a new part of the disc or is confused by a scratch, it has to start reading in the middle of a stream of 1s and 0s and try to make sense of what it's reading. Until it sees a synchronization pattern, it has no idea if it's reading the start or middle of a frame, or even if it's at the start or middle of an EFM word. The rest of the byte frame is read as bit EFM values followed by 3 merging bits.
This bit structure is called a "Channel Frame". The raw error rate from a CD is around 1 error per K to 1 million bits. CIRC encoding takes the bits 24 bytes of data and 64 bits 8 bytes of parity, shuffles it around, and performs some weird math involving Galois Fields. The bits are processed by two error correction stages, referred to as C1 and C2. The efficacy of the results can be expressed as a set of error counts.
Errors are noted with a two-digit number that indicates the number of errors with the first digit and the CIRC decoder stage with the second digit. The E11 count indicates the number of single-symbol correctable errors in the C1 decoder. E21 indicates double-symbol correctable errors in C1, and E31 indicates triple-symbol uncorrectable at C1 errors in C1.
The E12 count indicates the number of single-symbol correctable errors in the C2 decoder. Because the data is interleaved after the C1 pass, one E31 error can generate up to 30 E12 errors, so a high error count here is not problematic. E22 counts double-symbol correctable errors, which are a bad sign.
The sum of E21 and E22 form a burst error count BST , which can be used to identify physical defects on a disc. Any E32 errors, representing triple-symbol uncorrectable errors in the C2 decoder, result in damaged data. This, incidentally, explains how some forms of audio CD copy protection work. The CD author introduces deliberate uncorrectable errors to the CD. An audio player will inaudibly interpolate across them, but a CD-ROM performing digital audio extraction will simply return the bad bits.
Some software, e. With CIRC, the bit error rate is reduced to one in 10 to billion. It's worth noting that the subcode channels are not CIRC-encoded, and hence are the least-reliable storage directly accessible to the user. The EFM encoding provides some protection against single-bit errors, because only of the 16, possible combinations are valid, but without any parity bits the best the drive can do is tell you that it failed to read the data correctly.
The Q subcode channel, which can hold vital information about the disc, has a bit CRC. Subject:  What's in a sector? The sector is assembled from F1 Frames, which are byte-swapped, shuffled, and run through a descrambler.
The purpose of the scrambler is to reduce the likelihood that regular bit patterns will induce a large digital sum value. It should be pointed out that the byte sector is the smallest unit most CD-ROM drives will allow software to manipulate. This is why making a "bit-for-bit" copy of a disc is tricky. A sector on an audio CD holds bytes of data. At 75 sectors per second, that's samples per second At this point, the processing for an audio CD is essentially complete.
The drives were based on CD players, which just shoved the decoded frames into one FIFO and the subcode data into another. This situation is also responsible for audio extraction "jitter", discussed at length in section Form 1 looks like a slight rearrangement of a Mode 1 sector, with the 8 bytes of space moved ahead of the user data and filled with a sub-header.
The sub-header contains some channel and data type flags. A CD session must be written in a single mode, but the XA spec allows the form to change. Subject:  What's in a subcode channel? Every frame contains one byte of subcode data, and each byte holds 1 bit of P, 1 of Q, and so on. The bytes from 98 consecutive frames are combined to form a subcode "section".
The first two bits in each channel are used for synchronization, leaving 96 bits of useful data per channel which is where RAW DAO gets its name. The P and Q channels are defined by the CD audio standard. They are unrelated to the P and Q parity fields. The P channel can be used to find the start of a track, but in practice most devices use the more sophisticated Q channel. The control bits determine whether the track holds audio or data, the number of audio channels stereo or quadraphonic , and specifies the Digital Copy Permitted and Pre-emphasis flags.
The address bits determine the format of the Q data section. Address mode 1 holds information about tracks, mode 2 holds a catalog number such as a UPC code, constant for an entire disc , and mode 3 contains the ISRC International Standard Recording Code, constant for a given track but may change with each track. A disc has three main regions: the lead-in area, the program area, and the lead-out area.
Subcode Q mode 1 data in the lead-in is used to hold the table of contents TOC for the disc. In the program and lead-out area, mode 1 contains track numbers, index numbers, time within the current track, and absolute time. Index 0 marks the start of a pregap pause before the audio in a track begins, index 1 marks the start of the music, and indexes 2 through 99 are usually not set but can be added if desired. The ability to specify track and index markers when writing a Red Book audio CD is often referred to as "PQ editing" because that information is contained in the P and Q subcodes.
Subcode channels R through W are not defined by the CD standard, except to say that they should be set entirely to zero if not used. Karaoke discs, CD-Text, and some forms of copy protection. It is interesting to note that, while bytes from 98 consecutive frames are used to create a subcode "section", those frames don't have to be from a single sector.
It's possible for a subcode section to start in one sector and end in the next. Kelin J Kuhn used to have some very good information on the University of Washington web site, but it's gone now, and they're not available on archive. This document describes the format of a CD-ROM, including physical dimensions and optical characteristics, as well as sector formats and Q-channel specs.
ECMA is actually quite readable, and if you understood the preceding sections you should have no trouble sorting it out. If you want an explanation of DSV and the problems associated with it, read the Philips patent on the sector scrambler US , or one of the associated patents on removal of DC content from a digital signal.
In brief: "[ As a result, read-out of the information will be disturbed to such an extent that even the error-correction measures cannot prevent errors. Moreover, the tracking system for controlling the read laser which reads the channel bits may become incapable of keeping the laser beam accurately positioned on the track.
The voltage level in the photodetector has pegged, so the difference between a pit and a land is unnoticeable. It turns out that, after passing through the scrambler, a piece of the file has a section that matches the sector header sync pattern. For some technical information on how CD-Rs are constructed, look through the uspto.
Subject:  Digital is better than analog, right? However, the analog film shown in a movie theater is superior to DVD, and the analog studio master tape is better than an audio CD. The sounds that an Apple II makes are generated digitally, but you wouldn't want to play your CDs that way.
Some formats are better than others. The low-cost consumer digital formats are generally superior to low-cost consumer analog formats except perhaps for 35mm film, though that's changing. This does not mean that "digital" is better than "analog", though many people have that impression because the consumer electronics companies are marketing products that way.
Digital has some advantages over analog. The most significant is the ability to apply various algorithms to reproduce the original digital signal. With most forms of analog transmission, reconstructing the original signal without noise and distortions is difficult.
The flip side is that, with too much interference, the digital signal becomes unusable. If you're not part of the "cable TV" generation, think about a picture that was heavily snowed, but still decipherable. It was probably a sporting event. Digital also has disadvantages, although many of them can be minimized through careful system design.
The most fundamental problem is the need to convert the digital signal back to analog. Human senses are analog, so audio has to be converted to voltages that drive speakers, and video needs to be turned into pixels on a screen.
The human eye is pretty easy to fool -- update the image quickly enough and the brain will believe the motion is smooth -- but the ear is more discerning. Slight changes in frequency and timing, especially in a stereo signal, can be detected. Many digital formats are compressed with "lossy" techniques. The parts removed are usually inaudible, though that depends on how much is removed and how good your ears are.
The upshot of all this is that it's wise to pay attention to what you're getting. Don't assume that a digital format is better just because it's digital. Subject:  What is "digital" and "digitization", anyway? To store something in a computer, it must be converted to a series of bits. The process is called "digitizing". You've probably seen an egg slicer. If you haven't, picture a device that looks like a book resting flat on table. Instead of pages it has an egg-shaped depression, and instead of a front cover it has a frame with thin wires stretched across it vertically at regular intervals.
You raise the lid, insert the egg, and when you press the lid down the wires cut the egg into thin, round slices. It usually helps to hard-boil the egg first. Suppose we want to digitize an egg so we can make a nifty 3D model and display it on a computer. Our slicer has 9 wires, so we could end up with as many as 10 pieces.
We place the egg into the device and slice it. Now we measure the height of each piece in centimeters assume the pieces are perfectly round , measuring the diameter with calipers and rounding it to the nearest centimeter. Each slice could go from 0cm the egg was short, so there was no slice to 5cm the width of our slicer. When we're done, we spit out something that looks like this: 1cm 2cm 2cm 2cm 3cm 3cm 3cm 2cm 2cm 1cm Your eggs may vary.
Storing a number from 0 to 5 requires 3 digital bits, so if we know that measurements are always in centimeters, we can store the height of each slice in 3 bits. We have ten numbers to store, so we can hold our egg in a mere 30 bits! When we try to display our digitized egg on a computer screen, however, we discover a problem. Deadline to apply: February 22, Applications available at: Main St. Brawley, CA or www. El Centro Elementary School District. Apply on-line at: www.
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Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The selected packs are mainly ported PvP Packs , which were originally intended for the "normal" Minecraft java version. You definitely improve your gaming fun with the installation, because all textures in the game get a new look.
Resource packs that provide high-resolution textures "HD texture packs" require your GPU to fetch, store, and render exponentially more pixels every frame. Every 2x texture size step 16 to 32, 32 to 64, etc. And note that, every time you swing your view around to something with completely different textures say, from a forest to the desert behind you the video card will have to either already have those textures cached which is less likely the more space each needs or have to load them from RAM or disk, which introduces camera lag.
So what's the take-home message? To offest this, you want to do two things: not get too ambitious with your texture pack sizes, and install a mod like Optifine the Standard or Lite editions that don't add fancy graphics that improves and streamlines Minecraft's inefficient default rendering code.
Remember that the size comparisons go exponentially backwards, too: if you're finding 64x64 to be a heavy load and laggy, the drop down to 32x32 will give you somewhere around a 4x performance increase! Modern GPUs do a bunch of pipelining and parallel processing, and have separate dedicated modules for textures verses vertex versus shader processing, and the 20MB of textures might leave a bunch of that capacity idle, so it may not be a perfect 4x increase.
However, at higher loads that already saturate the processing capacity of a video card, the comparison will be closer to the simplification. However, it's a bit of a worse story for the RAM with those programs. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Ask Question. Asked 7 years, 5 months ago. Active 6 years, 10 months ago. Viewed 7k times. Improve this question. SevenSidedDie Ender Ender It has built-in textures, that you can select in the resource pack view, but they're built-in.
Since "it lowers my framerate" is in the question, you can safely assume that they're using a pack that has higher-res textures than the default ones it's replacing. SevenSidedDie I had assumed they were distributed as a resource pack, and not actually built in. Dunno if it makes a performance difference, but good to know.
Using a 16x16 replacement pack won't make a performance difference since it's a replacement, but a 32x32 pack or up will impact performance. I've heard of players who don't realise that the default is so low-res and gleefully installed a x pack, without realising they were doing a fold increase in texture size! Show 1 more comments.