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The THD remained unchanged above Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant.

Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant - a pilot study at 1. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant BCI used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging MRI of 1. One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.

It was found that the exposure of 1. This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1. Imaging protocols were modified for 3. FLAIR images of either different TEs or different field strengths were ranked for each patient qualitatively by two observers. Signal intensity measurements were obtained in the gray and white matter, CSF and representative white matter lesions WML.

With regard to artifacts, 3. On the placement of practice questions during study. Retrieval practice improves retention of information on later tests. A question remains: When should retrieval occur during learning-interspersed throughout study or at the end of each study period? In a lab experiment, an online experiment, and a classroom study , we aimed to determine the ideal placement interspersed vs.

In the lab experiment, 64 subjects viewed slides about APA style and answered short-answer practice questions about the content or restudied the slides restudy condition. The practice questions either appeared 1 every slides interspersed condition , or all at the end of the presentation at-the-end condition. One week later, subjects returned and answered the same questions on a final test. In the online experiment, subjects completed the same procedure. In the classroom study , 62 undergraduate students took quizzes as part of class lectures.

Short-answer practice questions appeared either throughout the lectures interspersed condition or at the end of the lectures at-the-end condition. Nineteen days after the last quiz, students were given a surprise final test. Results from the 3 experiments converge in demonstrating an advantage for interspersing practice questions on the initial tests, but an absence of this advantage on the final test.

Full Text Available An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus.

Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom.

Keywords: Socratic questioning , teacher questioning , critical thinking, action research. The potential profile obtained in the galvanostatic regime shows three plateaus at different voltages due to different reaction mechanisms. Two of them, at 2. We show that iron is an electrochemically active center at 2. Methods and materials: One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.

Results: It was found that the exposure of 1. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that the present BCI. T2-mapping of the sacroiliac joints at 1. To evaluate the reproducibility of T2 relaxation time measurements of the sacroiliac joints at 1. Healthy volunteers underwent an oblique axial multislice multiecho spin-echo sequence of the sacroiliac joints at 1. Regions of interest were manually drawn using a dedicated software by two musculoskeletal radiologists to include the cartilaginous part of the sacroiliac joints.

A senior radiologist performed the measurement twice, while a resident measured once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was tested using the Bland-Altman method. Association between sex and T2 relaxation times was tested using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mean T2 values obtained by the radiology resident were Further studies could investigate the potential clinical application of this tool in the sacroiliac joints. Lung MRI at 1. To compare the image quality and lesion contrast of lung MRI using 5 different pulse sequences at 1.

Lung MRI was performed at 1. In addition to 4 healthy volunteers, 5 porcine lungs were examined in a dedicated chest phantom. Lung pathology nodules and infiltrates was simulated in the phantom by intrapulmonary and intrabronchial injections of agarose. CT was performed in the phantom for correlation. Image quality of the sequences was ranked in a side-by-side comparison by 3 blinded radiologists regarding the delineation of pulmonary and mediastinal anatomy, conspicuity of pulmonary nodules and infiltrates, and presence of artifacts.

There were no relevant differences regarding the preference for the individual sequences between both field strengths. TSE was the preferred sequence for the visualization of the mediastinum at both field strengths. The imaging characteristics of different. The metal ions are expected to have coordination numbers Of note is that methods that accurately describe the relative energies of the product and reactant clusters did not show reactions on the timescales studied.

This article is part of the theme issue 'Modern theoretical chemistry'. Synthesis, characterization and thermal expansion studies on ThO2-SmO 1. Compositions of the solid solutions were characterized by standard wet-chemical analysis. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed in the sintered pellets for structural analysis, lattice parameter calculation and determination of solid solubility of SmO 1.

Bulk and theoretical densities of solid solutions were also determined. A fluorite structure was observed for ThO 2 -SmO 1. Their thermal expansion coefficients were measured using high temperature X-ray diffraction technique. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficients for ThO 2 -SmO 1. The percentage linear thermal expansion in this temperature range, for ThO 2 -SmO 1.

It is suggested that the solid solutions are stable up to K. It is also suggested that the effect and nature of the dopant are the important parameters influenced in the thermal expansion of the ThO 2. An experimental and computational study. Under thermal activation in solution, N-[2- 1,3-oxathiolanyl ]phenyl ketenimines and carbodiimides were converted into 2,1-benzisothiazolones bearing a pendant N-styryl or imidoyl fragment, respectively.

These processes should occur with the concomitant formation of ethylene as result of the fragmentation of the 1,3-oxathiolane ring. The conversions of ketenimines took place under softer thermal conditions, toluene degrees C, than those of carbodiimides, o-xylene degrees C. A computational DFT study unveiled the mechanistic course of these transformations, rare tandem processes consisting of an initial 1,5 -hydride shift of the acetalic hydrogen atom to the central carbon atom of the heterocumulene function leading to the respective o-azaxylylene.

This transient intermediate then converts, in a single step, into ethylene and the experimentally isolated benzisothiazolone. This latter stage of the mechanism is rather peculiar, combining a 1,5 -cyclization by S-N bond formation, aromaticity recovery at the benzene nucleus, and the fragmentation of the oxathiolane framework originating a new carbonyl group. It can be related with a vinylogous retro-ene reaction and shows pseudopericyclic characteristics.

The computations also revealed that the alternative 6pi electrocyclization of the transient o-azaxylylenes cannot compete, on kinetic and thermodynamic grounds, with the experimentally observed reaction channel. The two alternative reaction paths of a number of ketenimines and carbodiimides were computationally scrutinized, the results being in accord with the experimental outcomes.

In addition, sulfur extrusion from the benzisothiazolones by the action of triphenylphosphine under two different reaction conditions led to three different types of heterocyclic products, 4 3H -quinolones, quinolino[2,1-b]quinazolin-5,diones, and dibenzo[b,f][ 1,5 ]diazocin-6,diones, whose formation is explained by the initial formation of an intermediate imidoylketene. The studies of surface properties of 1.

The surface layer of crystalline silicon implanted by 1. Two-phonon Raman line intensities and shifts have been used to investigate the properties in the skin layer. The experimental two-phonon Raman spectra showed a decrease in intensity for both optical and acoustical two-phonon Raman peaks and also showed shifts by different amounts in different directions depending on the particular phonons. The stress values obtained by two-phonon Raman line shifts are compared with those obtained previously by one-phonon Raman shifts.

The comparison shows that the surface defects make no contribution to two-phonon Raman line shifts. The two-phonon Raman line shifts show that the surface stress increases as a function of implantation doses. Artifacts in MRI of the temporomandibular joint caused by dental alloys: a phantom study at 1. Fellner, C. Purpose: The influence of dental alloys on MRI of the temporomandibular joint was studied using a phantom model for this joint.

The artifacts were assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and the samples were subdivided into four artifact categories. Mn and the remaining non-precious alloys induced artifacts up to 30 mm category III. Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. NMR studies of Costa-type organocobalt compounds.

Structural characterization of several 1,5 ,6-trimethylbenzimidazole complexes. Parker, W. The structure of L exchange data have been examined for Costa models containing 1,5 ,6-trimethylbenzimidazole, the base most appropriate for comparison with cobaltamines. However, little is known about the relationship between curiosity, question -asking behavior, and general inquiry skills.

While curiosity and question asking are invariably mentioned in…. Anatomy and metabolism of the normal human brain studied by magnetic resonance at 1. Bottomley, P. Proton magnetic resonance MR images were obtained of the human head in magnetic fields as high as 1. The first localized phosphorus 31, carbon 13, and proton MR chemical shift spectra recorded with surface coils from the head and body in the same instrument showed relative concentrations of phosphorus metabolites, triglycerides, and, when correlated with proton images, negligible lipid -CH 2 - signal from brain tissue on the time scale of the imaging experiment.

Sugar phosphate and phosphodiester concentrations were significantly elevated in the head compared with muscle. This method should allow the combined assessment of anatomy, metabolism, and biochemistry in both the normal and diseased brain. Determination of cartilage thickness in the ankle joint.

Trattnig, S. Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. Radiologische Abt. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in the measurement of cartilage thickness of the ankle joint in comparison to pathologic and histologic specimens. Patients and methods: The ankle joints of four fresh cadaver feet were imaged on a 1. Following MR imaging, the talus was explanted and cut parallel to the MR images for macroscopic evaluation and histologic specimens were prepared.

MRI measurements of the cartilage thickness of the talus were carried out in two ways: Without and with consideration of a transition zone of intermediate signal intensity between hyperintense cartilage and hypointense cortical bone. The data were compared with the anatomic specimens as the gold standard expressing the difference as a percentage value. On histologic specimens thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer was measured. Results: Measurements without the transition zone showed a mean underestimation of talus cartilage thickness of Considering the transition zone the mean values were The histologic specimens showed a three-fold increase of thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer.

Conclusions: Measurements of the cartilage layer of the ankle joint on MR images are only accurate if the transition zone calcified cartilage layer is considered and the optimal pulse sequence FLASH-3D-fat-sat is applied. Studies of power exhaust and divertor design for a 1. Asakura, N. Power exhaust to the divertor and the conceptual design have been investigated for a steady-state DEMO in Japan with 1.

These results showed a power exhaust scenario and the divertor design concept. An integrated design of the water-cooling heat sink for the long leg divertor was proposed. Cu-ally CuCrZr cooling pipe was applicable as the heat sink to handle the high heat flux near the strike-point, where displacements per atom rate was estimated to be 0.

Heat flux of 16 MW m-2 was distributed in the major part. Hernandez, O. This discrepancy comes from the fact that X-ray irradiation induces in this compound an unusual time-dependent decrease of the intensity of high-order satellite diffraction peaks.

As a consequence and due to the commensurate nature of the phases investigated, X-ray diffraction failed to detect the large anharmonicity of the structural modulation which is clearly present in the two structures determined by neutron diffraction. Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J. Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying i policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and ii horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future.

Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive i.

Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions.

We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton. The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute.

After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The…. Experimental Study Related to the Mooring Design for the 1. The paper presents the results of an experimental study identifying the response of a 1. The best strategies allowing for a reduction in the extreme mooring tension have also been investigated, showing that this is possible Synchrotron radiation facilities provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams.

These exposures were monitored with an SSRL ionization chamber. Irradiation at 6 keV indicates a fairly linear dose response for both type of TLDs over a dose range of 0. In addition there appears to be no significant difference in responses between irradiating the TLDs from the front and the back sides. Stress examination of flexor tendon pulley rupture in the crimp grip position: a 1. The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging MRI and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study.

Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0.

MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged years: A cross sectional study.

Iron Fe deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead Pb toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead BPb levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan.

A total of children of both genders participating in this study , were screened for anemia. Among them were anemic and non-anemic. The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. Jun 1, As the disease progresses Cardiac MR tagging: optimization of sequence parameters and comparison at 1. Kramer, U. Materials and methods: 14 healthy volunteers 8 male, 6 female; mean age A GRE flash-2 D tagging sequence was evaluated midventricular short axis view by varying the flip angle , slice thickness mm; fixed flip angle 1.

The field of view, acquisition time and temporal resolution 45 ms were kept constant. Results: Based on individual comparison, the best imaging protocol was found at a slice thickness of 6 mm, tag size of 8 mm, optimized flip angle of 8 3. Compared to 1. Conclusion: Myocardial tagging at 3. The suppressed fading of the tags enables the accessibility to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle.

Because inheritance is recognized as playing a role in age at menarche and natural menopause, the development of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea CIA might depend on inherited genetic factors; however, studies that explore such a correlation are few and have received scant attention. Significant Artifact Reduction at 1. Cochlear implants CIs are standard treatment for postlingually deafened individuals and prelingually deafened children.

This human cadaver study evaluated diagnostic usefulness, image quality and artifacts in 1. Three criteria diagnostic usefulness, image quality, artifacts were assessed at 1. The brain magnetic resonance scans were performed with and without the magnet in situ. The criteria were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists, with focus on image distortion and limitation of the diagnostic value of the acquired MR images.

MR images with the magnet in situ were all compromised by artifacts caused by the CI. After removal of the magnet, MR scans showed an unequivocal artifact reduction with significant improvement of the image quality and diagnostic usefulness, both at 1. Visibility of the brain stem, cerebellopontine angle, and parieto-occipital lobe ipsilateral to the CI increased significantly after magnet removal. The results indicate the possible advantages for 1. Our findings support use of CIs with removable magnets, especially in patients with chronic intracranial pathologies.

Syntheses of planar 1,5 ,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives and thermodynamic study on intermolecular charge transfer for developing efficient organic solar cell. Zhang, Chao-Zhi, E-mail: zhangchaozhi nuist. The results of experiments and theoretical calculations show that the electrons could transfer spontaneously from poly 3-hexylthiophene to these acceptors. The percentages of fluorescence quenching increase with negative Gibbs free energy values increasing in the charge transfer procedures.

Therefore, short circuit current values of organic solar cells would increase with the Gibbs free energy values increasing. This paper suggests a useful way for developing efficient organic solar cells. This work aims to characterize by X-ray diffraction to study the electrical properties and dielectric properties of CBT. The x-ray diffraction revealed the formation of single orthorhombic phase. As for the dielectric properties dielectric constant and dielectric loss were measured at 30 deg C to deg C, through which can be verified the presence of thermally activated processes.

This phase has properties very relevant for possible use in capacitive devices, miniaturized filters, dielectric resonators antennas and oscillators. Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI parameters of breast lesions at 1. Methods: 11 patients underwent paired MRI examinations in both Philips 1. Signal intensity vs time curves were fit with an empirical mathematical model to obtain semi-quantitative measures of uptake and washout rates as well as time-to-peak enhancement TTP.

Maximum percent enhancement and signal enhancement ratio SER were also measured for each lesion. Percent differences between parameters measured at the two field strengths were compared. Conclusion: Our results suggest that TTP and SER are more robust to field strength change than other measured kinetic parameters, and therefore measurements of these parameters can be more easily standardized than measurements of other parameters derived from DCE-MRI. Semi-quantitative measures of overall kinetic curve shape showed higher reproducibility than do discrete classification of kinetic curve early and delayed phases in a majority of the cases studied.

Advances in knowledge: Qualitative measures of curve shape are not consistent across field strength even when acquisition parameters are standardized. Quantitative measures of overall kinetic curve shape, by contrast, have higher reproducibility. Synthesis, physicochemical and antimicrobial studies of first row transition metal complexes with quinoline derivatives nitroquinolino 3,2-b 1,5 benzodixazepine and nitroquinolino 3,2-b 1,5 benzoxazepine. The antimicrobial studies of ligand and its metal, metal complexes have been screened for selected bacteria E.

Coli , S. Antimicrobial studies shows that the Mn II complexes are more toxic than other metal complexes. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal octahedral geometry around the metal ion. The complexes were found to be non electrolyte in nature on the basis of low value of molar conductance. An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher….

Breast MRI at 3. The sensitivity of X-ray mammography for the detection of breast malignancy in younger females is lower than that of breast MRI; consequently, guidelines recommend annual MRI for patients with a significantly elevated lifetime risk. The improved signal-to-noise ratio obtainable at 3.

However, breast imaging on higher field strength systems poses specific problems. As a result, caution has been urged in the implementation of breast MRI at 3. The aim of this study was to determine if it is appropriate to use 3. Over a month period, patients referred with an elevated familial risk of breast cancer were examined at 3. Resulting images were scored based on the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group imaging classification. The reference standard was a combination of histology and follow-up imaging.

Follow-up data were available in patients. These results compared favourably against those of a recent meta-analysis [ Given the similar summary statistics between this work and the 1. Further studies should be undertaken to verify this result. The issue of the "identity" of comparative education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades. Yet a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field remains open. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles.

Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car. Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome. To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome.

The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors. The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial.

The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review. Kalapurakal, John A. All patients were treated with multimodality therapy according to the NWTS protocols.

All patients underwent primary surgery with radical nephrectomy. The median delay between surgery and the initiation of RT was 9 days range, The median RT dose was The flank RT doses were as follows: The median follow-up for the entire group was 17 years range, Questioning the Questions.

Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…. Novel 1,5 ,7-trihydroxyhydroxy methyl anthraquinone isolated from terrestrial Streptomyces sp.

Streptomyces sp. The isolated compound 1,5 ,7-trihydroxyhydroxy methyl anthraquinone was tested against bacteria and fungi at minimum inhibitory concentration level. Docking studies of the compound showed low docking energy indicating its usefulness as antimicrobial agent. The class inclusion question : a case study in applying pragmatics to the experimental study of cognition. Inclusion is of considerable importance for cognitive science as it is a key concept for logical operations and knowledge representation.

It is shown that the question can be characterised by a kind of privative ambiguity which is at the source of the younger children's answer, "more asters". A relevance-theoretic explanation of children's interpretation of the question and of the subsequent responses is expounded. This account can explain the effect of all the factors that are known to influence performance e. It is further tested experimentally. The development of performance is explained on the basis of the way children disambiguate the question.

This study exemplifies the two ways in which pragmatic analysis is pertinent to the study of children's as well as adults' reasoning and judgement, namely in explaining and predicting participants' comprehension of the statements and questions , and in taking into account attribution processes that occur in the experimental setting.

Soft tissue around three different implant types after 1. The purpose of this study was to determine the peri-implant soft tissue dimension PSD and peri-implant bone level BL of dental implants with different designs and surface modifications after functional loading without oral hygiene. Three types of dental implants were placed in the posterior jaws of adult baboons, three of the same design per quadrant, and fitted with fixed partial dentures. After 1. There was no difference in BL around the three implant designs maxilla: CpTi: 0.

Overall, the data presented did not show any significant differences in peri-implant soft tissue conditions in baboons. Moreover, plaque accumulation and propagation of peri-implant mucositis after 1. Reports results of a study testing a selective attentional model which predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram will focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information.

The optical system includes fine guidance sensors, wavefront sensing, and spectral and flat-field in-flight calibration sources. Are rheumatoid arthritis patients discernible from other early arthritis patients using 1. Because this recommendation may reflect a tendency to use MRI in daily practice, thorough studies on the value of MRI are required. Thus far no large studies have evaluated the accuracy of MRI to differentiate early RA from other patients with early arthritis.

We performed a large cross-sectional study to determine whether patients who are clinically classified with RA differ in MRI features compared to patients with other diagnoses. In our study , patients presenting with early arthritis median symptom duration Tenosynovitis was also assessed.

Test characteristics and areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves AUC were evaluated. The ACR criteria were fulfilled in 43 patients Patients with RA had higher scores for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bone marrow edema BME than patients without RA p arthritis patients. Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science.

They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research. The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys.

The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions. The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science. H2O 5. Whether an intracluster reaction to form HONO is observed depends on the level of electronic structure theory used.

H2O 5 complex following its formation. Effects on respiratory homeostasis of prolonged, continuous hyperoxia at 1. Prolonged exposures of men to continuous hyperoxia at 3. Altered respiratory homeostasis was evident during exposures of men to 2. These changes were progressive during exposure at 1. Mean values of respiratory reactivity at CO2 were somewhat increased following prolonged hyperoxia at 1. Hypoxic ventilatory response was unchanged or enhanced after oxygen exposures at 1.

Observed respiratory and body temperature changes were not of sufficient magnitude to impair function. This paper is concerned with "match-mismatch" problems. In particular it seeks to match students' questioning to different modes of teaching in undergraduate chemistry. Kolb's theory of experiential learning is used to bridge between learners' questioning and teaching formats. Three case studies illuminate both sets of characteristics, the…. Bay, Jacquie L. Questioning is central to the development of scientific and health literacies.

In exploring this concept, Tongan science teachers hypothesized that their ability to use and encourage questioning presented challenges in the context of Tongan social and cultural norms. This study set out to develop a peer-to-peer protocol to enable teachers to…. The International scale interval study : improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and Languages.

These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a 0 to Full text: One of the current issues in tokamak plasma is sawtooth oscillation, because each sawtooth crash results in a significant reduction of central temperature and density. Consequently, the nuclear fusion power will drop. This has a significant impact on the performance of future nuclear fusion power plants.

In this work, behaviors of sawtooth oscillations during an electron-cyclotron resonant heating ECRH in HL-2A tokamak experiment are studied. The simulation of plasma in HL-2A tokamak is carried out using the 1. In each simulation, a sawtooth crash is predicted by either Rogers-Zakharov sawtooth triggering model, Park-Monticello sawtooth triggering model, or Porcelli sawtooth triggering model. The effect of sawtooth crash is described by a modified Kadomtsev magnetic reconnection model. The magnetization transfer effect in brain studies by 1.

When the radiographer should apply it? Purpose: The Magnetization Transfer MT obtained by applying a pre-saturation pulse is, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI , a technique that allows for additional enhancement of lesions on conventional T1 images after contrast administration.

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the technique measuring how MT could improve image quality and diagnostic values through the enhancement of lesions. Methods: Thirteen T1-weighted spin-echo SE sequences, obtained by the 1. The contrast-to-noise ratio CNR , as well as the signal-to-noise ratio SNR variables were compared in all sequences, according to the reference structures: lateral ventricles, white matter, gray matter, caudate nucleus and internal capsule.

For the assessment of the flow artifact, clinical experts applied a Likert scale with 5 points. Conclusion: In identical conditions of acquisition, the MT does not produce significant differences in the enhancement of lesions, however, it allows a greater capacity to detect the multiple sclerosis plaques, comparing structures around basal nucleus versus gray and white matter. Pulmonary tolerance in man to continuous oxygen exposure at 3. Oxygen effects on pulmonary function were measured in normal, resting men who breathed oxygen continuously at 3.

Rates of pulmonary symptom intensification and decrease in vital capacity VC increased progressively with elevation of inspired oxygen pressure. Although VC decrements occurred concurrently with symptoms, the lung volume changes became prominent when symptoms were still mild.

The observed effects were consistent with the interpretation that small airway function is impaired more selectively by oxygen exposure at 3. Despite similar VC changes after oxygen exposure at 2. Feasibility study of simultaneous physical examination and dynamic MR imaging of medial collateral ligament knee injuries in a 1.

Studler, Ueli; White, Lawrence M. To determine the feasibility of evaluating medial knee joint laxity with dynamic magnetic resonance MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination in a large-bore 1. The study included 10 patients 5 women, 5 men; mean age 35 years with clinically diagnosed and categorized acute injuries of the medial collateral ligament MCL.

Intermittent valgus stress was applied separately to both the affected and the contralateral knee joint during dynamic MR imaging with a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence. The width of the medial joint space and the opening angle between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateau were measured. Results obtained from dynamic MR imaging of the affected knee were compared with morphological MCL changes on static MRI, to kinematics of the contralateral side and to the clinical grading of MCL injuries.

On clinical examination, all patients had grade 2 MCL injuries except one, who had a grade 1 lesion. Mean medial joint space width and opening angles of all affected knees were 2. Dynamic MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination is feasible.

Our results suggest that this technique might enable the imaging documentation of medial ligamentous knee instability. Enzymatic production of microthecin by aldosulose dehydratase from 1,5 -anhydro-D-fructose and stability studies of microthecin.

Microthecin 2-hydroxy hydroxymethyl -2H-pyran-3 6H -one , which has anti-microbial activity, is one of the end products of an alternative glycogen and starch degrading pathway, the anhydrofructose pathway. Artefacts induced by coiled intracranial aneurysms on 3. Schaafsma, Joanna D. Objective: To compare metal-induced artefacts from coiled intracranial aneurysms on 3.

Materials and methods: We scanned 19 patients mean age 53; 16 women with 20 saccular aneurysms treated with coils only, at 1. Per modality two neuro-radiologists assessed the occlusion status, measured residual flow, and indicated whether coil artefacts disturbed this assessment on MRA. We assessed relative risks for disturbance by coil artefacts, weighted kappa's for agreement on occlusion levels, and we compared remnant sizes.

For artefact measurements, a coil model was created and scanned with the same protocols followed by 2D MR scans with variation of echo-time and read-out gradient strength. Results: Coil artefacts disturbed assessments less frequently at 3. Coil model artefacts were smaller at 3. The echo-time influenced artefact size more than the read-out gradient. Conclusions: Artefacts were not larger, but smaller at 3. Despite smaller artefacts and larger remnants at 3.

To compare metal-induced artefacts from coiled intracranial aneurysms on 3. We scanned 19 patients mean age 53; 16 women with 20 saccular aneurysms treated with coils only, at 1. Coil artefacts disturbed assessments less frequently at 3. Artefacts were not larger, but smaller at 3. All rights reserved. Cyclic voltammetry illustrates a reversible reaction occurring between 0. Cyclic voltammetry illustrates a reversible reaction occurring in the 0. The spinel however. Self-reported care needs of Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability: a 1.

Cognitive impairment is a prevalent problem among the homeless and seems related to more psychosocial problems. However, little is known about the care needs of the subgroup of homeless people with an intellectual disability compared to those without an intellectual disability and how their care needs develop over time. This study explores self-reported care needs within a broad range of life domains among Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability to gain insight into the transition of self-reported care needs from baseline to follow-up in both subgroups.

This longitudinal study is part of a cohort study among homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan in four major Dutch cities. The initial cohort consisted of participants who were interviewed in For both groups, between baseline and follow-up, the number of 'unmet care needs' decreased significantly and the number of 'no care needs' increased significantly, while at follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability reported 'no care needs' on significantly fewer life domains than those without a suspected intellectual disability mean numbers Between baseline and follow-up, 'met care needs' decreased significantly on housing for both groups, and increased on finances and dental care for participants with a suspected intellectual disability.

At follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability more often preferred housing support available by appointment than those without a suspected intellectual disability. These findings suggest that homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan with a suspected intellectual disability have care needs for a longer period of time than those.

This document represents a presentation regarding organizational knowledge capture systems which was delivered at the HICSS conference held from January , An exploratory case study of two knowledge resources is offered. Then, two organizational knowledge capture systems are briefly described: knowledge transfer from practitioner and the use of questions to represent knowledge.

Finally, the creation of a database of peer review questions is suggested as a method of promoting organizational discussions and knowledge representation and exchange. A Controversial Source for a 1. A study on the thermal decomposition behavior of derivatives of 1,5 -diamino-1H-tetrazole DAT : A new family of energetic heterocyclic-based salts. The thermal decomposition of the highly energetic 1,5 -diaminomethyl-1H-tetrazolium nitrate 2b , 1,5 -diaminomethyl-1H-tetrazolium dinitramide 2c and 1,5 -diaminomethyl-1H-tetrazolium azide 2d were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis TGA and differential scanning calorimetry DSC.

Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy were used to identify the gaseous products. Decomposition appears in the cases of 2c and 2d to be initiated by a proton transfer to form the corresponding acid HN 3 and HN 3 O 4 whereas in the case of 2b a methyl group transfer to MeONO 2 is observed as initial process. The gaseous products after the exothermic decomposition are comparable and are in agreement of the possible decomposition pathways discussed for the corresponding compounds.

For all processes, possible decomposition schemes are presented. The decomposition temperatures of 2b and 2c are significantly higher than that of 2d and were supported by evaluation the values of the activation energy according the method of Ozawa and Kissinger. X-ray diffraction XRD confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content.

Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth. The study investigated the selective attentional effects of adjunct study questions inserted before or after the presentation of science flow diagrams. The basic design for the study was a post-test only control group design involving a total of students randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Oshun State Nigeria.

These were…. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator HRSG integrated in turn with a steam turbi Efficiency studies for a tracking detector based on square 1. A tracking detector based on 1.

Measurements on light attenuation, particle detection efficiencies and accidental coincidence rates with a prototype set-up using 2x2mm 2 fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers SiPM are presented. The highest efficiency at the lowest accidental coincidence rate was reached for high trigger thresholds at the largest SiPM bias voltages. The influence of signal attenuation and dispersion on detection efficiencies is discussed.

The results are in good agreement with a Monte Carlo model that was used to predict detector characteristics for different fiber geometries. Introduction: The concept of information needs is significant within the field of Information Needs Seeking and Use. The main aim of this paper is to explore the methodological consequences of discursively oriented theories when….

Sixty-seven patient with painful bone metastases were randomized to two groups. All of them met inclusion criteria and there was no significantly difference between the basic conditions of two groups. After receiving Sm-EDTMP intravenously, all patients were kept in close follow-up weekly with blood counting, physician visiting and collecting patient's self-filling-in diary including pain score, Karnofsky performance scale and analgesic consumption.

The follow-up duration was six weeks. The final overall condition assessed by physician were graded into no change including worse , slight relief, significant relief and complete relief. Only significant relief and complete relief were considered as effectiveness for pain relief. The results indicated that the higher dosage group had a higher effectiveness rate Interactions between 2,4-bis-pteridine- 1,5 -benzodiazepine and group 12 dihalides: synthesis, spectral and XRD structural studies and theoretical calculations.

The benzodiazepine ligand was reacted with zinc ii , cadmium ii and mercury ii chloride, bromide and iodide to give complexes with general formula [M DLMBZD X 2 ]. The structure of seven complexes has been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

The coordinated-metal environment is a square-based pyramid, with increasing trigonality from Hg ii to Zn ii complexes. A topological analysis of the electron density using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules and the complexes stability has been performed. Computational study of the effects of shroud geometric variation on turbine performance in a 1. Generally speaking, main flow path of gas turbine is assumed to be perfect for standard 3D computation.

But in real engine, the turbine annulus geometry is not completely smooth for the presence of the shroud and associated cavity near the end wall. Besides, shroud leakage flow is one of the dominant sources of secondary flow in turbomachinery, which not only causes a deterioration of useful work but also a penalty on turbine efficiency. It has been found that neglect shroud leakage flow makes the computed velocity profiles and loss distribution significantly different to those measured.

Even so, the influence of shroud leakage flow is seldom taken into consideration during the routine of turbine design due to insufficient understanding of its impact on end wall flows and turbine performance. In order to evaluate the impact of tip shroud geometry on turbine performance, a 3D computational investigation for 1. The following geometry parameters were varied respectively: Inlet cavity length and exit cavity length. Diagnostic performance of CT-arthrography and 1. The cartilage surface was divided in 18 anatomical areas.

Arthroscopy was taken as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA varied from Full Text Available It was claimed by variationists that languages experience variation at all levels, which is supposed to be patterned.

The present study aimed at exploring how variation occurred in English and Persian wh- questions. More specifically, it investigated whether such a variation was systematic and patterned. To this end, a modified version of the Edinburgh Map Task was used in data collection. The population of this study was 60 Canadian and Persian native speakers who performed the task through the construction of wh- question variants. The results indicated that both languages experienced variation in the construction of wh- questions.

However, Persian proved to be more variable than English because it allowed more wh- question variants to be produced. Moreover, this variation was patterned in English and Persian individually, yet a systematic variation could not be observed between these two languages. Supermercado pasqualotto juina mining. The locos lloviendo idiotas lyrics search. Cryptostream memorystream to byte. Acheter dogecoin avec skrill. Aktien charts technischer Analyse kostenlos.

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So far, no cloud mining operation we are aware of has has an ASIC manufacturer acknowledge they are selling hardware to a cloud mining company. Bitcoin mining is very competitive and has incredibly thin margins. There would be no way to mine profitably if they were paying not only you, but also the person who referred you. If there is no way to the know idenntity of the cloud mining operation, there is no way to hold them accountable if they run with the money.

It also makes it harder to catch the person who stole your money. WARNING: Just because a cloud mining website boasts a famous person as an investor or advisor does not mean that person is actually investing or advising. Anyone can throw up a picture of Elon Musk on their site. The real proof is if Elon Musk himself says in a news clip that he is a founder. Investments should never be a one-way transaction.

If you can easily give the cloud miner money, but there is no obvious way to sell your position and get it back, then that is a good indication you will never get your money back. Any investment that guarantees profits is a scam. If the cloud miner has so far made good on delivering its guarantees, it is because they are using funds from new investors to pay off old ones and appear solvent. Ponzi schemes work this way.

Eventually, they are going to run with the money, but you never know when it will happen. The other point to consider is: if a miner could guarantee profits, why would they sell that right to you? Why wouldn't they take teh guaranteed profits for themselves? If the amount of shares for sale in the cloud mining operation appear infinite, then they are definitely running a scam.

No miner has an unlimited amount of hashing power. Most cloud mining companies accept Bitcoin, PayPal, and credit cards. If a cloud mining company accepts bitcoins then there is a good chance it is a scam. This is because Bitcoin payments cannot be reversed. Once the scam company receives your bitcoin payment you have no way to get your coins back. Any company offering free trials, especially if they require payment information, is most likely a scam.

Our guide on the best bitcoin wallets will help you pick one. Read it here! Cloud mining means a host company owns Bitcoin mining hardware and runs it at a professional mining facility. You pay the company and rent out some of the hardware.

Based on the amount of hash power you rent, you will earn a share of payments from the cloud mining company for any revenue generated by the hash power you purchased. In most cases, though, there is no mining facility or hardware. There is just a guy taking your money and paying part of it to someone who signed up before you did. Eventually he runs away with the money, and you are left with nothing. Mining software is something you download on your computer.

It is required when you OWN mining hardware. Software connects your hardware to the internet so that it can make hashes and communicate with the network. Just find an exchange in your country and buy some bitcoins. If you're still a bit confused about what Bitcoin mining is, that's okay. That's one reason I built this site, to make it easier to understand!

One common question people ask is if they can just invest in the mining companies instead of trying to mine themselves. The answer is: yes, you absolutely can. And you wouldn't be the only ones investing in these companies. Fidelity, Vanguard, and Charles Schwab Funds have all been buying these stocks en masse. So when Jamie Dimon, CEO of Chase, denigrates Bitcoin , just remember that many of his friends at the big banks are loading up on these stocks themselves. Disclaimer: Buy Bitcoin Worldwide is not offering, promoting, or encouraging the purchase, sale, or trade of any security or commodity.

Buy Bitcoin Worldwide is for educational purposes only. Every visitor to Buy Bitcoin Worldwide should consult a professional financial advisor before engaging in such practices. Buy Bitcoin Worldwide, nor any of its owners, employees or agents, are licensed broker-dealers, investment advisors, or hold any relevant distinction or title with respect to investing.

Buy Bitcoin Worldwide does not promote, facilitate or engage in futures, options contracts or any other form of derivatives trading. Buy Bitcoin Worldwide does not offer legal advice. Any such advice should be sought independently of visiting Buy Bitcoin Worldwide.

Only a legal professional can offer legal advice and Buy Bitcoin Worldwide offers no such advice with respect to the contents of its website. Buy Bitcoin Worldwide receives compensation with respect to its referrals for out-bound crypto exchanges and crypto wallet websites.

Bitcoin mining seems crazy! Computers mining for virtual coins? Is Bitcoin mining just free money? Well, it's much, much more than that! If you want the full explanation on Bitcoin mining, keep reading Jordan Tuwiner Last updated January 17, Chapter 1 What is Bitcoin Mining? Bitcoin mining is the backbone of the Bitcoin network.

Miners provide security and confirm Bitcoin transactions. Without Bitcoin miners, the network would be attacked and dysfunctional. Bitcoin mining is done by specialized computers. The role of miners is to secure the network and to process every Bitcoin transaction. For this service, miners are rewarded with newly-created Bitcoins and transaction fees. What is Bitcoin mining actually doing?

Miners are securing the network and confirming Bitcoin transactions. Miners are paid rewards for their service every 10 minutes in the form of new bitcoins. What is Bitcoin Mining Actually Doing? What is the point of Bitcoin mining? This is something we're asked everyday!

There are many aspects and functions of Bitcoin mining and we'll go over them here. They are: Issuance of new bitcoins Confirming transactions Security Mining Is Used to Issue new Bitcoins Traditional currencies--like the dollar or euro--are issued by central banks.

Bitcoin is different. With Bitcoin, miners are rewarded new bitcoins every 10 minutes. Miners Confirm Transactions Miners include transactions sent on the Bitcoin network in their blocks. A transaction can only be considered secure and complete once it is included in a block. More confirmations are better for larger payments. Here is a visual so you have a better idea: 0 Payments with 0 confirmations can still be reversed!

Wait for at least one. Most exchanges require 3 confirmations for deposits. Six is standard for most transactions to be considered secure. Chapter 3 How to Mine Bitcoins. Actually want to try mining bitcoins? Most Bitcoin mining is done in large warehouses where there is cheap electricity. To be real: Most people should NOT mine bitcoins today. Most Bitcoin mining is specialized and the warehouses look something like this: Source ieee.

Step 1: Get Bitcoin Wallet When earning bitcoins from mining, they go directly into a Bitcoin wallet. You can't mine without a wallet. Popular Exchanges. Coinbase High liquidity and buying limits Easy way for newcomers to get bitcoins "Instant Buy" option available with debit card. Bitbuy Popular. Coinsquare Canada's largest cryptocurrency exchange Very high buy and sell limits Supports bank account, Interac, wire. Coinmama Works in almost all countries Highest limits for buying bitcoins with a credit card Reliable and trusted broker.

Our mining profitability calculator will help you figure out if mining will be worth it. Chapter 4 What is Bitcoin Mining Hardware. Bitcoin mining hardware ASICs are high specialized computers used to mine bitcoins. The ASIC industry has become complex and competitive. Mining hardware is now only located where there is cheap electricity. However: Enterprising coders soon discovered they could get more hashing power from graphic cards and wrote mining software to allow this.

Mining pools allow small miners to receive more frequent mining payouts. By joining with other miners in a group, a pool allows miners to find blocks more frequently. But, there are some problems with mining pools as we'll discuss. Chapter 6 Inside the Bitcoin Mining Industry. The mining industry has come a long way since the early days of graphics card mining.

What does a mining farm look like? Let's take a look inside a real Bitcoin mining farm in Washington state. Miner Anyone who mines Bitcoins or any other cryptocurrency. Block Reward The block reward is a fixed amount of Bitcoins that get rewarded to the miner or mining pool that finds a given block. Mining Pool A collection of individual miners who 'pool' their efforts or hashing power together and share the blockreward. Block Reward Halving Approximately every 4 years, the block reward gets cut in half.

Hashing Power or Hash Rate How many calculations hashes a miner can perform per second. You can learn more about Hash Rate by reading our article about it. Difficulty Measured in Trillions, mining difficulty refers to how hard it is to find a block. Difficulty Adjustment Bitcoin was designed to produce block reliably every 10 minutes. Kilowatt Hour A measurement of energy consumption per hour.

The media constantly says Bitcoin mining is a waste of electricity. But, there are some problems with their theories as we'll discuss. Certain orthodox economists have criticized mining as wasteful. It must be kept in mind however that this electricity is expended on useful work: Enabling a monetary network worth billions and potentially trillions of dollars!

Not just of electricity, but of money, time and human resources! Mining Difficulty If only 21 million Bitcoins will ever be created, why has the issuance of Bitcoin not accelerated with the rising power of mining hardware? Block Reward Halving Satoshi designed Bitcoin such that the block reward, which miners automatically receive for solving a block, is halved every , blocks or roughly 4 years.

Honest Miner Majority Secures the Network To successfully attack the Bitcoin network by creating blocks with a falsified transaction record, a dishonest miner would require the majority of mining power so as to maintain the longest chain. To achieve it, an attacker needs to own mining hardware than all other honest miners.

This imposes a high monetary cost on any such attack. Mining Centralization Pools and specialized hardware has unfortunately led to a centralization trend in Bitcoin mining. How Does Bitcoin Mining Work? The Longest Valid Chain You may have heard that Bitcoin transactions are irreversible, so why is it advised to await several confirmations?

Bonus Chapter 3 Cloud Mining. Want to find the best Bitcoin cloud mining contracts? This post has you covered. Just know ahead of time - the truth about cloud mining in isn't pretty. So remember: Quick Tip Mining is not the fastest way to buy bitcoins. Buying bitcoin with a debit card is the fastest way.

Quick Tip Mining is not the fastest way to get bitcoins. Try an exchange below for the fastest way to get bitcoins. Hash Flare does allow you to redirect hashing power, but this alone does not make them trustworthy. Quick Tip Mining or buying bitcoins? You can't do either without a Bitcoin wallet. Bonus Chapter 4 Frequently Asked Questions. I've curated this FAQ to help to answer any remaining questions. Miners who successfully solve the hash problem but who haven't verified the most transactions are not rewarded with bitcoin.

Well, here is an example of such a number:. The number above has 64 digits. Easy enough to understand so far. As you probably noticed, that number consists not just of numbers, but also letters of the alphabet. Why is that? To understand what these letters are doing in the middle of numbers, let's unpack the word "hexadecimal. As you know, we use the "decimal" system, which means it is base This, in turn, means that every digit of a multi-digit number has 10 possibilities, zero through nine.

In a hexadecimal system, each digit has 16 possibilities. But our numeric system only offers 10 ways of representing numbers zero through nine. That's why you have to stick letters in, specifically letters a, b, c, d, e, and f.

If you are mining bitcoin, you do not need to calculate the total value of that digit number the hash. I repeat: You do not need to calculate the total value of a hash. Remember that ELI5 analogy, where I wrote the number 19 on a piece of paper and put it in a sealed envelope? In bitcoin mining terms, that metaphorical undisclosed number in the envelope is called the target hash. What miners are doing with those huge computers and dozens of cooling fans is guessing at the target hash.

A nonce is short for "number only used once," and the nonce is the key to generating these bit hexadecimal numbers I keep talking about. In Bitcoin mining, a nonce is 32 bits in size—much smaller than the hash, which is bits. In theory, you could achieve the same goal by rolling a sided die 64 times to arrive at random numbers, but why on earth would you want to do that?

The screenshot below, taken from the site Blockchain. You are looking at a summary of everything that happened when block was mined. The nonce that generated the "winning" hash was The target hash is shown on top. The term "Relayed by Antpool" refers to the fact that this particular block was completed by AntPool, one of the more successful mining pools more about mining pools below. As you see here, their contribution to the Bitcoin community is that they confirmed transactions for this block.

If you really want to see all of those transactions for this block, go to this page and scroll down to the heading "Transactions. All target hashes begin with zeros—at least eight zeros and up to 63 zeros. There is no minimum target, but there is a maximum target set by the Bitcoin Protocol. No target can be greater than this number:. Here are some examples of randomized hashes and the criteria for whether they will lead to success for the miner:.

You'd have to get a fast mining rig, or, more realistically, join a mining pool—a group of coin miners who combine their computing power and split the mined bitcoin. Mining pools are comparable to those Powerball clubs whose members buy lottery tickets en masse and agree to share any winnings.

A disproportionately large number of blocks are mined by pools rather than by individual miners. In other words, it's literally just a numbers game. You cannot guess the pattern or make a prediction based on previous target hashes. Not great odds if you're working on your own, even with a tremendously powerful mining rig. Not only do miners have to factor in the costs associated with expensive equipment necessary to stand a chance of solving a hash problem.

They must also consider the significant amount of electrical power mining rigs utilize in generating vast quantities of nonces in search of the solution. All told, bitcoin mining is largely unprofitable for most individual miners as of this writing. Source: Cryptocompare. Mining rewards are paid to the miner who discovers a solution to the puzzle first, and the probability that a participant will be the one to discover the solution is equal to the portion of the total mining power on the network.

Participants with a small percentage of the mining power stand a very small chance of discovering the next block on their own. For instance, a mining card that one could purchase for a couple of thousand dollars would represent less than 0. With such a small chance at finding the next block, it could be a long time before that miner finds a block, and the difficulty going up makes things even worse.

The miner may never recoup their investment. The answer to this problem is mining pools. By working together in a pool and sharing the payouts among all participants, miners can get a steady flow of bitcoin starting the day they activate their miner. As mentioned above, the easiest way to acquire bitcoin is to simply buy it on one of the many exchanges.

Alternately, you can always leverage the "pickaxe strategy. Or, to put it in modern terms, invest in the companies that manufacture those pickaxes. In a cryptocurrency context, the pickaxe equivalent would be a company that manufactures equipment used for Bitcoin mining. The legality of Bitcoin mining depends entirely on your geographic location. The concept of Bitcoin can threaten the dominance of fiat currencies and government control over the financial markets.

For this reason, Bitcoin is completely illegal in certain places. Bitcoin ownership and mining are legal in more countries than not. The risks of mining are that of financial risk and a regulatory one. As mentioned, Bitcoin mining, and mining in general, is a financial risk.

One could go through all the effort of purchasing hundreds or thousands of dollars worth of mining equipment only to have no return on their investment. That said, this risk can be mitigated by joining mining pools. If you are considering mining and live in an area that it is prohibited you should reconsider. It may also be a good idea to research your countries regulation and overall sentiment towards cryptocurrency before investing in mining equipment.

Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Part Of. Bitcoin Basics. Bitcoin Mining. How to Store Bitcoin. Bitcoin Exchanges. Bitcoin Advantages and Disadvantages. Bitcoin vs. Other Cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin Value and Price. Cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Table of Contents Expand. What is Bitcoin Mining? How To Mine Bitcoins. Mining and Bitcoin Circulation. How Much a Miner Earns.

The Simple Explanation. The Digit Hexadecimal Number. Is Bitcoin Mining Legal? Risks of Mining. Key Takeaways By mining, you can earn cryptocurrency without having to put down money for it. Bitcoin miners receive Bitcoin as a reward for completing "blocks" of verified transactions which are added to the blockchain. Mining rewards are paid to the miner who discovers a solution to a complex hashing puzzle first, and the probability that a participant will be the one to discover the solution is related to the portion of the total mining power on the network.

Article Sources.

Tor is an encrypted anonymising network that makes it harder to intercept internet communications, or see where communications are coming from or going to.

Damien hawcroft mining bitcoins Results: Based on individual comparison, the best damien hawcroft mining bitcoins protocol was found at a slice 100 accurate binary options indicator for mt4 trading of 6 mm, tag size of 8 mm, optimized flip angle of 8 3. IPAQ uses one open-ended question to assess sitting on a weekday in the last 7 days 'at work, at home, while doing coursework and during leisure time'; PASE uses a three-part closed question about daily leisure-time sitting in the last 7 days. Secure wallet and minimal transaction feevery useful to me keep up the good work guys. Our submission system works hard to preserve your anonymity, but we recommend you also take some of your own precautions. The analysis underscores the absence of race in most Brazilian Women's Studies scholarship and suggests the need to focus on racial "difference" and the relationship between race and gender in order to better understand the diverse experiences of Brazilian women. Microflora isolated from molasses samples obtained from Cirebon, Yogyakarta, and Lawang, generally from Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus sp.
Stefan bettinger temp Pathology and arthroscopy were reference methods to MRI, and demonstrated grade lesions on of joint facettes. This leads to a conclusion that France market preferences in specific and EU market preferences in general need to be considered by Indonesian palm oil decision damien hawcroft mining bitcoins. Results: Coil artefacts disturbed assessments less frequently at 3. We assessed relative risks for disturbance by coil artefacts, weighted kappa's for agreement on occlusion levels, and we compared remnant sizes. Interviewing asylum seekers : A vignette study on the questions asked to assess credibility of claims about origin and persecution. Effects on respiratory homeostasis of prolonged, continuous hyperoxia at 1. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score.
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Damien hawcroft mining bitcoins Synthesis, characterization damien hawcroft mining bitcoins thermal expansion studies on ThO2-SmO 1. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…. Methods and materials: One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations. This app is easy to use and is a great way to manage all of your receiving addresses.
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Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom.

Keywords: Socratic questioning , teacher questioning , critical thinking, action research. The potential profile obtained in the galvanostatic regime shows three plateaus at different voltages due to different reaction mechanisms. Two of them, at 2. We show that iron is an electrochemically active center at 2. Methods and materials: One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.

Results: It was found that the exposure of 1. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that the present BCI. T2-mapping of the sacroiliac joints at 1. To evaluate the reproducibility of T2 relaxation time measurements of the sacroiliac joints at 1. Healthy volunteers underwent an oblique axial multislice multiecho spin-echo sequence of the sacroiliac joints at 1. Regions of interest were manually drawn using a dedicated software by two musculoskeletal radiologists to include the cartilaginous part of the sacroiliac joints.

A senior radiologist performed the measurement twice, while a resident measured once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was tested using the Bland-Altman method. Association between sex and T2 relaxation times was tested using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mean T2 values obtained by the radiology resident were Further studies could investigate the potential clinical application of this tool in the sacroiliac joints.

Lung MRI at 1. To compare the image quality and lesion contrast of lung MRI using 5 different pulse sequences at 1. Lung MRI was performed at 1. In addition to 4 healthy volunteers, 5 porcine lungs were examined in a dedicated chest phantom. Lung pathology nodules and infiltrates was simulated in the phantom by intrapulmonary and intrabronchial injections of agarose.

CT was performed in the phantom for correlation. Image quality of the sequences was ranked in a side-by-side comparison by 3 blinded radiologists regarding the delineation of pulmonary and mediastinal anatomy, conspicuity of pulmonary nodules and infiltrates, and presence of artifacts.

There were no relevant differences regarding the preference for the individual sequences between both field strengths. TSE was the preferred sequence for the visualization of the mediastinum at both field strengths. The imaging characteristics of different. The metal ions are expected to have coordination numbers Of note is that methods that accurately describe the relative energies of the product and reactant clusters did not show reactions on the timescales studied.

This article is part of the theme issue 'Modern theoretical chemistry'. Synthesis, characterization and thermal expansion studies on ThO2-SmO 1. Compositions of the solid solutions were characterized by standard wet-chemical analysis. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed in the sintered pellets for structural analysis, lattice parameter calculation and determination of solid solubility of SmO 1.

Bulk and theoretical densities of solid solutions were also determined. A fluorite structure was observed for ThO 2 -SmO 1. Their thermal expansion coefficients were measured using high temperature X-ray diffraction technique. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficients for ThO 2 -SmO 1.

The percentage linear thermal expansion in this temperature range, for ThO 2 -SmO 1. It is suggested that the solid solutions are stable up to K. It is also suggested that the effect and nature of the dopant are the important parameters influenced in the thermal expansion of the ThO 2.

An experimental and computational study. Under thermal activation in solution, N-[2- 1,3-oxathiolanyl ]phenyl ketenimines and carbodiimides were converted into 2,1-benzisothiazolones bearing a pendant N-styryl or imidoyl fragment, respectively.

These processes should occur with the concomitant formation of ethylene as result of the fragmentation of the 1,3-oxathiolane ring. The conversions of ketenimines took place under softer thermal conditions, toluene degrees C, than those of carbodiimides, o-xylene degrees C.

A computational DFT study unveiled the mechanistic course of these transformations, rare tandem processes consisting of an initial 1,5 -hydride shift of the acetalic hydrogen atom to the central carbon atom of the heterocumulene function leading to the respective o-azaxylylene. This transient intermediate then converts, in a single step, into ethylene and the experimentally isolated benzisothiazolone. This latter stage of the mechanism is rather peculiar, combining a 1,5 -cyclization by S-N bond formation, aromaticity recovery at the benzene nucleus, and the fragmentation of the oxathiolane framework originating a new carbonyl group.

It can be related with a vinylogous retro-ene reaction and shows pseudopericyclic characteristics. The computations also revealed that the alternative 6pi electrocyclization of the transient o-azaxylylenes cannot compete, on kinetic and thermodynamic grounds, with the experimentally observed reaction channel. The two alternative reaction paths of a number of ketenimines and carbodiimides were computationally scrutinized, the results being in accord with the experimental outcomes.

In addition, sulfur extrusion from the benzisothiazolones by the action of triphenylphosphine under two different reaction conditions led to three different types of heterocyclic products, 4 3H -quinolones, quinolino[2,1-b]quinazolin-5,diones, and dibenzo[b,f][ 1,5 ]diazocin-6,diones, whose formation is explained by the initial formation of an intermediate imidoylketene. The studies of surface properties of 1. The surface layer of crystalline silicon implanted by 1.

Two-phonon Raman line intensities and shifts have been used to investigate the properties in the skin layer. The experimental two-phonon Raman spectra showed a decrease in intensity for both optical and acoustical two-phonon Raman peaks and also showed shifts by different amounts in different directions depending on the particular phonons.

The stress values obtained by two-phonon Raman line shifts are compared with those obtained previously by one-phonon Raman shifts. The comparison shows that the surface defects make no contribution to two-phonon Raman line shifts. The two-phonon Raman line shifts show that the surface stress increases as a function of implantation doses. Artifacts in MRI of the temporomandibular joint caused by dental alloys: a phantom study at 1.

Fellner, C. Purpose: The influence of dental alloys on MRI of the temporomandibular joint was studied using a phantom model for this joint. The artifacts were assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and the samples were subdivided into four artifact categories.

Mn and the remaining non-precious alloys induced artifacts up to 30 mm category III. Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. NMR studies of Costa-type organocobalt compounds. Structural characterization of several 1,5 ,6-trimethylbenzimidazole complexes.

Parker, W. The structure of L exchange data have been examined for Costa models containing 1,5 ,6-trimethylbenzimidazole, the base most appropriate for comparison with cobaltamines. However, little is known about the relationship between curiosity, question -asking behavior, and general inquiry skills.

While curiosity and question asking are invariably mentioned in…. Anatomy and metabolism of the normal human brain studied by magnetic resonance at 1. Bottomley, P. Proton magnetic resonance MR images were obtained of the human head in magnetic fields as high as 1. The first localized phosphorus 31, carbon 13, and proton MR chemical shift spectra recorded with surface coils from the head and body in the same instrument showed relative concentrations of phosphorus metabolites, triglycerides, and, when correlated with proton images, negligible lipid -CH 2 - signal from brain tissue on the time scale of the imaging experiment.

Sugar phosphate and phosphodiester concentrations were significantly elevated in the head compared with muscle. This method should allow the combined assessment of anatomy, metabolism, and biochemistry in both the normal and diseased brain. Determination of cartilage thickness in the ankle joint.

Trattnig, S. Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. Radiologische Abt. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in the measurement of cartilage thickness of the ankle joint in comparison to pathologic and histologic specimens.

Patients and methods: The ankle joints of four fresh cadaver feet were imaged on a 1. Following MR imaging, the talus was explanted and cut parallel to the MR images for macroscopic evaluation and histologic specimens were prepared.

MRI measurements of the cartilage thickness of the talus were carried out in two ways: Without and with consideration of a transition zone of intermediate signal intensity between hyperintense cartilage and hypointense cortical bone. The data were compared with the anatomic specimens as the gold standard expressing the difference as a percentage value.

On histologic specimens thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer was measured. Results: Measurements without the transition zone showed a mean underestimation of talus cartilage thickness of Considering the transition zone the mean values were The histologic specimens showed a three-fold increase of thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer.

Conclusions: Measurements of the cartilage layer of the ankle joint on MR images are only accurate if the transition zone calcified cartilage layer is considered and the optimal pulse sequence FLASH-3D-fat-sat is applied. Studies of power exhaust and divertor design for a 1.

Asakura, N. Power exhaust to the divertor and the conceptual design have been investigated for a steady-state DEMO in Japan with 1. These results showed a power exhaust scenario and the divertor design concept. An integrated design of the water-cooling heat sink for the long leg divertor was proposed. Cu-ally CuCrZr cooling pipe was applicable as the heat sink to handle the high heat flux near the strike-point, where displacements per atom rate was estimated to be 0.

Heat flux of 16 MW m-2 was distributed in the major part. Hernandez, O. This discrepancy comes from the fact that X-ray irradiation induces in this compound an unusual time-dependent decrease of the intensity of high-order satellite diffraction peaks.

As a consequence and due to the commensurate nature of the phases investigated, X-ray diffraction failed to detect the large anharmonicity of the structural modulation which is clearly present in the two structures determined by neutron diffraction. Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J. Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries.

Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying i policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and ii horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future.

Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive i. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region.

For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time.

We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton. The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute.

After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The…. Experimental Study Related to the Mooring Design for the 1. The paper presents the results of an experimental study identifying the response of a 1. The best strategies allowing for a reduction in the extreme mooring tension have also been investigated, showing that this is possible Synchrotron radiation facilities provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams.

These exposures were monitored with an SSRL ionization chamber. Irradiation at 6 keV indicates a fairly linear dose response for both type of TLDs over a dose range of 0. In addition there appears to be no significant difference in responses between irradiating the TLDs from the front and the back sides. Stress examination of flexor tendon pulley rupture in the crimp grip position: a 1. The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging MRI and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study.

Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position.

Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0. MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position.

Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged years: A cross sectional study. Iron Fe deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead Pb toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead BPb levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan.

A total of children of both genders participating in this study , were screened for anemia. Among them were anemic and non-anemic. The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. Jun 1, As the disease progresses Cardiac MR tagging: optimization of sequence parameters and comparison at 1. Kramer, U. Materials and methods: 14 healthy volunteers 8 male, 6 female; mean age A GRE flash-2 D tagging sequence was evaluated midventricular short axis view by varying the flip angle , slice thickness mm; fixed flip angle 1.

The field of view, acquisition time and temporal resolution 45 ms were kept constant. Results: Based on individual comparison, the best imaging protocol was found at a slice thickness of 6 mm, tag size of 8 mm, optimized flip angle of 8 3. Compared to 1. Conclusion: Myocardial tagging at 3. The suppressed fading of the tags enables the accessibility to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Because inheritance is recognized as playing a role in age at menarche and natural menopause, the development of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea CIA might depend on inherited genetic factors; however, studies that explore such a correlation are few and have received scant attention.

Significant Artifact Reduction at 1. Cochlear implants CIs are standard treatment for postlingually deafened individuals and prelingually deafened children. This human cadaver study evaluated diagnostic usefulness, image quality and artifacts in 1.

Three criteria diagnostic usefulness, image quality, artifacts were assessed at 1. The brain magnetic resonance scans were performed with and without the magnet in situ. The criteria were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists, with focus on image distortion and limitation of the diagnostic value of the acquired MR images. MR images with the magnet in situ were all compromised by artifacts caused by the CI. After removal of the magnet, MR scans showed an unequivocal artifact reduction with significant improvement of the image quality and diagnostic usefulness, both at 1.

Visibility of the brain stem, cerebellopontine angle, and parieto-occipital lobe ipsilateral to the CI increased significantly after magnet removal. The results indicate the possible advantages for 1. Our findings support use of CIs with removable magnets, especially in patients with chronic intracranial pathologies. Syntheses of planar 1,5 ,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives and thermodynamic study on intermolecular charge transfer for developing efficient organic solar cell.

Zhang, Chao-Zhi, E-mail: zhangchaozhi nuist. The results of experiments and theoretical calculations show that the electrons could transfer spontaneously from poly 3-hexylthiophene to these acceptors. The percentages of fluorescence quenching increase with negative Gibbs free energy values increasing in the charge transfer procedures.

Therefore, short circuit current values of organic solar cells would increase with the Gibbs free energy values increasing. This paper suggests a useful way for developing efficient organic solar cells. This work aims to characterize by X-ray diffraction to study the electrical properties and dielectric properties of CBT. The x-ray diffraction revealed the formation of single orthorhombic phase.

As for the dielectric properties dielectric constant and dielectric loss were measured at 30 deg C to deg C, through which can be verified the presence of thermally activated processes. This phase has properties very relevant for possible use in capacitive devices, miniaturized filters, dielectric resonators antennas and oscillators. Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI parameters of breast lesions at 1.

Methods: 11 patients underwent paired MRI examinations in both Philips 1. Signal intensity vs time curves were fit with an empirical mathematical model to obtain semi-quantitative measures of uptake and washout rates as well as time-to-peak enhancement TTP. Maximum percent enhancement and signal enhancement ratio SER were also measured for each lesion. Percent differences between parameters measured at the two field strengths were compared. Conclusion: Our results suggest that TTP and SER are more robust to field strength change than other measured kinetic parameters, and therefore measurements of these parameters can be more easily standardized than measurements of other parameters derived from DCE-MRI.

Semi-quantitative measures of overall kinetic curve shape showed higher reproducibility than do discrete classification of kinetic curve early and delayed phases in a majority of the cases studied. Advances in knowledge: Qualitative measures of curve shape are not consistent across field strength even when acquisition parameters are standardized.

Quantitative measures of overall kinetic curve shape, by contrast, have higher reproducibility. Synthesis, physicochemical and antimicrobial studies of first row transition metal complexes with quinoline derivatives nitroquinolino 3,2-b 1,5 benzodixazepine and nitroquinolino 3,2-b 1,5 benzoxazepine. The antimicrobial studies of ligand and its metal, metal complexes have been screened for selected bacteria E.

Coli , S. Antimicrobial studies shows that the Mn II complexes are more toxic than other metal complexes. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal octahedral geometry around the metal ion. The complexes were found to be non electrolyte in nature on the basis of low value of molar conductance. An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher….

Breast MRI at 3. The sensitivity of X-ray mammography for the detection of breast malignancy in younger females is lower than that of breast MRI; consequently, guidelines recommend annual MRI for patients with a significantly elevated lifetime risk. The improved signal-to-noise ratio obtainable at 3. However, breast imaging on higher field strength systems poses specific problems.

As a result, caution has been urged in the implementation of breast MRI at 3. The aim of this study was to determine if it is appropriate to use 3. Over a month period, patients referred with an elevated familial risk of breast cancer were examined at 3. Resulting images were scored based on the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group imaging classification.

The reference standard was a combination of histology and follow-up imaging. Follow-up data were available in patients. These results compared favourably against those of a recent meta-analysis [ Given the similar summary statistics between this work and the 1. Further studies should be undertaken to verify this result. The issue of the "identity" of comparative education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades.

Yet a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field remains open. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles. Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome. To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors.

The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review. Kalapurakal, John A. All patients were treated with multimodality therapy according to the NWTS protocols.

All patients underwent primary surgery with radical nephrectomy. The median delay between surgery and the initiation of RT was 9 days range, The median RT dose was The flank RT doses were as follows: The median follow-up for the entire group was 17 years range, Questioning the Questions. Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic. Socrates purposefully posed a series of….

Novel 1,5 ,7-trihydroxyhydroxy methyl anthraquinone isolated from terrestrial Streptomyces sp. Streptomyces sp. The isolated compound 1,5 ,7-trihydroxyhydroxy methyl anthraquinone was tested against bacteria and fungi at minimum inhibitory concentration level. Docking studies of the compound showed low docking energy indicating its usefulness as antimicrobial agent.

The class inclusion question : a case study in applying pragmatics to the experimental study of cognition. Inclusion is of considerable importance for cognitive science as it is a key concept for logical operations and knowledge representation. It is shown that the question can be characterised by a kind of privative ambiguity which is at the source of the younger children's answer, "more asters". A relevance-theoretic explanation of children's interpretation of the question and of the subsequent responses is expounded.

This account can explain the effect of all the factors that are known to influence performance e. It is further tested experimentally. The development of performance is explained on the basis of the way children disambiguate the question. This study exemplifies the two ways in which pragmatic analysis is pertinent to the study of children's as well as adults' reasoning and judgement, namely in explaining and predicting participants' comprehension of the statements and questions , and in taking into account attribution processes that occur in the experimental setting.

Soft tissue around three different implant types after 1. The purpose of this study was to determine the peri-implant soft tissue dimension PSD and peri-implant bone level BL of dental implants with different designs and surface modifications after functional loading without oral hygiene. Three types of dental implants were placed in the posterior jaws of adult baboons, three of the same design per quadrant, and fitted with fixed partial dentures.

After 1. There was no difference in BL around the three implant designs maxilla: CpTi: 0. Overall, the data presented did not show any significant differences in peri-implant soft tissue conditions in baboons. Moreover, plaque accumulation and propagation of peri-implant mucositis after 1.

Reports results of a study testing a selective attentional model which predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram will focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information. The optical system includes fine guidance sensors, wavefront sensing, and spectral and flat-field in-flight calibration sources. Are rheumatoid arthritis patients discernible from other early arthritis patients using 1.

Because this recommendation may reflect a tendency to use MRI in daily practice, thorough studies on the value of MRI are required. Thus far no large studies have evaluated the accuracy of MRI to differentiate early RA from other patients with early arthritis. We performed a large cross-sectional study to determine whether patients who are clinically classified with RA differ in MRI features compared to patients with other diagnoses.

In our study , patients presenting with early arthritis median symptom duration Tenosynovitis was also assessed. Test characteristics and areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves AUC were evaluated. The ACR criteria were fulfilled in 43 patients Patients with RA had higher scores for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bone marrow edema BME than patients without RA p arthritis patients.

Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science. They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research.

The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys. The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions.

The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science. H2O 5. Whether an intracluster reaction to form HONO is observed depends on the level of electronic structure theory used. H2O 5 complex following its formation. Effects on respiratory homeostasis of prolonged, continuous hyperoxia at 1.

Prolonged exposures of men to continuous hyperoxia at 3. Altered respiratory homeostasis was evident during exposures of men to 2. These changes were progressive during exposure at 1. Mean values of respiratory reactivity at CO2 were somewhat increased following prolonged hyperoxia at 1.

Hypoxic ventilatory response was unchanged or enhanced after oxygen exposures at 1. Observed respiratory and body temperature changes were not of sufficient magnitude to impair function. This paper is concerned with "match-mismatch" problems.

In particular it seeks to match students' questioning to different modes of teaching in undergraduate chemistry. Kolb's theory of experiential learning is used to bridge between learners' questioning and teaching formats. Three case studies illuminate both sets of characteristics, the…. Bay, Jacquie L. Questioning is central to the development of scientific and health literacies.

In exploring this concept, Tongan science teachers hypothesized that their ability to use and encourage questioning presented challenges in the context of Tongan social and cultural norms. This study set out to develop a peer-to-peer protocol to enable teachers to…. The International scale interval study : improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness.

The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and Languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a 0 to Full text: One of the current issues in tokamak plasma is sawtooth oscillation, because each sawtooth crash results in a significant reduction of central temperature and density.

Consequently, the nuclear fusion power will drop. This has a significant impact on the performance of future nuclear fusion power plants. In this work, behaviors of sawtooth oscillations during an electron-cyclotron resonant heating ECRH in HL-2A tokamak experiment are studied. The simulation of plasma in HL-2A tokamak is carried out using the 1.

In each simulation, a sawtooth crash is predicted by either Rogers-Zakharov sawtooth triggering model, Park-Monticello sawtooth triggering model, or Porcelli sawtooth triggering model. The effect of sawtooth crash is described by a modified Kadomtsev magnetic reconnection model. The magnetization transfer effect in brain studies by 1. When the radiographer should apply it? Purpose: The Magnetization Transfer MT obtained by applying a pre-saturation pulse is, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI , a technique that allows for additional enhancement of lesions on conventional T1 images after contrast administration.

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the technique measuring how MT could improve image quality and diagnostic values through the enhancement of lesions. Methods: Thirteen T1-weighted spin-echo SE sequences, obtained by the 1. The contrast-to-noise ratio CNR , as well as the signal-to-noise ratio SNR variables were compared in all sequences, according to the reference structures: lateral ventricles, white matter, gray matter, caudate nucleus and internal capsule.

For the assessment of the flow artifact, clinical experts applied a Likert scale with 5 points. Conclusion: In identical conditions of acquisition, the MT does not produce significant differences in the enhancement of lesions, however, it allows a greater capacity to detect the multiple sclerosis plaques, comparing structures around basal nucleus versus gray and white matter. Pulmonary tolerance in man to continuous oxygen exposure at 3.

Oxygen effects on pulmonary function were measured in normal, resting men who breathed oxygen continuously at 3. Rates of pulmonary symptom intensification and decrease in vital capacity VC increased progressively with elevation of inspired oxygen pressure. Although VC decrements occurred concurrently with symptoms, the lung volume changes became prominent when symptoms were still mild. The observed effects were consistent with the interpretation that small airway function is impaired more selectively by oxygen exposure at 3.

Despite similar VC changes after oxygen exposure at 2. Feasibility study of simultaneous physical examination and dynamic MR imaging of medial collateral ligament knee injuries in a 1. Studler, Ueli; White, Lawrence M. To determine the feasibility of evaluating medial knee joint laxity with dynamic magnetic resonance MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination in a large-bore 1. The study included 10 patients 5 women, 5 men; mean age 35 years with clinically diagnosed and categorized acute injuries of the medial collateral ligament MCL.

Intermittent valgus stress was applied separately to both the affected and the contralateral knee joint during dynamic MR imaging with a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence. The width of the medial joint space and the opening angle between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateau were measured. Results obtained from dynamic MR imaging of the affected knee were compared with morphological MCL changes on static MRI, to kinematics of the contralateral side and to the clinical grading of MCL injuries.

On clinical examination, all patients had grade 2 MCL injuries except one, who had a grade 1 lesion. Mean medial joint space width and opening angles of all affected knees were 2. Dynamic MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination is feasible. Our results suggest that this technique might enable the imaging documentation of medial ligamentous knee instability.

Enzymatic production of microthecin by aldosulose dehydratase from 1,5 -anhydro-D-fructose and stability studies of microthecin. Microthecin 2-hydroxy hydroxymethyl -2H-pyran-3 6H -one , which has anti-microbial activity, is one of the end products of an alternative glycogen and starch degrading pathway, the anhydrofructose pathway.

Artefacts induced by coiled intracranial aneurysms on 3. Schaafsma, Joanna D. Objective: To compare metal-induced artefacts from coiled intracranial aneurysms on 3. Materials and methods: We scanned 19 patients mean age 53; 16 women with 20 saccular aneurysms treated with coils only, at 1. Per modality two neuro-radiologists assessed the occlusion status, measured residual flow, and indicated whether coil artefacts disturbed this assessment on MRA.

We assessed relative risks for disturbance by coil artefacts, weighted kappa's for agreement on occlusion levels, and we compared remnant sizes. For artefact measurements, a coil model was created and scanned with the same protocols followed by 2D MR scans with variation of echo-time and read-out gradient strength. Results: Coil artefacts disturbed assessments less frequently at 3. Coil model artefacts were smaller at 3. The echo-time influenced artefact size more than the read-out gradient.

Conclusions: Artefacts were not larger, but smaller at 3. Despite smaller artefacts and larger remnants at 3. To compare metal-induced artefacts from coiled intracranial aneurysms on 3. We scanned 19 patients mean age 53; 16 women with 20 saccular aneurysms treated with coils only, at 1. Coil artefacts disturbed assessments less frequently at 3. Artefacts were not larger, but smaller at 3. All rights reserved. Cyclic voltammetry illustrates a reversible reaction occurring between 0.

Cyclic voltammetry illustrates a reversible reaction occurring in the 0. The spinel however. Self-reported care needs of Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability: a 1. Cognitive impairment is a prevalent problem among the homeless and seems related to more psychosocial problems. However, little is known about the care needs of the subgroup of homeless people with an intellectual disability compared to those without an intellectual disability and how their care needs develop over time.

This study explores self-reported care needs within a broad range of life domains among Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability to gain insight into the transition of self-reported care needs from baseline to follow-up in both subgroups. This longitudinal study is part of a cohort study among homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan in four major Dutch cities. The initial cohort consisted of participants who were interviewed in For both groups, between baseline and follow-up, the number of 'unmet care needs' decreased significantly and the number of 'no care needs' increased significantly, while at follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability reported 'no care needs' on significantly fewer life domains than those without a suspected intellectual disability mean numbers Between baseline and follow-up, 'met care needs' decreased significantly on housing for both groups, and increased on finances and dental care for participants with a suspected intellectual disability.

At follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability more often preferred housing support available by appointment than those without a suspected intellectual disability. These findings suggest that homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan with a suspected intellectual disability have care needs for a longer period of time than those.

This document represents a presentation regarding organizational knowledge capture systems which was delivered at the HICSS conference held from January , An exploratory case study of two knowledge resources is offered. Then, two organizational knowledge capture systems are briefly described: knowledge transfer from practitioner and the use of questions to represent knowledge. Finally, the creation of a database of peer review questions is suggested as a method of promoting organizational discussions and knowledge representation and exchange.

A Controversial Source for a 1. A study on the thermal decomposition behavior of derivatives of 1,5 -diamino-1H-tetrazole DAT : A new family of energetic heterocyclic-based salts. The thermal decomposition of the highly energetic 1,5 -diaminomethyl-1H-tetrazolium nitrate 2b , 1,5 -diaminomethyl-1H-tetrazolium dinitramide 2c and 1,5 -diaminomethyl-1H-tetrazolium azide 2d were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis TGA and differential scanning calorimetry DSC.

Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy were used to identify the gaseous products. Decomposition appears in the cases of 2c and 2d to be initiated by a proton transfer to form the corresponding acid HN 3 and HN 3 O 4 whereas in the case of 2b a methyl group transfer to MeONO 2 is observed as initial process. The gaseous products after the exothermic decomposition are comparable and are in agreement of the possible decomposition pathways discussed for the corresponding compounds.

For all processes, possible decomposition schemes are presented. The decomposition temperatures of 2b and 2c are significantly higher than that of 2d and were supported by evaluation the values of the activation energy according the method of Ozawa and Kissinger. X-ray diffraction XRD confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

The study investigated the selective attentional effects of adjunct study questions inserted before or after the presentation of science flow diagrams. The basic design for the study was a post-test only control group design involving a total of students randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Oshun State Nigeria. These were…. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator HRSG integrated in turn with a steam turbi Efficiency studies for a tracking detector based on square 1.

A tracking detector based on 1. Measurements on light attenuation, particle detection efficiencies and accidental coincidence rates with a prototype set-up using 2x2mm 2 fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers SiPM are presented. The highest efficiency at the lowest accidental coincidence rate was reached for high trigger thresholds at the largest SiPM bias voltages. The influence of signal attenuation and dispersion on detection efficiencies is discussed.

The results are in good agreement with a Monte Carlo model that was used to predict detector characteristics for different fiber geometries. Introduction: The concept of information needs is significant within the field of Information Needs Seeking and Use. The main aim of this paper is to explore the methodological consequences of discursively oriented theories when…. Sixty-seven patient with painful bone metastases were randomized to two groups.

All of them met inclusion criteria and there was no significantly difference between the basic conditions of two groups. After receiving Sm-EDTMP intravenously, all patients were kept in close follow-up weekly with blood counting, physician visiting and collecting patient's self-filling-in diary including pain score, Karnofsky performance scale and analgesic consumption. The follow-up duration was six weeks. The final overall condition assessed by physician were graded into no change including worse , slight relief, significant relief and complete relief.

Only significant relief and complete relief were considered as effectiveness for pain relief. The results indicated that the higher dosage group had a higher effectiveness rate Interactions between 2,4-bis-pteridine- 1,5 -benzodiazepine and group 12 dihalides: synthesis, spectral and XRD structural studies and theoretical calculations.

The benzodiazepine ligand was reacted with zinc ii , cadmium ii and mercury ii chloride, bromide and iodide to give complexes with general formula [M DLMBZD X 2 ]. The structure of seven complexes has been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The coordinated-metal environment is a square-based pyramid, with increasing trigonality from Hg ii to Zn ii complexes. A topological analysis of the electron density using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules and the complexes stability has been performed.

Computational study of the effects of shroud geometric variation on turbine performance in a 1. Generally speaking, main flow path of gas turbine is assumed to be perfect for standard 3D computation. But in real engine, the turbine annulus geometry is not completely smooth for the presence of the shroud and associated cavity near the end wall. Besides, shroud leakage flow is one of the dominant sources of secondary flow in turbomachinery, which not only causes a deterioration of useful work but also a penalty on turbine efficiency.

It has been found that neglect shroud leakage flow makes the computed velocity profiles and loss distribution significantly different to those measured. Even so, the influence of shroud leakage flow is seldom taken into consideration during the routine of turbine design due to insufficient understanding of its impact on end wall flows and turbine performance. In order to evaluate the impact of tip shroud geometry on turbine performance, a 3D computational investigation for 1. The following geometry parameters were varied respectively: Inlet cavity length and exit cavity length.

Diagnostic performance of CT-arthrography and 1. The cartilage surface was divided in 18 anatomical areas. Arthroscopy was taken as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA varied from Full Text Available It was claimed by variationists that languages experience variation at all levels, which is supposed to be patterned. The present study aimed at exploring how variation occurred in English and Persian wh- questions. More specifically, it investigated whether such a variation was systematic and patterned.

To this end, a modified version of the Edinburgh Map Task was used in data collection. The population of this study was 60 Canadian and Persian native speakers who performed the task through the construction of wh- question variants. The results indicated that both languages experienced variation in the construction of wh- questions.

However, Persian proved to be more variable than English because it allowed more wh- question variants to be produced. Moreover, this variation was patterned in English and Persian individually, yet a systematic variation could not be observed between these two languages. It followed that the different mind-sets of the Canadian and Iranian participants which were affected by social and cultural factors might account for such a variation.

MRI with intraoral orthodontic appliance-a comparative in vitro and in vivo study of image artefacts at 1. We investigated artefacts caused from orthodontic appliances at 1. Two independent readers determined after calibration the level of artefacts. Subsequently, the interobserver agreement was calculated.

For in vivo imaging, one test person was scanned with an inserted multibracket appliance. The level of artefacts for 27 target regions was evaluated. In vitro: ceramic brackets and ferromagnetic steel brackets produced artefact radii up to 1. WARP reduced these artefacts by an average of In vivo: the EPI sequence for brain imaging was not analysable. The TSE sequence of the brain did not demonstrate artefacts except for the nasal cavity. Conversely, the TSE sequence of the cervical spine revealed severe artefacts in the midface region.

In vitro measurements allow an estimation of the in vivo artefact size. Orthodontic appliances may often remain intraorally when performing MRI. WARP showed a more significant effect in vitro than in vivo. MRI with intraoral orthodontic appliance—a comparative in vitro and in vivo study of image artefacts at 1.

Objectives: We investigated artefacts caused from orthodontic appliances at 1. Results: In vitro: ceramic brackets and ferromagnetic steel brackets produced artefact radii up to 1. Conclusions: In vitro measurements allow an estimation of the in vivo artefact size.

The 1,5 -H-shift in 1-butoxy: A case study in the rigorous implementation of transition state theory for a multirotamer system. The rigorous implementation of transition state theory TST for a reaction system with multiple reactant rotamers and multiple transition state conformers is discussed by way of a statistical rate analysis of the 1,5 -H-shift in 1-butoxy radicals, a prototype reaction for the important class of H-shift reactions in atmospheric chemistry.

Several approaches for deriving a multirotamer TST expression are treated: oscillator versus hindered internal rotor models; distinguishable versus indistinguishable atoms; and direct count methods versus degeneracy factors calculated by simplified direct count methods or from symmetry numbers and number of enantiomers, where applicable.

It is shown that the various treatments are fully consistent, even if the TST expressions themselves appear different. The 1-butoxy H-shift reaction is characterized quantum chemically using B3LYP-DFT; the performance of this level of theory is compared to other methods. The T-dependence is substantially influenced by the multirotamer treatment, as well as by the tunneling and fall-off corrections.

The present results are compared to those of simplified TST calculations based solely on the properties of the lowest energy 1-butoxy rotamer. Heteroleptic complexes of Zn II based on 1- 5 -bromohydroxybenzylidene phenylthiosemicarbazide: Synthesis, structural characterization, theoretical studies and antibacterial activity. These data show that the thiosemicarbazone acts as a tridentate dianionic ligand and coordinates via the thiol group, imine nitrogen, and phenolic oxygen.

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What Is Bitcoin Mining?

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