Patsika raMercedes, zuva rimwechete panguva yekuedzwa kwekutanga kusati kwaitwa Lewis Hamilton akatora chiremera. Izvi zvakaitika musi wekupedzisira wevhiki 1 paDerek de Barcelona-Catalunya. Izvi zvinogonawo kuratidza kuvimba kwechikwata mumotokari yemhanya. Ndiyo Mercedes pamusoro pokusunungura imwe yemotokari dzinotsvaga munguva ino inogona kudai mutambo wekufambisa uye wokuvaka kwechishanu panguva inotevera?
Ferrari uye Red Bull ndiwo maviri ematambudziko makuru kuMercedes. Mapoka maviri aya akaratidza zvivimbiso zvinotevera mushure mekuedzwa kwezvikamu. Ricciardo akatoisa rekodhi rakapoteredza chiCatalunya Circuit munguva yevhiki yechipiri asi yakapfuura naVettel mushure mevhiki. Kunyange zvazvo makambani ataurwa pamusoro apa ane maziso avo akaiswa pachigaro cheMercedes, McLaren akangoratidzika shure. Makore akapfuura haana kufamba zvakanaka neboka reMcLaren F1. Vakatora makore matatu ekushanda pamwe chete neChrome chete vakavabvumira kuunganidza zvikamu zve kubva Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses.
For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography CT examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient.
The International Labour Office ILO classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases ICOERD classification used since for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. Telescoping Intestine in an Adult.
Full Text Available Protrusion of a bowel segment into another intussusception produces severe abdominal pain and culminates in intestinal obstruction. In adults, intestinal obstruction due to intussusception is relatively rare phenomenon, as it accounts for minority of intestinal obstructions in this population demographic.
Organic lesion is usually identifiable as the cause of adult intussusceptions, neoplasms account for the majority. Therefore, surgical resection without reduction is almost always necessary and is advocated as the best treatment of adult intussusception. Here, we describe a rare case of a year-old male with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the terminal ileum, which had caused ileocolic intussusception and subsequently developed intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention.
This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing intussusception as the initial presentation for bowel malignancy. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology. In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function.
Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids.
The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology. Small Intestine Disorders. Persistence at low temperature of the P beta' ripple in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles containing either glycosphingolipids or cholesterol.
The disappearance and reappearance of the P beta' ripple in multilamellar liposomes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine DPPC has been examined by freeze-etch electron microscopy. Once the ripples have begun to disappear in the two-component vesicles, they do not uniformly reappear until the system is heated above the main transition of DPPC and allowed to cool into the pretransition region.
These results suggest that the long time for ripple disappearance in the two-component systems reflects a slow molecular reorganization process which occurs when the systems are forced to change from the P beta' gel to the L beta' gel by a temperature downshift. Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation.
Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized.
The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.
In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal current age: years and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus.
The Duty to Recognize Culture. On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these Chronic cyclodextrin treatment of murine Niemann-Pick C disease ameliorates neuronal cholesterol and glycosphingolipid storage and disease progression. Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C NPC disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused most commonly by a defect in the NPC1 protein and characterized by widespread intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids GSLs.
This finding suggested that administration of CD alone, but with greater frequency, might provide additional benefit. Understanding the mechanism s by which CD leads to reduced neuronal storage may provide important new opportunities for treatment of NPC and related neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cholesterol dyshomeostasis. Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy.
These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours.
The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine.
The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome.
The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months.
Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be. Intestinal myiasis. Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces.
This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation.
Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium developed by Udgaonkar.
This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics.
The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.
Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Boer, J. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion TICE.
Do You Recognize This Parent? Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be….
Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities. Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.
Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee.
Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable. Expression of ceramide glucosyltransferases, which are essential for glycosphingolipid synthesis, is only required in a small subset of C. The C. Animals lacking CGT do not synthesize GSLs, arrest growth at the first larval stage, and display defects in a subset of cells Glycosphingolipids GSLs are glycosylated derivatives of ceramide in the lipid bilayer.
Their ubiquitous distribution and complexity suggest that they have important functions, but what these are in vivo is still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans Intestinal failure IF is a state in which the nutritional demands of the body are not met by the gastrointestinal absorptive surface.
It is a long- recognized complication associated with short bowel syndrome, which results in malabsorption after significant resection of the intestine for many reasons or functional dysmotility. Etiologies have included Crohn's disease, vascular complications, and the effects of radiation enteritis, as well as the effects of intestinal obstruction, dysmotility, or congenital defects.
While IF has been long- recognized , it has historically not been uniformly defined, which has made both recognition and management challenging. This review examines the previous definitions of IF as well as the newer definition and classification of IF and how it is essential to IF clinical guidelines.
Postoperative Adhesive Intestinal Obstruction from Gossypiboma We report a case of Pathologists must be aware of this entity and its proper reporting as the cases are liable to go to court. Surgeons must recognize the risk factors that Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder Dysmorphophobia. Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons.
This disorder also called body dysmorphic disorder is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points.
The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestinal rotation and fixation, and usually occurs in the neonatal age.
Description of a clinical case associated with acute occlusive symptoms. A case of intestinal malrotation is presented in a previously asymptomatic woman of 46 years old with an intestinal obstruction, with radiology and surgical findings showing an absence of intestinal rotation. Intestinal malrotation in adults is often asymptomatic, and is diagnosed as a casual finding during a radiological examination performed for other reasons.
Infrequently, it can be diagnosed in adults, associated with an acute abdomen. Intestinal Ostomy. About ostomy carriers are estimated to live in Germany today. The creation of an ostomy represents a major life event that can be associated with impaired quality of life. Optimal ostomy creation and proper ostomy care are crucially important determinants of the success of treatment and of the patients' quality of life. This article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, GoogleScholar, and Scopus, and on the authors' experience.
Intestinal stomata can be created using either the small or the large bowel. Most early complications can be managed conservatively, while most late complications require surgical revision. Inappropriate stoma location and inadequate ostomy care are the most common causes of early complications. Both surgical and patient-related factors influence late complications.
Every step from the planning of a stoma to its postoperative care should be discussed with the patient in detail. Preoperative marking is essential for an optimal stoma site. Optimal patient management with the involvement of an ostomy nurse increases ostomy acceptance, reduces ostomy-related complications, and improves the quality of life of ostomy carriers. Intestinal tract diseases. Roentgenoanatomy and physiology of the small intestine are described.
Indications for radiological examinations and their possibilities in the diagnosis of the small intestine diseases are considered. Congenital anomalies and failures in the small intestine development, clinical indications and diagnosis methods for the detection of different aetiology enteritis are described.
Characteristics of primary malabsorption due to congenital or acquired inferiority of the small intestine , is provided. Radiological picture of intestinal allergies is described. Clinical, morphological, radiological pictures of Crohn's disease are considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the frequency of primary and secondary tuberculosis of intestinal tract.
The description of clinical indications and frequency of benign and malignant tumours of the small intestine , methods for their diagnosis are given. Radiological pictures of parasitogenic and rare diseases of the small intestine are presented. Changes in the small intestine as a result of its reaction to pathological processes, developing in other organs and systems of the organism, are described. Switching of the core structures of glycosphingolipids from globo- and lacto- to ganglio-series upon human embryonic stem cell differentiation.
Such a switch was attributable to altered expression of key glycosyltransferases GTs in the biosynthetic pathways by the up-regulation of ganglio-series-related GTs with simultaneous down-regulation of globo- and lacto-series-related GTs. Thus, these results provide insights into the unique stage-specific transition and mechanism for alterations of GSL core structures during hESC differentiation.
In addition, unique glycan structures uncovered by MS analyses may serve as surface markers for further delineation of hESCs and help identify of their functional roles not only in hESCs but also in cancers. The intestinal complement system in inflammatory bowel disease: Shaping intestinal barrier function. The complement system is part of innate sensor and effector systems such as the Toll-like receptors TLRs. MAMP recognition by intestinal epithelial cells IECs and appropriate immune responses are of major importance for the maintenance of intestinal barrier function.
Enterocytes highly express various complement components that are suggested to be pivotal for proper IEC function. Mice deficient for single complement components suffer from enhanced intestinal inflammation mimicking the phenotype of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease IBD such as Crohn's disease CD or ulcerative colitis UC.
Hence, how IECs, intestinal bacteria and epithelial cell expressed complement components interact in the course of IBD still remains to be mostly elucidated to define potential unique patterns contributing to the distinct subtypes of intestinal inflammation observed in CD and UC. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans. Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed.
The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species.
Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua Stercorarius antarcticus , which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder.
Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests.
Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Staying in bed for long periods of time bedridden.
Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include Fluids can be given Adult intestinal failure. Davidson, J. Intestinal failure IF is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under- recognized.
Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions both enteral and parenteral and controlling sepsis via drainage of collections in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.
Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations. Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition.
Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory RFT , which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones.
In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures.
In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies.
Proteomic identification of proteins translocated to membrane microdomains upon treatment of fibroblasts with the glycosphingolipid , C8-beta-D-lactosylceramide. Plasma membrane PM microdomains, including caveolae and other cholesterol-enriched subcompartments, are involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including endocytosis, attachment and signaling.
We recently reported that brief incubation of human skin fibroblasts with the synthetic glycosphingolipid , D-erythro-octanoyl-lactosylceramide C8-D-e-LacCer , stimulates endocytosis via caveolae and induces the appearance of micron-size microdomains on the PM. Several proteins were identified in the microdomain-enriched fractions, including lipid transfer proteins and proteins related to the functions of small GTPases.
One protein, Rho-associated protein kinase 2 ROCK2 , was verified by Western blotting to occur in microdomain fractions and to increase in these fractions after D-e-LacCer treatment. In contrast, ROCK2 distribution in microdomains was decreased by treatment of cells with C8-L-threo-lactosylceramide, a glycosphingolipid with non-natural stereochemistry.
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecA triggers host cell signalling by glycosphingolipid -dependent phosphorylation of the adaptor protein CrkII. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces phosphorylation of the adaptor protein CrkII by activating the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abl to promote its uptake into host cells. So far, specific factors of P. In this research, we employed human lung epithelial cells H, Chinese hamster ovary cells and P.
Here, we demonstrate that the host glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide, also termed Gb3, represents a signalling receptor for the P. We further show that Src family kinases transduce the signal induced by LecA binding to Gb3, leading to Crk Y phosphorylation. In summary, we identified LecA as a bacterial factor, which utilizes a so far unrecognized mechanism for phospho-CrkII Y induction by binding to the host glycosphingolipid receptor Gb3.
Gastric and intestinal surgery. Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction.
Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children. Intestinal lymphangiectasia IL is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics.
It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies.
Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis. Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results. Tissue response after radiation exposure.
Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts.
These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear.
The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. Intestinal metaplasia induced by x-irradiation in rat. Total rad of x-ray was given in or rad doses to the whole body of rats at intervals of one week, and one year and a half later, rats were killed.
When rad of x-ray was irradiated to each part of stomach day after day up to the total dose of 3, rad, biochemical intestinal metaplasia already occurred one week after the irradiation, and intestinal type lacuna occurred 2 months after the irradiation. When a dose of 1, rad was irradiated to stomach three times at intervals of 2 days up to the total of 3, rad, much intestinal type lacuna was recognized 2 months after the irradiation, gastric adenoid cancerous changes appeared 4 months after, and gastric adenoid cancer occurred 6 months after.
The above-mentioned results clarified that even if x-ray of a small dose was irradiated, intestinal metaplasia occurred, and that the period from the irradiation to occurrence of intestinal metaplasia was shortened by increasing a dose of x-ray. It was also clarified that not only intestinal metaplasia but also gastric adenoic cancer occurred due to a great amount of x-ray irradiation.
Ueda, J. Research Inst. Intestinal obstruction and other causes of abdominal pain in foals. There are numerous causes of colic in foals. Nearly all forms of obstructive gastrointestinal disorders that have been recognized in adultshave also been described in foals. Meconium impaction, intussusceptions, ascarid impactions, small intestinal volvulus, and hernias are evidently the most common causes of mechanical obstruction in foals. Other frequently recognized causes of colic in foals are gastric ulceration, uroperitoneum, and ileus.
For some disorders, the history, signalment, and physical examination findings may lead to a presumptive diagnosis; in other disorders, ultrasonography and clinicopathologic examination of blood and peritoneal fluid may be required in the diagnostic evaluation. This article considers the causes of intestinal obstructionand abdominal pain in foals from birth to weaning. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.
Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia PIL is a rare disease of intestinal lymphatics presenting with hypoproteinemia, bilateral lower limb edema, ascites, and protein losing enteropathy. We report a series of 4 children from Chennai, India presenting with anasarca, recurrent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia and confirmatory features of PIL on endoscopy and histopathology. Investigations on aberrant glycosylation of glycosphingolipids in colorectal cancer tissues using liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF-MS.
Cancer is a leading cause of death and alterations of glycosylation are characteristic features of malignant cells. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and its exact causes and biology are not yet well understood. Here, we compared glycosylation profiles of colorectal tumor tissues and corresponding control tissues of 13 colorectal cancer patients to contribute to the understanding of this cancer.
Multivariate data analysis revealed significant differences between tumor and corresponding control tissues. Main discriminators were obtained, which represent the overall alteration in glycosylation of glycosphingolipids during colorectal cancer progression, and these were found to be characterized by 1 increased fucosylation, 2 decreased acetylation, 3 decreased sulfation, 4 reduced expression of globo-type glycans, as well as 5 disialyl gangliosides.
The findings of our current research confirm former reports, and in addition expand the knowledge of glycosphingolipid glycosylation in colorectal cancer by revealing new glycans with discriminative power and characteristic, cancer-associated glycosylation alterations. The obtained discriminating glycans can contribute to progress the discovery of biomarkers to improve diagnostics and patient treatment.
Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia. Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control.
Case report. A year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection.
Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.
Tortuous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and supportive therapy. Factoring the intestinal microbiome into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis.
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis.
Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora dysbiosis can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria. Toll-like receptors within the intestine can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and shape subsets of T helper lymphocytes that may cross-react with host antigens molecular mimicry.
Activated gut-derived lymphocytes can migrate to lymph nodes, and gut-derived microbial antigens can translocate to extra- intestinal sites. Inflammasomes can form within hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, and they can drive the pro-inflammatory, immune-mediated, and fibrotic responses. Diet, designer probiotics, vitamin supplements, re-colonization methods, antibiotics, drugs that decrease intestinal permeability, and molecular interventions that block signaling pathways may emerge as adjunctive regimens that complement conventional immunosuppressive management.
In conclusion, investigations of the intestinal microbiome are warranted in autoimmune hepatitis and promise to clarify pathogenic mechanisms and suggest alternative management strategies. The globoseries glycosphingolipid SSEA-4 is a marker of bone marrow-derived clonal multipotent stromal cells in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of multipotent stromal cells MSC may be enhanced by the identification of markers that allow their discrimination and enumeration both in vivo and in vitro.
Here, we investigated the ability of embryonic stem cell-associated glycosphingolipids to isolate human MSC from both whole-bone-marrow BM and stromal cell cultures. Human stromal cultures, generated in either the presence or absence of serum, contained heterogeneous cell populations discriminated by the quantity of SSEA-4 epitopes detected on their surface. In vitro, single cells with the capacity to generate multipotent stromal cultures were detected exclusively in the SSEA-4hi fraction.
Variation in 12 porcine genes involved in the carbohydrate moiety assembly of glycosphingolipids does not account for differential binding of F4 Escherichia coli and their fimbriae. Glycosphingolipids GSLs are important membrane components composed of a carbohydrate structure attached to a hydrophobic ceramide. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that variation in genes involved in the assembly of the F4 binding carbohydrate moiety of GSLs i.
Sequencing the complete open reading frame of the 11 expressed genes NEU2 was not expressed identified 72 mutations. Although some of them might have a structural effect, none of them could be associated with a F4R phenotype. We conclude that no regulatory or structural variation in any of the investigated genes is responsible for the genetic susceptibility of pigs towards F4 ETEC. Intestinal failure in childhood. Insulin influences intestinal structure and absorptive function.
Classification, epidemiology and aetiology. Best Pract Res Clin Myc deletion rescues Apc deficiency in the small intestine. Sansom, O. The APC gene encodes the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor protein, germline mutation of which characterizes familial adenomatous polyposis FAP , an autosomal intestinal cancer syndrome.
Inactivation of APC is also recognized as the key early event in the development of sporadic. Intestinal Permeability: The Basics. Full Text Available The authors review some of the more fundamental principles underlying the noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans, the choice of test markers and their analyses, and the practical aspects of test dose composition and how these can be changed to allow the specific assessment of regional permeability changes and other intestinal functions.
Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors. NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia.
Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum.
In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alphaantitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption.
Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities e. In addition, occult infectious e. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei or inflammatory disorders e. Crohn's disease may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion.
Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care.
Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since until today, this selection started on the first semester of until , in the development of the line on intestinal and extra- intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line.
In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used.
Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem.
Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world.
Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place. Glycosphingolipids are integral constituents of cellular membrane, arranged in rafts, and with neoplasic cell anti-social behavior, like uncontrolled.
Expression of Shiga toxin 2e glycosphingolipid receptors of primary porcine brain endothelial cells and toxin-mediated breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Shiga toxin Stx 2e, released by certain Stx-producing Escherichia coli, is presently the best characterized virulence factor responsible for pig edema disease, which is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions, neurological disorders and often fatal outcomes.
Although Stx2e-mediated brain vascular injury is the key event in development of neurologic signs, the glycosphingolipid GSL receptors of Stx2e and toxin-mediated impairment of pig brain endothelial cells have not been investigated so far. Here, we report on the detailed structural characterization of Stx2e receptors globotriaosylceramide Gb3Cer and globotetraosylceramide Gb4Cer , which make up the major neutral GSLs in primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells PBCECs.
Various Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer lipoforms harboring sphingenine d or sphinganine d and mostly a long-chain fatty acid CC24 were detected. A notable batch-to-batch heterogeneity of primary endothelial cells was observed regarding the extent of ceramide hydroxylation of Gb3Cer or Gb4Cer species. Gb3Cer, Gb4Cer and sphingomyelin preferentially distribute to detergent-resistant membrane fractions and can be considered lipid raft markers in PBCECs. Moreover, we employed an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier BBB , which exhibited strong cytotoxic effects of Stx2e on the endothelial monolayer and a rapid collapse of the BBB.
These data strongly suggest the involvement of Stx2e in cerebral vascular damage with resultant neurological disturbance characteristic of edema disease. Dynamic partitioning of a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein in glycosphingolipid -rich microdomains imaged by single-quantum dot tracking. Recent experimental developments have led to a revision of the classical fluid mosaic model proposed by Singer and Nicholson more than 35 years ago.
In particular, it is now well established that lipids and proteins diffuse heterogeneously in cell plasma membranes. Their complex motion patterns reflect the dynamic structure and composition of the membrane itself, as well as the presence of the underlying cytoskeleton scaffold and that of the extracellular matrix. How the structural organization of plasma membranes influences the diffusion of individual proteins remains a challenging, yet central, question for cell signaling and its regulation.
Here we have developed a raft-associated glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored avidin test probe Av-GPI , whose diffusion patterns indirectly report on the structure and dynamics of putative raft microdomains in the membrane of HeLa cells. Labeling with quantum dots qdots allowed high-resolution and long-term tracking of individual Av-GPI and the classification of their various diffusive behaviors.
Using dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence TIRF microscopy, we studied the correlation between the diffusion of individual Av-GPI and the location of glycosphingolipid GM1-rich microdomains and caveolae.
We show that Av-GPI exhibit a fast and a slow diffusion regime in different membrane regions, and that slowing down of their diffusion is correlated with entry in GM1-rich microdomains located in close proximity to, but distinct, from caveolae. We further show that Av-GPI dynamically partition in and out of these microdomains in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Acidic glycosphingolipids AGSLs , which mainly consist of ganglioside and sulfatide moieties, are highly concentrated in the central nervous system.
Comprehensive profiling of AGSLs has historically been challenging because of their high complexity and the lack of standards. In this study, a novel strategy was developed to comprehensively profile AGSLs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
A mathematical model was established to predict the retention times RTs of all theoretically possible AGSLs on the basis of the good logarithmic relationship between the ceramide carbon numbers of the AGSLs in the reference material and their RTs. A data set was created of theoretically possible AGSLs, including the ceramide carbon numbers, RTs, and high-resolution quasi-molecular ions. A novel fast identification strategy was established for global AGSL profiling by comparing the high-resolution quasi-molecular ions and RTs of the tested peaks to those in the data set of AGSLs.
Using this strategy, AGSL candidates were identified in rat brain tissue. This novel strategy was employed to profile AGSLs in brain tissue samples from control rats and model rats with bilateral common carotid artery 2-VO cerebral ischemia. Forty AGSLs were significantly different between the control and model groups, and these differences were further interpreted. A new approach to the modification of cell membrane glycosphingolipids : Ganglioside composition of JTC P3 cells altered by feeding with galactose as a sole carbohydrate source in protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium.
A significant difference in the glycosphingolipid composition of JTC P3 cells established from monkey kidney tissue was observed when cells cultured in a protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium containing glucose DM as a sole carbohydrate source were transferred and cultured in the same medium containing galactose and pyruvic acid DM in place of glucose.
In fact, after cultivation of cells in the medium with N-acetyl-D-[ 14 C]mannosamine for 96 h, the radioactivity incorporated into the gangliosides of the cells in DM was fold that of the cells in DM Among the gangliosides of the cells in DM, highly sialylated molecules such as GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b were preferentially labeled, indicating that the sialytransferases responsible for the synthesis of gangliosides are significantly more activated in cells cultured in DM than in DM These observations reveal that the glycosphingolipid composition of the plasma membrane can be modified epigenetically under well-defined conditions and provide important clues for clarifying the roles of glycosphingolipids associated with particular cell functions.
Small intestine diverticuli. The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small- intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy.
Twelve diverticuli of the small- intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them.
The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion.
This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children 3 boys and 3 girls of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension.
Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention ileostomy or colostomy , bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis prolonged transit time and microcolon or microrectum.
This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome. Small Intestinal Infections. Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections.
There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.
Although inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli APC is recognized as an early event in CRC development, it is the accumulation of multiple subsequent oncogenic insults facilitates malignant transformation. Together our findings highlight a role for Kaiso in promoting Wnt signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis in the mammalian intestine.
Recognizing , Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying. Workplace bullying WPB behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize , confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations.
Recognizing , confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. Many African Americans AAs use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers.
This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications.
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