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Ig spread betting reviews on garcinia

Our predictions of Climate change impact on habitat suitability suggest that there will be a drastic reduction in the suitability by 5. Objective and Significance: Primary objective of this study is to identify the potential distribution of medicinally and. A naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase inhibitor derived from Garcinia indica impairs newly acquired and reactivated fear memories.

Full Text Available The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD.

Here, we use a combination of biochemical, behavioral, and neurophysiological methods to systematically investigate the ability of garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase HAT inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree Garcina indica , to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a widely studied rodent model of PTSD. We show that local infusion of garcinol into the rat lateral amygdala LA impairs the training and retrieval-related acetylation of histone H3 in the LA.

Further, we show that either intra-LA or systemic administration of garcinol within a narrow window after either fear conditioning or fear memory retrieval significantly impairs the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory and associated neural plasticity in the LA. Our findings suggest that a naturally-occurring compound derived from the diet that regulates chromatin function may be useful in the treatment of newly acquired or recently reactivated traumatic memories.

The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD.

Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola Bitter kola in southwest Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola Bitter kola in southwest Nigeria: opportunity The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola Garcinia kola starting from the point of Radiation processing of Garcinia cambogia. Garcinia Cambogia GC extract is used in controlling obesity and many health related problems. Being a natural product, locally known as cocum powder, is often contaminated with various microbiological species.

Ability of g-radiation is well established to eliminate such species and it could be used to protect the quality of the product. In the present study, GC extract was subjected to g-radiation dose in order to evaluate the stability of its active ingredients. No significant physico-chemical changes were observed in GC at 30 kGy. GC could be sterilized or decontaminated in dry powder form using gamma radiation without affecting its physico-chemical properties. Azadirachta Indica.

Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. Twenty four 24 adult Wistar rats of both sexes, Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of The effect of Garcinia kola heckel seed extract on the promonocytic cell line U activated by lipopolysaccharide LPS was investigated.

Full Text Available Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. Alliums sativum and Garcinia kola seeds were tested for their Three markets, one Gastroprotective potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia kola Induced Oxidative.

Biflavonoid of Garcinia kola Seed. Phytother Res. Antiulcerogenic effect of diet containing seeds of. Evaluation of the anti-fertility effect of Garcinia Kola Seeds on male In Nigeria, West Africa, Garcinia Kola seed is widely use for social, therapeutic and nutritional purposes.

In recent times, there have been reports about its negative effects on male fertility. In view of this, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Garcinia Kola seed on male fertility indices. Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. In the present work, phytochemical investigation has resulted in one new prenylated xanthone and 13 known xanthones isolated from the pericarp of G.

Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including X-ray diffraction. It is noteworthy that the new compound can promote CNE-2 cells apoptosis in late stage, having a remarkable inhibition effect on the side population growth of CNE-2 at 1. The bioactive compound was also detected in extract from fresh mangosteen flesh, which indicated that the popular fruit could have potential cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines.

Purpose: Concurrent use of orthodox and herbal medicines is likely to precipitate an overall effect which may or may not be beneficial to the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial interaction between the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seed GKS which is chewed habitually as a masticatory Background: The claim of an Octogenarian on Garcinia kolanuts crude water extract on his open angle glaucoma has opened up a series of researchers into the native nuts as to their pharmocotherapeutic properties.

Some of these have been reported as pressure lowering effects on laboratory animals and as antibacterials Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola bitter A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod agricultural waste was Mani, S. Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola. The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Garcinia kola Heckel Nov 5, About 0.

Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida Clusiaceae in Cameroonian Atlantic forests. Garcinia lucida Vesque Clusiaceae is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds In previous studies, we established that kolaviron KV a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol.

The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola Heckel The genus Garcinia has been known to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and other phenolic derivatives.

Previous investigations of endophytic fungi from G. In order to the continue the phytochemical work on endophytic fungi of G. In this study, a benzoyl compound similar to that found in the endophytic fungus of G. The same benzoyl compound was also isolated from the endophytic fungus Acremonium sp of G.

The culture medium was partitioned using ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain the concentrated extract. Isolation of compounds was performed using the chromatography method. Sustained abstinence from cocaine use is frequently compromised by exposure to environmental stimuli that have previously been strongly associated with drug taking. Such cues trigger memories of the effects of the drug, leading to craving and potential relapse.

Our work has demonstrated that manipulating cocaine-cue memories by destabilizing them through interfering with the reconsolidation process is one potential therapeutic tool by which to prolong abstinence. Here, we examine the use of t The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of bread enhanced with Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder with the combination of baking process conditions.

The physical and chemical properties of bread sample such as antioxidant activity, phenolic content, moisture analysis and colour parameters were studied. Bread dough without fortification of pericarp powder was used as control. Data obtained were analyzed by multiple regressions and the significant model such as linear and quadratic with variables interactions were used. In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola Purpose: To investigate the interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola using an in vitro adsorption study.

Methods: In vitro interaction between quinine and G. Adsorption of quinine 2. Thereafter, quinine desorption process De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L. Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. Mangosteen, of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System.

Clean reads of ,, were obtained from ,, raw reads. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73, and 73,, respectively. These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L. African Journal of Sustainable Development Garcinia kola seed is eaten raw with the belief that it promotes longevity. This review summarises the diverse biological activities of Garcinia kola and possible role as an emerging Abstract: This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola bitter kola on the normal flora of the mouth.

Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing Garcinia kola for days decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel. Garcinia kola plays an important socioeconomic role in the Africa culture. Inspite of this, the plant only exists in the wild or as part of left over in the Agroforestry farms.

Therefore, this research Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy CJ is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy.

The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice.

Additionally, CJ increased the Kipositive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus DG of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromodeoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus.

Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

All rights reserved. To date, only limited knowledge is available on the cytogenetics and genome sequences of a common variety of mangosteen Abu Bakar et al. Here, we report the first single-molecule real-time SMRT sequencing data from whole genome sequencing of mangosteen of Mesta variety.

This study describes and compares the morphoanatomical responses of plants under conditions of stress and normoxia. Young plants of Garcinia madruno were subjected to two water regimes: daily controlled irrigation and waterlogged for 84 days. Hypertrophic lenticels, adventitious roots and anatomical characteristics of the roots and leaves were evaluated on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and There were no changes in leaf structure, but cracks and hypertrophic lenticels appeared on the stems, there was an increase in blackness of the roots and the plants formed adventitious roots to adapt to the flooded environment.

The anatomical changes in the roots of the flooded plants were thickening of the exodermis in the main root and of the pericycle in the lateral roots, and a large increase in the amount of aerenchyma. Histochemical tests detected starch in the midrib, mesophyll, stem and root of flooded plants, and in the petiole of control plants.

In the waterlogged plants, phenolic compounds were found in the petiole and alkaloids were found in the midrib, petiole and root. Proximate and nutritional composition of kola nut, garcinia kola and alligator pepper. African Journal With regular intake, the ascorbic Mar 31, These alternative management options could easily be integrated into forest Journal of Natural Impact of certain flavonoids on lipid profiles--potential action of Garcinia cambogia flavonoids.

Flavonoids from Cocos nucifera, Myristica fragrance, Saraka asoka and Garcinia cambogia exerted hypolipidaemic activity in rats. A dose response study revealed biphasic activity. Higher doses were less effective in reducing lipid levels in serum and tissues, although devoid of toxic effects. Full Text Available Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer.

Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid HCA extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature.

To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones. Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases.

Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development.

Species of genus Garcinia belonging to family Clusiaceae are traditionally known for the treatment of ulcer, gonorrhea, leucorrhoea and abdominal pain. This genus is also reported to be a rich source of xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, biflavonoids and triterpenes showing significant pharmacological activities.

Garcinia mangostana L. The fruits of G. This study aimed to evaluate the bark and fruit extracts of G. Total phenolic contents were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent colorimetric method. Anti-hyperglycemic activity was determined using a-glucosidase and a-amylase enzymes. In quantitative phytochemical analysis, the extracts of G. Also, in antioxidant activities, G. Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. Beijerinckia indica subsp. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa.

Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii are known as kandis gajah including the Garcinia genus. This plant has been traditionally used by local communities Sarasah Bonta, Lembah Arau, West Sumatra, to treat various diseases including gout. Aspergillus niger was isolated from the tissues of the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The fungi strain was identified base on colony and cell morphology characteristic.

Media that already contains secondary metabolites are partitioned using ethyl acetate solvent in 5 L twice, followed by evaporation. Furthermore, the extract is separated by chromatographic techniques to obtain a pure compound of white crystal. The compound was determined as phenolic 1.

Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed flour. Alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin B1 , Riboflavin B2 and Niacin B3 , to the amounts of Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.

Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Mangifera Indica Mango. Mangifera indica , commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods.

Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied.

These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. Studies on structure, size and ontogenic stages are important to understand which factors influence population processes, regeneration and response to disturbances of a population.

This study examined thestructure of a population of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy Clusiaceae in white sands habitat of Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State. Thirty 20 x 25 m plots were selected randomly selected, and their abundance of young and adult plants was recorded, as well as trunk circumference, crown height and number of stems per plant. The spatial distribution of young and adult population is aggregated, caused by their predisposition to form.

Jul 18, IR For callus Salinity is one of the Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due. Physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of oil extracted from dry alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seeds. Full Text Available In this study, the chemical composition, physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed oil were evaluated.

The crude oil content was The oil contain a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids The relative density was 0. The color analysis showed a value of The oil also had a high relative oxidative stability. Seven phenolic acids caffeic, vanillic, galic, p-coumaric, ascorbic, cinnamic and ferulic were detected, with ascorbic acid as the predominant one 5.

In relation to the volatile composition, 48 compounds were found with ZPentadecenol These findings demonstrated the potential of alhydwan seeds to be used as a good source of quality edible oil. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of kaviiron a Garcinia kola Kolaviron is a defatted ethanol extract from the seeds of Garcinia Kola.

In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Kolaviron is investigated using both thermal and chemical models of pain assessment in mice and rats. Varying doses of Kolaviron were given 30 minutes prior to the induction of Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola bitter kola Storage of Bitter kola Garcinia kola was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life.

The materials were kept moist by wetting them throughout the period of study 8 weeks. The local materials used were sandy soil, jute bag, clay pot and Xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia and their antidiabetic activity.

Three new xanthones, oblongixanthone F-H 1 - 3 , along with eight known xanthones 4 - 11 , were isolated from an EtOAc extract of the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The a This study was carried out to determine the effect of combined intake of Garcinia kola and Ascorbic acid on Intraocular pressure IOP of normotensive Nigerians.

Cuscuta japonica Choisy. The influence of the aqueous extract of Japanese Dodder Cuscuta japonica on the velocity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth has been shown. To accelerate the growth of Myc. It was found out that the complex chemical composition of the aqueous extract made of dry seeds or dry vegetative stems of the plant parasite Cuscuta japonica has a biological effect on Myc.

Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored. The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same.

The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria. The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control.

This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms. Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus Diversity in Zanonia indica Cucurbitaceae.

A revision of the monotypic genus Zanonia L. The only and widely distributed species Z. Subspecies orientalis also contains a distinct variety, var. The benefitmangosteen for human life makes it worth as commodity in International market. This aimed to knowing the influence of addition some yeast concentration for bud multiplication of mangosteen and to getting the best yeast concentration for bud multiplication of mangosteen.

The research took place in Sylviculture Laboratory at Tanjungpura University for 2 month. The data analyzed to usecompletely randomized desi The objectives of the research were to find out an effective and eco-friendly method controlling on mealybug, and technique on keeping mangosteen fruits freshness lasts longer taking the advantages of using botanical insecticides that can be used for the need of certificating mealybug-free mangosteen for export destination.

Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention.

Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content.

The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa.

The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties.

The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT cell lines.

Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products. Ocular dynamics of Garcinia cola Heckel on healthy volunteers following bolus ingestion. It is a plant found in the West African subregion, mostly in moist conditions, and often in association with Cola acuminata. The seeds are highly valued ingredients in African ethonomedicine.

The seeds have several social uses and applications in folk medicine. These seeds are ordinarily chewed by the local people without prescription or restriction. In an in vivo case control study, the effects of Garcinia cola on some visual functions: pupil diameter, near point of convergence NPC, amplitude of accommodation AA, intraocular pressure IOP, visual acuity VA and habitual phoria; following bolus ingestion of 20 g was undertaken using healthy visually active volunteers.

The lateral phoria at far and near tended towards esophoria. Possibly the miotic effect and reduction in IOP could be of benefit to patients with raised IOP where conventional drugs may not be effective. Also it is possible that the effects on phoria could be exploited in oculomotor function in combination with visual training.

Here we show that synthetic CGXs exhibit antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, the causative parasite of human malaria, at the intraerythrocytic stages. Their activity can be substantially improved by attaching a triphenylphosphonium group at the A ring of the caged xanthone. CGXs affect malaria parasites at multiple intraerythrocytic stages, with mature stages trophozoites and schizonts being more vulnerable than immature rings.

Within hours of CGX treatment, malaria parasites display distinct morphological changes, significant reduction of parasitemia the percentage of infected red blood cells , and aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation. CGXs do not, however, target the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the target of the drug atovaquone and several preclinical candidates. CGXs are cytotoxic to human HEK cells at the low micromolar level, which results in a therapeutic window of around fold for the lead compounds.

In summary, we show that CGXs are potent antimalarial compounds with structures distinct from those of previously reported antimalarial inhibitors. Our results highlight the potential to further develop Garcinia natural product derivatives as novel antimalarial agents.

Gopalakrishnan, V. Manju; Srividya, T. Aqueous, light petroleum, chloroform, alcohol, benzene and acetone extracts of the leaves of Coccinia indica. Family: Cucurbitaceae were screened for antihepatotoxic activity.

Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity. Full Text Available The use of herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss is becoming increasingly common as obesity is becoming major health problem in the United States. Despite the popularity of these natural supplements, there are no guidelines for their therapeutic doses and their safety is always a concern.

It suppresses fatty acid biosynthesis and decreases appetite. However, its prolonged use in weight maintenance is unknown. Here we describe a case of acute hepatitis after the use of Garcinia cambogia for weight loss. The compound was isolated by using column chromatography and characteristic with ultra violet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The indicated this compound was hegoflavon B.

Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone.

The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described The plant Garcinia gardneriana Planch. These phenolic compounds have shown anti-inflammatory activity validating the popular use of the plant.

In this work was isolated from dried branches of Garcinia gardneriana the biflavonoids: morelloflavone, that Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn. Garcinia mangostana Linn, Family; Guttiferae is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones.

A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system.

Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin 1 0. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature. Conclusiones: la especie G. Garcinia cambogia hydroxycitric acid as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. Hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in the herbal compound Garcinia cambogia, competitively inhibits the extramitochondrial enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate pro-3S -lyase.

As a citrate cleavage enzyme that may play an essential role in de novo lipogenesis inhibition, G cambogia is claimed to lower body weight and reduce fat mass in humans. To evaluate the efficacy of G cambogia for body weight and fat mass loss in overweight human subjects.

Twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient weight control research unit. Subjects were randomized to receive either active herbal compound mg of hydroxycitric acid per day or placebo, and both groups were prescribed a high-fiber, low-energy diet.

The treatment period was 12 weeks. Body weight was evaluated every other week and fat mass was measured at weeks 0 and Body weight change and fat mass change. Patients in both groups lost a significant amount of weight during the week treatment period P Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.

Fruit ontogeny of Garcinia gardneriana Planch. The fruit itself is consumed in natura, and juices and sweets are made from it. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological and structural aspects of fruits and seeds of this species in order to classify the fruit type and the pulpy layer which involves the seeds.

The smooth, coriaceous skin consists of the lignified exocarp. The endocarp cell layers are derived from the activity of an adaxial meristem that undergoes radial elongation. The edible sweet white pulp is formed by the endocarp, as well as the spongy mesocarp, in which the secretory ducts lose their function.

The unitegmic anatropous ovules develop into anatropous exalbuminous seeds with a collapsed and undifferentiated testa. The embryo is hypocotylar. The features here described generally occur in Clusioideae-Garcinieae and Symphonieae. Eleusine indica resistance to Accase inhibitors. The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro.

The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect. A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica , False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

There are The fruit pulp is used for seasoning, as a food component and in juices. Its fruit is regarded This has Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide. Blanching prior to further process stabilizes these valuable compounds. The inactivation kinetics followed a monophasic first-order model with k values between 1.

The decreasing trend of k values with increasing temperature indicates a faster inactivation of peroxidase from mangosteen pericarp at higher temperatures. The activation energy Ea of The results of this research will help to design pre-processing conditions of mangosteen pericarp as a source of antioxidants.

Fractionation and antioxidant activity potency of the extract of Garcinia lateriflora Blume var. Garcinia lateriflora leaves extract of the family Guttiferae has been known to have excellent antioxidant activity. The objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant effect of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of G. The extracts were fractionated by using column chromatography. The Methanol extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with EC50 values are E13 fraction was the most active fraction from ethyl acetate extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana G.

Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications. Anticancer activity of 7-epiclusianone, a benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis, in glioblastoma.

Glioblastoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system and one of the hardest tumors to treat. Consequently, the search for novel therapeutic options is imperative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 7-epiclusianone on proliferation, clonogenic capacity, cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in two glioblastoma cell lines UMG and UMG. Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay; for the clonogenic assay, colonies were stained with Giemsa and counted by direct visual inspection; For cell cycle analysis, cells were stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by cytometry; Cyclin A expression was determined by immunoblotting; Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and Caspase-3 activity in living cells.

Viability of both cell lines was drastically inhibited; moreover, the colony formation capacity was significantly reduced, demonstrating long-term effects even after removal of the drug. The present study demonstrates for the first time the anticancer potential of 7-epiclusianone against glioblastoma cells, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz Clusiaceae led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone 1, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2, 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone 3, 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone 4, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone 5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone 6. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy- 4, 1,6,7-trihydroxy- 5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones 6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E.

Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2 showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone 1 and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2 were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L pericarp extract. This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L.

The control group was given 0. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. This study examined the structure of a population of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy Clusiaceae in white sands habitat of Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State.

Insect antifeedant ryanodane diterpenes from Persea indica. The new ryanodane diterpenes cinnzeylanone, ryanodol monoacetate, and epi-cinnzeylanol have been isolated from Persea indica Lauraceae. The structure of cinnzeylanone has been determined by X-ray analysis. These compounds proveds to be antifeedants against Spodoptera litura. Cinnzeylanol and ryanodol were the most active antifeedants of this plant, with a range of activity close to that of ryanodine. THis is the first report on the antifeedant effects of this class of diterpenes.

Their st Tamarindus indica : Extent of explored potential. Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae Fabaceae , Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country.

It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity.

Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of polymorphic markers in twelve accessions.

Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis PCoA showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram.

High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0. The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions. Anti-mycobacterial activity of polyketides from Penicillium sp. According to estimates by the World Health Organization, there were 9. There were also 1.

Although there are potent anti-TB molecules, the misuse of these drugs in addition to inconsistent or partial treatment have led to the development of multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB. It is established that plants harbor microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes, which also produce metabolites. Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel and active compounds. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the crude extract and compounds isolated from Penicillium sp.

Liquid culture obtained from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. Their structures were elucidated with spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry by dereplication using Antibase, and by comparison to literature data. All compounds and the crude extract from the liquid medium were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity against M. In this study, the activity of penialidins A-C , citromycetin 4 , p-hydroxy phenyl glyoxalaldoxime 5 , and Brefeldin A 6 were tested against nonpathogenic M.

Penialidin C was the most active compound with a minimum inhibitory concentration of Isolated compounds from Penicillium sp. Antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin in vitro. Malaria especially falciparum malaria still causes high morbidity and mortality in tropical countries.

Several factors have been linked to this situation and the most important one is the rapid spread of parasite resistance to the currently available antimalarials, including artemisinin. Artemisinin is the main component of the currently recommended antimalarial, artemisinin based combination therapy ACT , and it is a free radical generating antimalarial. Garcinia mangostana L mangosteen rind contain a lot of xanthone compounds acting as an antioxidant and exhibited antimalarial activity.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of mangosteen rind extract and its fractions and their interaction with artemisinin against the 3D7 clone of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Dry ripe mangosteen rind was extracted with ethanol followed by fractionation with hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water consecutively to get ethanol extract, hexane, athylacetate, buthanol, and water fractions.

Each of these substances was diluted in DMSO and examined for antimalarial activity either singly or in combination with artemisinin in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 clone. Analysis of the parasite growth in vitro indicated that IC 50 of these mangosteen rind extract, hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water fraction ranged from 0.

Further study using lead compound s isolated from extract and fractions should be performed to identify more accurately their mechanism of antimalarial activities. Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention.

Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats.

In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters.

Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

Optimization of ethanol production from garcinia cambogia residues and the effects of its medicinal component on production yield. Garcinia cambogia, a Chinese herbal medicine, was popular due to its effect for weight loss.

The main medical component inside was determined to be hydroxycitric acid HCA. To realize the resource technology of garcinia cambogia residue, Optimum ethanol production from residues was investigated, and the effects of remaining HCA on the ethanol yield were investigated.

A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the significance of several influencing factors, and cellulase, yeast extract, and KH2PO4 were observed to exert important effects. The ethanol concentration obtained under optimal conditions was 4. The remained HCA in the residues showed minimal influences on ethanol fermentation and could even increase ethanol yield at low concentrations.

A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica. Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica. Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses.

Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate 1 ,monotetracontane 2 ,taraxerol 3 ,stigmasterol 4 ,stearic acid 5 ,heptatriacontanoic acid 6 ,arachidic acid 7 ,ursolic acid acetate 8 ,quercetin 9 ,myricetin 10 ,myricetinO-rhamnoside 11 ,and rutoside Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

Azadirachta indica neem leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of The effect of aqueous extract of neem Azadirachta indica leaves Twenty four 24 adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials. The effect of M. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method.

The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl DPPH , Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis- 2-methoxynitrosulfophenyl -2H-tetrazoliumcarboxanilide salt assay.

Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. Both M. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M. Virtual screening of compounds derived from Garcinia pedunculata as an inhibitor of gamma hemolysin component A of Staphylococcus aureus.

Full Text Available With the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens at alarming frequency, there has been an increase interest in the development of novel drugs from natural resources. The use of higher plants and preparations made from them to treat infections is a longstanding practice in a large part of the population, especially in the developing countries, where there is dependence on traditional medicine for a variety of ailments.

The virtual screening method was used in this study to analyze the docking and inhibitory activities of some natural bioactive compounds present within Garcinia pedunculata against hemolysin toxin of Staphylococcus aureus, gamma-hemolysin component A hlgA. The study resulted in identifying compounds 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-xanthone and garcinone D with high binding affinity towards the target protein revealing them as potent inhibitors that could be further used to create new drug source in the treatment of staphyloccocal infections.

Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy. Full Text Available Gelombang elektromagnetik handphone dapat menyebabkan peningkatan reactive oxygen species ROS sehingga merubah struktur histopatologi testis.

Could you tell me the number for? Could I have , please? Is this a temporary or permanent position? How many are there in a book? Will I have to work shifts? Where do you study? Have you got any experience? Could I take your name and number, please?

Is it convenient to talk at the moment? How do you know each other? Another service? Will I be paid weekly or monthly? Is there? How long have you lived here? How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? How long are you planning to stay here?

What sort of music do you listen to? How do I get an outside line? Have you seen any good films recently? Can you hear me OK? What sort of work do you do? What do you study? Where's the postbox? This may suggest that his food was cooked thoroughly, which would have prevented the transmission of these parasites. Prices below 40, dong usually deter farmersfrom selling.

Eligible candidates were voted on by an member selection committee. The Class will be formally inducted Nov. So, for a year, she lived in Italy illegally, and to fund her studies she did a variety of jobs. In previous years we'd had to take a tiny smoke-filled plane from Athens to Skiathos before taking the boat 3km east, past Skopelos.

I still have recurring nightmares of those journeys, in which I am chainsmoking Salem menthols and weeping into my friend's lap while that tiny ball of rusted metal thrashes through the sky. Until that time, however, don't be surprised if days like Darvish's against Houston become closer to the norm than the exception. It was a rare momentof cooperation in the House as the two parties were entrenchedin their positions on the shutdown. The U. Senate is expectedto go along. The region suffers a severely increased level of birth defects and cancer.

And yet, the international response was muted, to say the least. Passage came on a party-line vote on Friday. While Noozhawk is free to read and use, your contribution will help us provide even more of the essential local news and information you've come to expect from us. But they jumped at the chance to adopt when the Turner Syndrome Society told them American foster parents living in China were looking for more information.

Starring Tom Hanks in the titular role of Phillips, this film elaborates on the insane true story and sheds light on Somali pirates. Reuters recovered the previous editions from the archives of the Westlaw legal database, which is owned by Thomson Reuters Corp, the parent of this news agency. The firm was expectedto post earnings later on Sunday or on Monday; five analystspolled by Reuters forecast a quarterly profit of Proton has deposits ofone billion euros and 1.

Editing by Jane Merriman. The founder and owner of Luz, a trendy Latin American restaurant serving lobster guacamole, pupusas, and Peruvian-style chicken in Brooklyn, decided to cut ties with Seamless starting on Aug. And when it comes to smartphones, the devices are phones first and cameras second. So some of the issues she had with making the device more simple could be more a function of the fact that this is a phone and not a regular point-and-shoot camera.

For instance, some gather quotes from just a handful of insurers. If this "panel" excludes the firm offering the best deal on that particular day, the customer misses out. His day rehab assignment ends on July 22, and it is unclear where A-Rod will go after that, but according to a source, Yankee officials sent him a notification Saturday telling him that he is obligated to inform them in advance of any absence. Who's calling? During his watch, government spending on domestic security exceeded individual budgets for defence, healthcare and education.

At the time of the Budget it was assuming that the broader ILO measure of unemployment would be unchanged over the course of , at 7. Could you tell me my balance, please? SlowerPolish growth also contributed to sending the zloty lower andyields higher. When expanded to includecompanies in general in the s, Dutch industry was quick tosee the benefits.

Five pitches later, Ellis made it with his fourth homer. Do you know what extension he's on? She was utterly adorable," said neighbor Dorothy Werden. The gunman, Scott J. Johnson, was later sentenced to life in prison without parole. Scientists reported the Phoenix spacecraft had confirmed the presence of frozen water in Martian soil.

With their Souls released too soon, who will take the place of these four Men? Attacks motivated by financial gain originate mainly from organized crime groups who steal credit card information, access bank accounts, engage in payment fraud, and practice identity theft. In contrast, the vast majority of espionage attacks originate with foreign governments who seek to bolster their military or industry.

These attacks focus on military or classified information, business plans, proprietary data, software, trade secrets and other technical or proprietary information. She described Castro as "calm and cooperative. The prosecution objected to the animation saying it is not an accurate depiction of what happened. What sort of music do you like?

Then Reckless would walk back with ammunition. To that end, he contends, food costs have been held under control by blending ethanol with imported oil. Christie took appropriate steps," Williams says. I'd point to a state like New Hampshire, which just this legislative session, with bipartisan support, legalized marijuana more broadly than he is proposing in New Jersey.

Jacobson, questioned Dannon's commitment to using carmine, wondering why the company insists on using the controversial additive instead of a potentially safer, less offensive plant-based coloring agent.

One woman, in a T-shirt and shorts, dove head-first through the window of her marooned car before wading away in the thigh-deep currents. Who would I report to? When asked of his remark earlier this summer that Chen's stature would "diminish" if he went to Witherspoon, Cohen said: "That's been my view, but I've been wrong before. Who knows? Six children with minor injuries have also been taken to Royal Lancaster.

All patients have non life-threatening injuries. How many weeks' holiday a year are there? The locomotive and one passenger car derailed. Via Rail said there were no reports of major injuries to train passengers or crew. Via Rail canceled trains on its Ottawa-Toronto route. It wasn't because of my oblique or anything, I was disappointed because I struck out, so that tells me I'm ready and ready to compete.

Usinghis smartphone, he is now able to check the four cameras on thepremises and is emailed photos of whoever enters the house. How much is a Second Class stamp? Could I make an appointment to see? Marines killed the head of the Beltran Leyva cartel in the city of Cuernavaca in and captured Zetas cartel leader Miguel Angel Trevino near the U. My father quickly answered that I am his daughter. My father pulled out his wallet, and I began searching inside my purse.

We both produced our National Identity Cards. Mine clearly states my father's name, in addition to mine. The Ranger checked to see if the names matched, then let us back in the car. Could I have an application form? When the time comes, he said, investors should expect the Fed to scale back bond-buying slowly.

Which is all the more reason why they, of all people, should be the most wary about drawing ludicrous analogies between the activities of totalitarian states and those of democratic ones. Most people will disagree. But Oracle has succeeded in shifting the momentum with boat changes and improved tacking, and the two teams now appear remarkably even.

How many would you like? Federal Reserve reviewing a landmark decision that allowed commercial banks to trade in physical markets. Many senators in his party are skeptical of engaging in another military campaign in the Middle East, even a limited one, but the president implored them to reserve their opposition, at least for now. This was one of the main arguments against it.

Democrats are dangerous. Right-wingers in the U. Congresswill slow Washington's removal of sanctions, he said. The trust welcomes the opportunity for wider national debate or review around the management of violence and aggression within mental health settings. Group F is turning into a real dogfight, albeit an elegant one. Both deals seek to go far beyond tariffcuts and to reduce transatlantic barriers to business.

There arealso similar sticking points, such as agriculture. The difference is that when you hire a car, the thing you're paying extra for probably has an acronym. The deputy editor of the Daily Mail showed tonight he could not justify either of them. If baseball determines that the Rodriguez camp interfered with the investigation, either by tampering with witnesses or destroying evidence, A-Rod could face additional discipline. An investigation into the cause of the incident is underway.

The design remains theoretical and has yet to be tested in the field. Obama any more after destroying the fine real face of his administration by supporting terrorism on account of civilian society also the terrorist group of Muslim brotherhood are targeting Christians and churches. And police is doing his best with the Egyptian citizens to protect them.

America supports that radical muslim brotherhood group which are killing Christians , shame on America administration and shame on ugly politics of America. However, firms expect an improvement in themonths ahead. He and Kerry must move beyond haphazard, poorly considered statements of the kind that have humbled the White House: a casually drawn red line and conflicting descriptions of the potential military mission as a pinprick or something more.

The handful of men who admit they broke the law does not reflect the honesty, integrity and character of the thousands of men and women who have worked at SAC over the past 21 years. We will continue to operate as we work through these matters. All of them eat some regular food some of the time, but in small enough quantities to maintain their status as hunger strikers and continue their protest against open-ended detention at Guantanamo, where most have been held for 11 years without charge.

State court records give Barnes' address as being in the block of Boston Street in Baltimore. Missile Defense Agency last week conducted thefirst operational test of the THAAD system and its ability towork together with the Aegis combat system on a guided-missiledestroyer. Working together, the two systems intercepted twomedium-range ballistic missile that were fired nearlysimultaneously. With this new edition of the Atlas of MS, we now have a much clearer picture of where the gaps are and where improvements have been made in the battle to diagnose and treat this debilitating disease.

In the fall of his freshman year, in intrasquad games, Alvarez struggled mightily. One day he struck out three times and returned to the dorm to spend the night second-guessing himself. But they are not. Quite the opposite, they are at record lows.

Do you know each other? The Cause of Action Institute, a non-profit organization aligned with conservative causes, filed suit last month to force the agency to disclose any requests for tax returns by the White House. Will I have to work on Saturdays? Total return funds like Pimco Total Return Fund, run by Pimco founder and co-chief investment officer Bill Gross, tend to have more long-dated securities than other bond fund classes and are more susceptible to market swings.

Gross's Pimco fund fell to the bottom of the pack over the past month when the bond market turned sharply lower. His fund was also slammed as bond prices turned higher two years ago. Bayer says total return funds whose strategy of maximizing returns may work well in stable times can have problems during market transitions.

It will not be able to be used in conjunction with another state scheme. Its net loss in was 1. TheNasdaq Composite Index was up Smith University in North Carolina. Although, for example, The Hobbs board is made up predominantly by women.

The following waterfall chart is an attempt to explain, as simply as possible, what the drivers of climate change are in terms of radiative forcing. They are a safe and an effective tool in weight loss and weight management, according to decades of scientific research and regulatory agencies around the globe.

During the s and s, many so-called "guest workers" also came from Italy, Greece, Portugal, Tunisia and Yugoslavia. We haven't done it so much in the first three games. But that's a tip of the hat to the pitching that we've been facing. In its statement, the company denied that claim and said its drinks will continue to be labeled "non-GMO.

This is another example of how the Patriot Act has been used to justify criminal activities by the US government. Privacy is a personal right and if spying on our leaders is acceptable then surely we cannot object if the same happens to us the masses.

I for one want to keep my privacy and condemn the US's behaviour. They were wrong. The area is among the most impoverished in the country. Many had not realised theskills that administrators would need to unravel thousands ofcomplex trades across dozens of countries and legal entities. I actually had plenty of early fun playing as LeBron when we were facing the Rockets in the NBA Finals because it felt completely plausible. But the setup lost its luster by the end.

We like that over there in New York, we like that type of game. It was not reasonable for the rebels to expect US close military support given the shaky outcome in Libya where there were only two major sides to the conflict with the Libyan dictator.

Assad is a terrible person who has done little for his nation as well, but that can describe a lot of modern day dictators, and the USA is not going to try to depose them all. The cost in lives and wealth would be unacceptable AND as Afghanistan proved the weapons we provide even those described at the time as Freedom Fighters come back to haunt the US later.

Sleep texting tends to occur during naps or about 90 minutes to two hours into the snoozing process, prior to entering a deep sleep. And that affects our cognitive ability the next day. He said: "For many charities, advocacy and campaigning is core business, and the referendum raises key questions on which charities will want a say.

That is not the way you grow an economy. And the picture looksworse if Congress does away with the "sequester"across-the-board spending cuts now in place, the non-partisanCBO said. To this day, although aid has resumed, the relationship has yet to recover, with a direct impact on counter terrorism co-operation. Humberto grew to hurricane force far out in the Atlantic early Wednesday, becoming the first hurricane of the Atlantic season, while Bermuda shook off a drenching by Tropical Storm Gabrielle.

Friday night when they struck three connected barges in the water by the Tappan Zee Bridge in Piedmont, N. But mobile apps offer yet another option to help students study. They let students review information on the go and are often offered at a fraction of the price of face-to-face tutoring. They became trapped when their position was overrun by flames from the Yarnell Hill fire, southwest of Prescott, on June The jokes follow the news, and with Republicans receding after an election campaign, Obama presented more opportunities, he said.

The NFL immediately retaliated by placing the Cowboys in Dallas and tried to get into Houston, but Adams held the lease to the one available stadium. The actress flaunted her famous curves in a white bodysuit and struck a sultry pose in the sand for her spread in Vogue Brazil. Anderson's racy photo shoot was shot by famed photographer Mario Testino. I have a friend who was made redundant twice while on maternity leave by blue chip companies who should have known better. You can see the color of magenta Aio Wireless uses in the top right smartphone in the picture above, which is a fair shade or three darker than the one T-Mobile uses for Uncarrier ways.

The Yankees are not named in that suit or the tortious interference suit filed against MLB and Selig. Abel solves my flamenco fiasco by sending me into the arms of Jesus Olmedo, a dance teacher from Madrid who runs Flamenco Soul. Our first lesson is at my flat in Chelsea. Jesus suggests we tackle two of the four dances of a Sevillanas — a type of flamenco dance. It is rhythmic, serious and passionate — perfect for a nearly thirtysomething marking her transition.

Then I learn some basic steps, the Paso de Sevillana — a sort of waltz-step along with some intricate wrist spinning. I turn and twist my wrists in a clumsy fashion, plucking shiny Pink Ladies off an imaginary tree. We agree to have the next lessons in a studio with mirrors, so I can see myself in action.

Good plan! I do believe it's a looming public-health crisis," he said. In a meeting with Obama on Wednesday, Goldman SachsChief Executive Lloyd Blankfein implicitly criticizedRepublicans for using their opposition to the healthcare law asa weapon that could lead to a U. Katy Perry seems to think so. Happy voting tomorrow! What's the exchange rate for euros? Wilson Ramos followed with a grounder up the middle that second baseman Elliot Johnson dove to get to, but couldn't get the lead runner.

Anthony Rendon then walked to load the bases for Tracy, whose pinch- hit groundout to first drew the Nats within a run. Whereabouts are you from? All of themhave been able to demonstrate quality and outcomes success. Andmost were able to demonstrate some improvement in the coststructure. Some saw a lot of improvement. A few did not meet thecost target. The year-old daughter of hockey legend Wayne Gretzky showed off her slim bikini bod while in Barbados with her pro-golfer beau Dustin Johnson on June 26, Reuters could not confirm a new date, and a Nokia spokesman declined to comment.

In Britain,regulators warned Barclays they would not accept anyplans to restrict lending after telling it to ramp up itsleverage ratio to 3 percent, from 2. No matter the intention, the result is racism," said their open letter to the Council of Fashion Designers of America. We will sit down and talk to him. Nobody is a re-sign at all costs, but we want him back and we feel good about negotiating something with him.

But nobody is a re-sign at any cost. All the attention revealed another side of Ryan. The information showed that revenue at the socialnetworking company almost tripled in , but it posted a lossin the first half of How long can Abbott blame Labor for the fact he isn't meeting his promises. A word to the wise, don't pose this question in an office sweep as everyone chooses the option 'until hell freezes over'. Woods showed up at Oak Hill late Monday afternoon and spent most of his time chipping and putting, trying to learn the nuances of the greens.

Remember, his failure to adjust to the greens is what derailed him at the British Open two weeks ago.

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Sports betting teaser strategy board Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were treated daily with carbine mining bitcoins vehicle solution diabetic control groupinsulin, or G. Quinn would push toward the same goal in steps that would be far more doable. Opuntia ficus- indica L. They became trapped when their position was overrun by flames from the Yarnell Hill fire, southwest of Prescott, on June To that end, he contends, food costs have been held under control by blending ethanol with imported oil. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri melalui uji DPPH. Both M.

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Family: Cucurbitaceae were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity. Full Text Available The use of herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss is becoming increasingly common as obesity is becoming major health problem in the United States. Despite the popularity of these natural supplements, there are no guidelines for their therapeutic doses and their safety is always a concern.

It suppresses fatty acid biosynthesis and decreases appetite. However, its prolonged use in weight maintenance is unknown. Here we describe a case of acute hepatitis after the use of Garcinia cambogia for weight loss. The compound was isolated by using column chromatography and characteristic with ultra violet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR.

The indicated this compound was hegoflavon B. Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone. The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described The plant Garcinia gardneriana Planch.

These phenolic compounds have shown anti-inflammatory activity validating the popular use of the plant. In this work was isolated from dried branches of Garcinia gardneriana the biflavonoids: morelloflavone, that Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn. Garcinia mangostana Linn, Family; Guttiferae is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones.

A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin 1 0.

These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature. Conclusiones: la especie G. Garcinia cambogia hydroxycitric acid as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. Hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in the herbal compound Garcinia cambogia, competitively inhibits the extramitochondrial enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate pro-3S -lyase. As a citrate cleavage enzyme that may play an essential role in de novo lipogenesis inhibition, G cambogia is claimed to lower body weight and reduce fat mass in humans.

To evaluate the efficacy of G cambogia for body weight and fat mass loss in overweight human subjects. Twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient weight control research unit. Subjects were randomized to receive either active herbal compound mg of hydroxycitric acid per day or placebo, and both groups were prescribed a high-fiber, low-energy diet.

The treatment period was 12 weeks. Body weight was evaluated every other week and fat mass was measured at weeks 0 and Body weight change and fat mass change. Patients in both groups lost a significant amount of weight during the week treatment period P Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.

Fruit ontogeny of Garcinia gardneriana Planch. The fruit itself is consumed in natura, and juices and sweets are made from it. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological and structural aspects of fruits and seeds of this species in order to classify the fruit type and the pulpy layer which involves the seeds.

The smooth, coriaceous skin consists of the lignified exocarp. The endocarp cell layers are derived from the activity of an adaxial meristem that undergoes radial elongation. The edible sweet white pulp is formed by the endocarp, as well as the spongy mesocarp, in which the secretory ducts lose their function.

The unitegmic anatropous ovules develop into anatropous exalbuminous seeds with a collapsed and undifferentiated testa. The embryo is hypocotylar. The features here described generally occur in Clusioideae-Garcinieae and Symphonieae. Eleusine indica resistance to Accase inhibitors. The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro.

The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect. A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica , False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

There are The fruit pulp is used for seasoning, as a food component and in juices. Its fruit is regarded This has Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide. Blanching prior to further process stabilizes these valuable compounds. The inactivation kinetics followed a monophasic first-order model with k values between 1. The decreasing trend of k values with increasing temperature indicates a faster inactivation of peroxidase from mangosteen pericarp at higher temperatures.

The activation energy Ea of The results of this research will help to design pre-processing conditions of mangosteen pericarp as a source of antioxidants. Fractionation and antioxidant activity potency of the extract of Garcinia lateriflora Blume var. Garcinia lateriflora leaves extract of the family Guttiferae has been known to have excellent antioxidant activity.

The objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant effect of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of G. The extracts were fractionated by using column chromatography. The Methanol extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with EC50 values are E13 fraction was the most active fraction from ethyl acetate extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana G.

Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications.

Anticancer activity of 7-epiclusianone, a benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis, in glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system and one of the hardest tumors to treat. Consequently, the search for novel therapeutic options is imperative.

Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 7-epiclusianone on proliferation, clonogenic capacity, cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in two glioblastoma cell lines UMG and UMG. Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay; for the clonogenic assay, colonies were stained with Giemsa and counted by direct visual inspection; For cell cycle analysis, cells were stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by cytometry; Cyclin A expression was determined by immunoblotting; Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and Caspase-3 activity in living cells.

Viability of both cell lines was drastically inhibited; moreover, the colony formation capacity was significantly reduced, demonstrating long-term effects even after removal of the drug. The present study demonstrates for the first time the anticancer potential of 7-epiclusianone against glioblastoma cells, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz Clusiaceae led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone 1, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2, 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone 3, 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone 4, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone 5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone 6. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy- 4, 1,6,7-trihydroxy- 5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones 6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E.

Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2 showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone 1 and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2 were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L pericarp extract. This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L. The control group was given 0. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice.

This study examined the structure of a population of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy Clusiaceae in white sands habitat of Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State. Insect antifeedant ryanodane diterpenes from Persea indica. The new ryanodane diterpenes cinnzeylanone, ryanodol monoacetate, and epi-cinnzeylanol have been isolated from Persea indica Lauraceae.

The structure of cinnzeylanone has been determined by X-ray analysis. These compounds proveds to be antifeedants against Spodoptera litura. Cinnzeylanol and ryanodol were the most active antifeedants of this plant, with a range of activity close to that of ryanodine. THis is the first report on the antifeedant effects of this class of diterpenes.

Their st Tamarindus indica : Extent of explored potential. Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae Fabaceae , Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India.

Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity.

Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of polymorphic markers in twelve accessions.

Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis PCoA showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.

The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions. Anti-mycobacterial activity of polyketides from Penicillium sp. According to estimates by the World Health Organization, there were 9. There were also 1.

Although there are potent anti-TB molecules, the misuse of these drugs in addition to inconsistent or partial treatment have led to the development of multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB. It is established that plants harbor microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes, which also produce metabolites.

Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel and active compounds. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the crude extract and compounds isolated from Penicillium sp. Liquid culture obtained from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. Their structures were elucidated with spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry by dereplication using Antibase, and by comparison to literature data.

All compounds and the crude extract from the liquid medium were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity against M. In this study, the activity of penialidins A-C , citromycetin 4 , p-hydroxy phenyl glyoxalaldoxime 5 , and Brefeldin A 6 were tested against nonpathogenic M.

Penialidin C was the most active compound with a minimum inhibitory concentration of Isolated compounds from Penicillium sp. Antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin in vitro. Malaria especially falciparum malaria still causes high morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. Several factors have been linked to this situation and the most important one is the rapid spread of parasite resistance to the currently available antimalarials, including artemisinin.

Artemisinin is the main component of the currently recommended antimalarial, artemisinin based combination therapy ACT , and it is a free radical generating antimalarial. Garcinia mangostana L mangosteen rind contain a lot of xanthone compounds acting as an antioxidant and exhibited antimalarial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of mangosteen rind extract and its fractions and their interaction with artemisinin against the 3D7 clone of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

Dry ripe mangosteen rind was extracted with ethanol followed by fractionation with hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water consecutively to get ethanol extract, hexane, athylacetate, buthanol, and water fractions. Each of these substances was diluted in DMSO and examined for antimalarial activity either singly or in combination with artemisinin in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 clone.

Analysis of the parasite growth in vitro indicated that IC 50 of these mangosteen rind extract, hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water fraction ranged from 0. Further study using lead compound s isolated from extract and fractions should be performed to identify more accurately their mechanism of antimalarial activities. Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention.

Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally.

This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat.

Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. Optimization of ethanol production from garcinia cambogia residues and the effects of its medicinal component on production yield. Garcinia cambogia, a Chinese herbal medicine, was popular due to its effect for weight loss.

The main medical component inside was determined to be hydroxycitric acid HCA. To realize the resource technology of garcinia cambogia residue, Optimum ethanol production from residues was investigated, and the effects of remaining HCA on the ethanol yield were investigated. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the significance of several influencing factors, and cellulase, yeast extract, and KH2PO4 were observed to exert important effects.

The ethanol concentration obtained under optimal conditions was 4. The remained HCA in the residues showed minimal influences on ethanol fermentation and could even increase ethanol yield at low concentrations. A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica. Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica. Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses.

Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate 1 ,monotetracontane 2 ,taraxerol 3 ,stigmasterol 4 ,stearic acid 5 ,heptatriacontanoic acid 6 ,arachidic acid 7 ,ursolic acid acetate 8 ,quercetin 9 ,myricetin 10 ,myricetinO-rhamnoside 11 ,and rutoside Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

Azadirachta indica neem leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of The effect of aqueous extract of neem Azadirachta indica leaves Twenty four 24 adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

Colin; Dunfield, Peter F. Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials.

The effect of M. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl DPPH , Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis- 2-methoxynitrosulfophenyl -2H-tetrazoliumcarboxanilide salt assay.

Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. Both M. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M.

Virtual screening of compounds derived from Garcinia pedunculata as an inhibitor of gamma hemolysin component A of Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text Available With the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens at alarming frequency, there has been an increase interest in the development of novel drugs from natural resources. The use of higher plants and preparations made from them to treat infections is a longstanding practice in a large part of the population, especially in the developing countries, where there is dependence on traditional medicine for a variety of ailments.

The virtual screening method was used in this study to analyze the docking and inhibitory activities of some natural bioactive compounds present within Garcinia pedunculata against hemolysin toxin of Staphylococcus aureus, gamma-hemolysin component A hlgA. The study resulted in identifying compounds 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-xanthone and garcinone D with high binding affinity towards the target protein revealing them as potent inhibitors that could be further used to create new drug source in the treatment of staphyloccocal infections.

Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy. Full Text Available Gelombang elektromagnetik handphone dapat menyebabkan peningkatan reactive oxygen species ROS sehingga merubah struktur histopatologi testis.

Untuk mengatasinya dibutuhkan senyawa antioksidan yang terkandung dalam kulit manggis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak etanol kulit manggis Garcinia mangostana L. Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum Al tolerance among different rice Oryza sativa L. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties.

The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus and awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 japonica, Yangdao 6 indica and Wuyunjing 7 japonica were studied.

Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7. Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides.

The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups.

Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial. Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal.

The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis.

Further principal component analysis PCA of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan S The main objective of this article is to see if shorter working time takes into account the wishes of salaried workers when setting up their schedules and if so, how and to what extent. To explore the dynamics of selected time as promoted by the hour week, we examine two dimensions : the container of working time, i. The study was carried out in a local branch of the French public healthcare system and reveals that workers are ambivalent about selected time : though they gain some power in deciding how long they will work and how to manage their schedule, they have lost control over their actual working time, i.

Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango mangifera indica l Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango mangifera indica l. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the There is need for lead compounds Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves.

The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents.

This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry. Cactus Opuntia ficus indica f. Dec 18, A putative beneficial effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. Mangifera indica L. Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. Fruit as Influenced by Effects of composite mango Mangifera indica fruit reject meal on Effects of composite mango Mangifera indica fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and economics of production of rabbits.

The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject Analysis of genetic diversity in mango Mangifera indica L. All the isozymes, used in the present study showed polymorphism for mango. A total of 25 different electrophoretic Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca Even though, the use of acaricdes is still the basic procedure for controlling most ticks and ecto The insecticidal and acaricidal action of.

Toxic effects of neem products Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Dec 17, Key words: Azadirachta indica neem , Aedes aegypti mosquito , LC50, CI from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf. They were ob- tained from The trees are also known as an air purifier. The medicinal. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization.

The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit 'Ukwaju' in Kiswahili was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different.

The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0. This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata Baobab with a value of 2. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.

Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts 8mgg-1 sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mgg Calcium in all samples was over 20 mgg-1 w hile mg was 30 mgg-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement.

Effects of garcinia cambogia Hydroxycitric Acid on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity. Objective: The primary end point of this study was the effects of 12 weeks of G cambogia extract administration on visceral fat accumulation. The secondary end points were body indices including height, body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist and hip circumference, and waist—hip ratio and laboratory values including total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid.

Methods: This study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment for 12 weeks with G cambogia containing mg of HCA per day or placebo. At the end of the treatment period, both groups were administered placebo for 4 weeks to assess any rebound effect. Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of manggis fruit maturity levels, temperature, and types of packaging on the shelf fife of manggis fruit Garcinia mangostana L, The experimental design used was Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three factors consisting of manggis fruit maturity levels tinged with purple and brown, packaging types flexible and stretch film, and storage temperature l50C and C using two replication for each treatment.

The result showed that maturity level had significant effect on weight toss, color but had no significant effect on hardness, total sugar and total acid of manggis fruit during storage. The suitable packaging type to maintain the quality of manggis fruit with maturity level of tinged purple was the flexible type, which result n a shelf life of 33 days. Packaging suitable for manggis fruit with maturity level of brown was the stretch type, which had the shelf life of 39 days. Storage temperature to maintain quality was l50C.

Garcinia kola aqueous suspension prevents cerebellar neurodegeneration in long-term diabetic rat - a type 1 diabetes mellitus model. The development of compounds able to improve metabolic syndrome and mitigate complications caused by inappropriate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus is challenging. The medicinal plant with established hypoglycemic properties Garcinia kola Heckel might have the potential to mitigate diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome and complications. We have investigated the neuroprotective properties of a suspension of G.

Wistar rats, made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were monitored for 8 months. Then, they were administered with distilled water or G. Body weight and glycemia were determined before and after treatment.

After sacrifice, cerebella were dissected out and processed for stereological quantification of Purkinje cells. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of markers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were performed. Purkinje cell counts were significantly increased, and histopathological signs of apoptosis and neuroinflammation decreased, in diabetic animals treated with G.

Glycemia was also markedly improved and body weight restored to non-diabetic control values, following G. These results suggest that G. Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses.

Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that G. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia.

Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp. Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C , along with one known compound, citromycetin 4 , were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp. The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 RG2 bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. BD4 were also included in the assay.

Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds , it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G.

MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. The flesh extract of G. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell apoptosis. GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G.

This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. Bioactivity of Neem Azadirachta indica callus extract. This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica Neem and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves.

Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata.

Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The subsequent. Full Text Available This paper reports on the synthesis of Cannabis indica fiber-reinforced composites using Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde URF as a novel matrix through compression molding technique.

The polycondensation between urea, resorcinol, and formaldehyde in different molar ratios was applied to the synthesis of the URF polymer matrix. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed fiber particle reinforced composites were determined. Effects of fiber loadings on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural strength, and wear resistance were evaluated.

Results showed that mechanical properties of URF resin matrix increased considerably when reinforced with particles of Cannabis indica fiber. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels.

Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. The potential of granular-activated carbon GAC derived from agrowaste of Mangostene Mangostana garcinia fruit peel was investigated in batch and fixed bed system as a replacement of current expensive methods for treating wastewater contaminated by manganese, Mn II cations.

Batch equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models at different temperatures. Full Text Available In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis.

Further principal component analysis PCA of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan South were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu North and East Coast were in another clustered group. Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf A. Most often, aqueous extract of A.

Biosorptive behavior of Mango Mangifera indica and Neem Azadirachta indica barks for Cs from aqueous solutions: A radiotracer study. The role of dead biomasses in the removal of heavy metal toxic ions has received an increased attention due to their large abundance and low cost solids. In line with much interest we tried to employ such solids viz. In addition to their good uptake behavior, these solids are also found to be fairly stable towards ionizing radiations.

Here, an attempt has been made to study for the removal behavior of Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica bark samples for Cs. The barks of Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica were obtained from the vast region of Banaras Hindu University campus. Bark samples were dried at room temperature and then crushed and washed repeatedly by double distilled water and again dried at room temperature. The sorption of Cs I on these bark samples were carried out as a function of sorptive concentration 1.

Quantitatively, it was observed that the amount of Cs I adsorbed on these solids increased from 0. However, the percent sorption decreased from This decrease in percent sorption is likely due to the lesser number of surface active sites, available for higher number of sorptive species. Further, the concentration dependence data were utilized for analysing the adsorption isotherm and it was found that these are fitted well for Freundlich adsorption isotherm to its linearized logarithmic form Log a e.

Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen Garcinia mangostana pericarp waste extracts. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Spherical gold nanoparticles gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs] with an average size of Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs] had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head.

The average head size was measured to be The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials — The reaction yields were A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of.

Pericarp Extract Preserved by Gamma Irradiation. In order to improve the shelf life durability of the formula, the irradiation of formula using gamma rays from cobalt was done. It was found that both of physicochemical and microbiological properties of the formulas were changed by extract concentrations and after irradiation. The irradiated formulas with dose up to 7.

The result of TLC-densitometry analysis showed that G. Decontamination dose for all formulas was found to be about 7. At this condition, the bacteria and mold-yeast have been killed, without reducing the antioxidant activity. Competitive protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B PTP1B inhibitors, prenylated caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi and their inhibitory mechanism. The methanol extract of the gum resin of Garcinia hanburyi G. The active compounds were identified as prenylated caged xanthones which inhibited PTP1B in dose-dependent manner.

To develop a pharmacophore model, we explored the binding sites of compound 1 and 7 in PTP1B. These modeling results were in agreement with our findings, which revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to caged motif and prenyl group in A ring. Protective effect of magnesium lactate gluconate and Garcinia cambogia fruit extract in experimentally induced renal calculi in rats. Methods: Study was performed during December to April Urolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 0.

At the end of treatment period, biochemical parameters affecting renal stone formation were estimated in serum, urine, kidney homogenate and histopathology of harvested kidneys was performed. Conclusions: MLG and GC extract are capable of preventing calcium oxalate CaOx crystal formation and subsequent deposition in renal tubules. The principle mechanism underlying nephroprotective effect of test drugs might be attributed to their calcium ion cheating ability and CaOx crystallization inhibitory activity.

It is further asserted that GC was more potent than MLG in overall kidney protection by virtue of its antioxidant potential. Body weight, dietary intake, body fat distribution, and histological and biochemical parameters were recorded.

Compared to control rats, non-supplemented and supplemented groups consumed significantly less food The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts Azadirachta indica A. Juss was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger.

Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica -type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica -type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population.

Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives.

Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering.

Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica -type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase hpt , neomycin phosphotransferase nptII , or phosphomannose isomerase pmi , and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin G , or mannose, respectively.

Effect of Mangifera indica leaves extracts on growth response of Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated for 42 days. These were fed to fingerlings of O. Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica , a. A total of test samples were used from three trees randomly selected from the study area. Preparations of test samples, actual testing and determination of different properties were carried out following standard methods. Results showed A. Neem Azadirachta indica a.

Juss fruit yield determination in This study determined fruit yield of Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss in the guinea savanna of Nigeria at Makurdi. Fifteen mature neem trees which had no overlapping canopies and had not been previously pruned were purposively selected out of stands growing at the study site. All ripped fruits felling from the Treatment and comparative analysis of the properties of aqueous extracts of seed kernel of Azadirachta indica A.

Juss neem was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica neem The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica neem against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae. The leaves of Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Wild custard-apple Annona senegalensis Pers were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae.

The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test BST were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem Azadirachta Indica The potency of aqueous and methanolic extracts of neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed kernel, in inhibiting and disrupting development of Anopheles mosquito was assessed in the laboratory. Different concentrations of aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested on eggs, larvae and pupae.

Both extracts were found Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica Mango , Psidium Cadmium Exposure and Bone Mineral. A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica seed meal as dietary carbohydrate in the diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor Performance of broiler chickens fed neem Azadirachta indica leaf One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem Azadirachta indica leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens.

The birds were randomly assigned into four 4 groups of forty eight 48 birds each in a The data suggests that the whole neem seed oil and the acidic portion of the neem seed oil could be of benefit in controlling the blood sugar in subjects presenting with Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus- indica L Opuntia ficus- indica L.

The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no.

Safety evaluation of neem Azadirachta indica derived pesticides. Boeke, S. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica , provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory,. The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus Fusarium spp.

The effect of the neem leaf Azadirachta indica extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of The mango Mangifera indica L. Tigray, a region in north Ethiopia, is a semi-arid area with limited agricultural potential Genetic diversity of Tamarindus indica populations: Any clues on the Tamarindus indica is a domesticated species of high economic value for the Sahel region.

Despite this importance, very few data is available on its diversity as well as its structure leading to controversial discussions on its origin. Thus it is questionable whether the knowledge of its genetic diversity and organisation may The study included three treatments: the cow dung, mycorrhizal treatments The effects of dietary neem Azadirachta indica leaf extract NLE on egg production, egg quality characteristics and blood indices of laying hens were investigated. Dry matter content of fresh neem leaves was determined and used to determine the quantity of the fresh leaves to be extracted to correspond with the required Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus- indica L.

Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus- indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L. Clinical bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus.

Antibacterial activity was done by agar disc diffusion method at two different Saraca asoca Roxb. Saraca indica L. English: Ashoka; Hindi: Asok ofCaesalpilliaceae is a medium sized extremely ornamental evergreen tree with numerous spreading and drooping branches, compound leaves and orange-yellow flowers in clusters. Fruits are black, leathery pods with compressed seeds.

Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract EtAI , and aqueous extract AqAI of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure.

Garcinia cambogia supplements are made from an extract of the rind of the tamarind fruit. A substance called HCA or hydroxycitric acid is present in the rind. Proponents hypothesize that HCA has properties that suppress appetite and burns fat. So, while the scientific data on HCA limited, the televised recommendations have created huge consumer interest in the supplements, and sales are growing. The same celebrity TV doctor who made garcinia cambogia supplements popular also recommended green coffee supplements for weight loss.

Small pilot study research has been done which supports the effectiveness of green coffee extract for weight loss. The research is impressive, but the studies were small and much more research needs to be done to confirm the current hypotheses. The nutritional supplement selected by SeanRuad.

Regarding dosage, the manufacturer recommended Garcinia Cambogia Select dose is three 3 capsules daily taken 30 minutes prior to each primary meal with an 8 ounce glass of water. The serving size is one 1 capsule so each bottle containing 90 capsules is a 1-month supply. Customers ordering 3 bottles, which is a 3-month supply, receive an additional 3 bottles free of charge.

Each bottles contains 90 capsules, which is a one-month supply. About SeanRuad. Ambassador Danon tweeted out a list of ten countries whose leaders Mr Biden has spoken to and added: 'Might it now be time to call leader of Israel, closest ally of US? The incident, which left the victim with minor injuries, occurred at the Bank of America branch at Marina Boulevard around p.

The U. The government will send doses to centers nationwide selected based on their proximity to vulnerable groups, such as homeless people and those with limited proficiency in English, they said. Typically, vaccine doses would go to state governments for distribution to health centers.

Businesses and shops closed in many parts of Indian-controlled Kashmir on Tuesday to mark the eighth anniversary of the secret execution of a Kashmiri man in New Delhi. Neera Tanden was questioned about her previous tweets for second day in a row. President Joe Biden promised he would never politicize the U.

Biden, whose late son, Beau, was a soldier who deployed to Iraq, bristled at former President Donald Trump's approach to the military during the presidential campaign, including a report that Trump once privately called American soldiers killed during World War One "losers" and "suckers. Constitution - not any party or political movement. North Korea largely self-isolated after the global COVID pandemic hit, curbing its elaborate sanctions-evading means of bringing in hard currency.

And with those financial lifelines shut off, North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has relied on government hackers to upgrade his country's nuclear and ballistic missile programs, a United Nations panel reported to the U. The panel of outside experts charged with monitoring U. North Korean intelligence's Reconnaissance General Bureau evidently conducted "malicious" activities, including "operations against financial institutions and virtual currency exchange houses," plus "attacks on defense companies," the panel found.

And with these ill-gotten gains, North Korea "produced fissile material, maintained nuclear facilities, and upgraded its ballistic missile infrastructure" while continuing "to seek material and technology for these programs from overseas. Security Council has imposed stringent sanctions on North Korea since , in response to the country's first nuclear test explosion. North Korea showed off new weapons last year. The panel of experts, which updates the Security Council about twice a year, suggested new sanctions on a quartet of North Korean men.

Security Council, leading to diplomatic standoffs and delays. But his impeachment lawyer Bruce Castor did, several times. Georgia prosecutors reportedly open criminal investigation into Trump call. German prosecutors have charged a year-old man with 3, counts of being an accessory to murder on allegations he served during World War II as a Nazi SS guard at a concentration camp on the outskirts of Berlin, authorities said Tuesday.

The man is alleged to have worked at the Sachsenhausen camp between and as an enlisted member of the Nazi Party's paramilitary wing, said Cyrill Klement, who led the investigation of the centenarian for the Neuruppin prosecutors' office. Despite his advanced age, the suspect is considered fit enough to stand trial, though accommodations may have to be made to limit how many hours per day the court is in session, Klement told The Associated Press.

Police think violence may have happened after Connecticut car crash. The pro-democracy media billionaire is the most high-profile figure to fall foul of the controversial law. ET on Wednesday were able to watch as House impeachment managers presented new, harrowing footage of the Capitol rioters.

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It was a rare momentof cooperation in the House as the two parties were entrenchedin their positions on the shutdown. The U. Senate is expectedto go along. The region suffers a severely increased level of birth defects and cancer. And yet, the international response was muted, to say the least. Passage came on a party-line vote on Friday. While Noozhawk is free to read and use, your contribution will help us provide even more of the essential local news and information you've come to expect from us.

But they jumped at the chance to adopt when the Turner Syndrome Society told them American foster parents living in China were looking for more information. Starring Tom Hanks in the titular role of Phillips, this film elaborates on the insane true story and sheds light on Somali pirates. Reuters recovered the previous editions from the archives of the Westlaw legal database, which is owned by Thomson Reuters Corp, the parent of this news agency.

The firm was expectedto post earnings later on Sunday or on Monday; five analystspolled by Reuters forecast a quarterly profit of Proton has deposits ofone billion euros and 1. Editing by Jane Merriman. The founder and owner of Luz, a trendy Latin American restaurant serving lobster guacamole, pupusas, and Peruvian-style chicken in Brooklyn, decided to cut ties with Seamless starting on Aug.

And when it comes to smartphones, the devices are phones first and cameras second. So some of the issues she had with making the device more simple could be more a function of the fact that this is a phone and not a regular point-and-shoot camera. For instance, some gather quotes from just a handful of insurers. If this "panel" excludes the firm offering the best deal on that particular day, the customer misses out. His day rehab assignment ends on July 22, and it is unclear where A-Rod will go after that, but according to a source, Yankee officials sent him a notification Saturday telling him that he is obligated to inform them in advance of any absence.

Who's calling? During his watch, government spending on domestic security exceeded individual budgets for defence, healthcare and education. At the time of the Budget it was assuming that the broader ILO measure of unemployment would be unchanged over the course of , at 7. Could you tell me my balance, please? SlowerPolish growth also contributed to sending the zloty lower andyields higher. When expanded to includecompanies in general in the s, Dutch industry was quick tosee the benefits.

Five pitches later, Ellis made it with his fourth homer. Do you know what extension he's on? She was utterly adorable," said neighbor Dorothy Werden. The gunman, Scott J. Johnson, was later sentenced to life in prison without parole. Scientists reported the Phoenix spacecraft had confirmed the presence of frozen water in Martian soil. With their Souls released too soon, who will take the place of these four Men?

Attacks motivated by financial gain originate mainly from organized crime groups who steal credit card information, access bank accounts, engage in payment fraud, and practice identity theft. In contrast, the vast majority of espionage attacks originate with foreign governments who seek to bolster their military or industry.

These attacks focus on military or classified information, business plans, proprietary data, software, trade secrets and other technical or proprietary information. She described Castro as "calm and cooperative. The prosecution objected to the animation saying it is not an accurate depiction of what happened.

What sort of music do you like? Then Reckless would walk back with ammunition. To that end, he contends, food costs have been held under control by blending ethanol with imported oil. Christie took appropriate steps," Williams says. I'd point to a state like New Hampshire, which just this legislative session, with bipartisan support, legalized marijuana more broadly than he is proposing in New Jersey. Jacobson, questioned Dannon's commitment to using carmine, wondering why the company insists on using the controversial additive instead of a potentially safer, less offensive plant-based coloring agent.

One woman, in a T-shirt and shorts, dove head-first through the window of her marooned car before wading away in the thigh-deep currents. Who would I report to? When asked of his remark earlier this summer that Chen's stature would "diminish" if he went to Witherspoon, Cohen said: "That's been my view, but I've been wrong before.

Who knows? Six children with minor injuries have also been taken to Royal Lancaster. All patients have non life-threatening injuries. How many weeks' holiday a year are there? The locomotive and one passenger car derailed. Via Rail said there were no reports of major injuries to train passengers or crew.

Via Rail canceled trains on its Ottawa-Toronto route. It wasn't because of my oblique or anything, I was disappointed because I struck out, so that tells me I'm ready and ready to compete. Usinghis smartphone, he is now able to check the four cameras on thepremises and is emailed photos of whoever enters the house. How much is a Second Class stamp?

Could I make an appointment to see? Marines killed the head of the Beltran Leyva cartel in the city of Cuernavaca in and captured Zetas cartel leader Miguel Angel Trevino near the U. My father quickly answered that I am his daughter. My father pulled out his wallet, and I began searching inside my purse. We both produced our National Identity Cards.

Mine clearly states my father's name, in addition to mine. The Ranger checked to see if the names matched, then let us back in the car. Could I have an application form? When the time comes, he said, investors should expect the Fed to scale back bond-buying slowly.

Which is all the more reason why they, of all people, should be the most wary about drawing ludicrous analogies between the activities of totalitarian states and those of democratic ones. Most people will disagree. But Oracle has succeeded in shifting the momentum with boat changes and improved tacking, and the two teams now appear remarkably even. How many would you like? Federal Reserve reviewing a landmark decision that allowed commercial banks to trade in physical markets. Many senators in his party are skeptical of engaging in another military campaign in the Middle East, even a limited one, but the president implored them to reserve their opposition, at least for now.

This was one of the main arguments against it. Democrats are dangerous. Right-wingers in the U. Congresswill slow Washington's removal of sanctions, he said. The trust welcomes the opportunity for wider national debate or review around the management of violence and aggression within mental health settings. Group F is turning into a real dogfight, albeit an elegant one. Both deals seek to go far beyond tariffcuts and to reduce transatlantic barriers to business.

There arealso similar sticking points, such as agriculture. The difference is that when you hire a car, the thing you're paying extra for probably has an acronym. The deputy editor of the Daily Mail showed tonight he could not justify either of them. If baseball determines that the Rodriguez camp interfered with the investigation, either by tampering with witnesses or destroying evidence, A-Rod could face additional discipline. An investigation into the cause of the incident is underway.

The design remains theoretical and has yet to be tested in the field. Obama any more after destroying the fine real face of his administration by supporting terrorism on account of civilian society also the terrorist group of Muslim brotherhood are targeting Christians and churches. And police is doing his best with the Egyptian citizens to protect them. America supports that radical muslim brotherhood group which are killing Christians , shame on America administration and shame on ugly politics of America.

However, firms expect an improvement in themonths ahead. He and Kerry must move beyond haphazard, poorly considered statements of the kind that have humbled the White House: a casually drawn red line and conflicting descriptions of the potential military mission as a pinprick or something more. The handful of men who admit they broke the law does not reflect the honesty, integrity and character of the thousands of men and women who have worked at SAC over the past 21 years.

We will continue to operate as we work through these matters. All of them eat some regular food some of the time, but in small enough quantities to maintain their status as hunger strikers and continue their protest against open-ended detention at Guantanamo, where most have been held for 11 years without charge. State court records give Barnes' address as being in the block of Boston Street in Baltimore.

Missile Defense Agency last week conducted thefirst operational test of the THAAD system and its ability towork together with the Aegis combat system on a guided-missiledestroyer. Working together, the two systems intercepted twomedium-range ballistic missile that were fired nearlysimultaneously. With this new edition of the Atlas of MS, we now have a much clearer picture of where the gaps are and where improvements have been made in the battle to diagnose and treat this debilitating disease.

In the fall of his freshman year, in intrasquad games, Alvarez struggled mightily. One day he struck out three times and returned to the dorm to spend the night second-guessing himself. But they are not. Quite the opposite, they are at record lows. Do you know each other? The Cause of Action Institute, a non-profit organization aligned with conservative causes, filed suit last month to force the agency to disclose any requests for tax returns by the White House. Will I have to work on Saturdays?

Total return funds like Pimco Total Return Fund, run by Pimco founder and co-chief investment officer Bill Gross, tend to have more long-dated securities than other bond fund classes and are more susceptible to market swings.

Gross's Pimco fund fell to the bottom of the pack over the past month when the bond market turned sharply lower. His fund was also slammed as bond prices turned higher two years ago. Bayer says total return funds whose strategy of maximizing returns may work well in stable times can have problems during market transitions. It will not be able to be used in conjunction with another state scheme. Its net loss in was 1. TheNasdaq Composite Index was up Smith University in North Carolina.

Although, for example, The Hobbs board is made up predominantly by women. The following waterfall chart is an attempt to explain, as simply as possible, what the drivers of climate change are in terms of radiative forcing. They are a safe and an effective tool in weight loss and weight management, according to decades of scientific research and regulatory agencies around the globe. During the s and s, many so-called "guest workers" also came from Italy, Greece, Portugal, Tunisia and Yugoslavia.

We haven't done it so much in the first three games. But that's a tip of the hat to the pitching that we've been facing. In its statement, the company denied that claim and said its drinks will continue to be labeled "non-GMO.

This is another example of how the Patriot Act has been used to justify criminal activities by the US government. Privacy is a personal right and if spying on our leaders is acceptable then surely we cannot object if the same happens to us the masses. I for one want to keep my privacy and condemn the US's behaviour.

They were wrong. The area is among the most impoverished in the country. Many had not realised theskills that administrators would need to unravel thousands ofcomplex trades across dozens of countries and legal entities. I actually had plenty of early fun playing as LeBron when we were facing the Rockets in the NBA Finals because it felt completely plausible.

But the setup lost its luster by the end. We like that over there in New York, we like that type of game. It was not reasonable for the rebels to expect US close military support given the shaky outcome in Libya where there were only two major sides to the conflict with the Libyan dictator. Assad is a terrible person who has done little for his nation as well, but that can describe a lot of modern day dictators, and the USA is not going to try to depose them all.

The cost in lives and wealth would be unacceptable AND as Afghanistan proved the weapons we provide even those described at the time as Freedom Fighters come back to haunt the US later. Sleep texting tends to occur during naps or about 90 minutes to two hours into the snoozing process, prior to entering a deep sleep.

And that affects our cognitive ability the next day. He said: "For many charities, advocacy and campaigning is core business, and the referendum raises key questions on which charities will want a say. That is not the way you grow an economy. And the picture looksworse if Congress does away with the "sequester"across-the-board spending cuts now in place, the non-partisanCBO said.

To this day, although aid has resumed, the relationship has yet to recover, with a direct impact on counter terrorism co-operation. Humberto grew to hurricane force far out in the Atlantic early Wednesday, becoming the first hurricane of the Atlantic season, while Bermuda shook off a drenching by Tropical Storm Gabrielle. Friday night when they struck three connected barges in the water by the Tappan Zee Bridge in Piedmont, N.

But mobile apps offer yet another option to help students study. They let students review information on the go and are often offered at a fraction of the price of face-to-face tutoring. They became trapped when their position was overrun by flames from the Yarnell Hill fire, southwest of Prescott, on June The jokes follow the news, and with Republicans receding after an election campaign, Obama presented more opportunities, he said.

The NFL immediately retaliated by placing the Cowboys in Dallas and tried to get into Houston, but Adams held the lease to the one available stadium. The actress flaunted her famous curves in a white bodysuit and struck a sultry pose in the sand for her spread in Vogue Brazil.

Anderson's racy photo shoot was shot by famed photographer Mario Testino. I have a friend who was made redundant twice while on maternity leave by blue chip companies who should have known better. You can see the color of magenta Aio Wireless uses in the top right smartphone in the picture above, which is a fair shade or three darker than the one T-Mobile uses for Uncarrier ways.

The Yankees are not named in that suit or the tortious interference suit filed against MLB and Selig. Abel solves my flamenco fiasco by sending me into the arms of Jesus Olmedo, a dance teacher from Madrid who runs Flamenco Soul. Our first lesson is at my flat in Chelsea. Jesus suggests we tackle two of the four dances of a Sevillanas — a type of flamenco dance. It is rhythmic, serious and passionate — perfect for a nearly thirtysomething marking her transition.

Then I learn some basic steps, the Paso de Sevillana — a sort of waltz-step along with some intricate wrist spinning. I turn and twist my wrists in a clumsy fashion, plucking shiny Pink Ladies off an imaginary tree.

We agree to have the next lessons in a studio with mirrors, so I can see myself in action. Good plan! I do believe it's a looming public-health crisis," he said. In Nigeria, West Africa, Garcinia Kola seed is widely use for social, therapeutic and nutritional purposes.

In recent times, there have been reports about its negative effects on male fertility. In view of this, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Garcinia Kola seed on male fertility indices. Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. In the present work, phytochemical investigation has resulted in one new prenylated xanthone and 13 known xanthones isolated from the pericarp of G.

Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including X-ray diffraction. It is noteworthy that the new compound can promote CNE-2 cells apoptosis in late stage, having a remarkable inhibition effect on the side population growth of CNE-2 at 1. The bioactive compound was also detected in extract from fresh mangosteen flesh, which indicated that the popular fruit could have potential cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines. Purpose: Concurrent use of orthodox and herbal medicines is likely to precipitate an overall effect which may or may not be beneficial to the patient.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial interaction between the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seed GKS which is chewed habitually as a masticatory Background: The claim of an Octogenarian on Garcinia kolanuts crude water extract on his open angle glaucoma has opened up a series of researchers into the native nuts as to their pharmocotherapeutic properties.

Some of these have been reported as pressure lowering effects on laboratory animals and as antibacterials Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola bitter A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod agricultural waste was Mani, S. Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola. The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Garcinia kola Heckel Nov 5, About 0. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida Clusiaceae in Cameroonian Atlantic forests.

Garcinia lucida Vesque Clusiaceae is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds In previous studies, we established that kolaviron KV a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol.

The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola Heckel The genus Garcinia has been known to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and other phenolic derivatives.

Previous investigations of endophytic fungi from G. In order to the continue the phytochemical work on endophytic fungi of G. In this study, a benzoyl compound similar to that found in the endophytic fungus of G. The same benzoyl compound was also isolated from the endophytic fungus Acremonium sp of G. The culture medium was partitioned using ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain the concentrated extract.

Isolation of compounds was performed using the chromatography method. Sustained abstinence from cocaine use is frequently compromised by exposure to environmental stimuli that have previously been strongly associated with drug taking. Such cues trigger memories of the effects of the drug, leading to craving and potential relapse. Our work has demonstrated that manipulating cocaine-cue memories by destabilizing them through interfering with the reconsolidation process is one potential therapeutic tool by which to prolong abstinence.

Here, we examine the use of t The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of bread enhanced with Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder with the combination of baking process conditions. The physical and chemical properties of bread sample such as antioxidant activity, phenolic content, moisture analysis and colour parameters were studied. Bread dough without fortification of pericarp powder was used as control. Data obtained were analyzed by multiple regressions and the significant model such as linear and quadratic with variables interactions were used.

In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola Purpose: To investigate the interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola using an in vitro adsorption study. Methods: In vitro interaction between quinine and G. Adsorption of quinine 2. Thereafter, quinine desorption process De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L.

Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. Mangosteen, of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System. Clean reads of ,, were obtained from ,, raw reads. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73, and 73,, respectively.

These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L. African Journal of Sustainable Development Garcinia kola seed is eaten raw with the belief that it promotes longevity. This review summarises the diverse biological activities of Garcinia kola and possible role as an emerging Abstract: This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola bitter kola on the normal flora of the mouth.

Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing Garcinia kola for days decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel. Garcinia kola plays an important socioeconomic role in the Africa culture. Inspite of this, the plant only exists in the wild or as part of left over in the Agroforestry farms.

Therefore, this research Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy CJ is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy.

The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice.

Additionally, CJ increased the Kipositive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus DG of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromodeoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG.

Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

All rights reserved. To date, only limited knowledge is available on the cytogenetics and genome sequences of a common variety of mangosteen Abu Bakar et al. Here, we report the first single-molecule real-time SMRT sequencing data from whole genome sequencing of mangosteen of Mesta variety. This study describes and compares the morphoanatomical responses of plants under conditions of stress and normoxia. Young plants of Garcinia madruno were subjected to two water regimes: daily controlled irrigation and waterlogged for 84 days.

Hypertrophic lenticels, adventitious roots and anatomical characteristics of the roots and leaves were evaluated on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and There were no changes in leaf structure, but cracks and hypertrophic lenticels appeared on the stems, there was an increase in blackness of the roots and the plants formed adventitious roots to adapt to the flooded environment. The anatomical changes in the roots of the flooded plants were thickening of the exodermis in the main root and of the pericycle in the lateral roots, and a large increase in the amount of aerenchyma.

Histochemical tests detected starch in the midrib, mesophyll, stem and root of flooded plants, and in the petiole of control plants. In the waterlogged plants, phenolic compounds were found in the petiole and alkaloids were found in the midrib, petiole and root.

Proximate and nutritional composition of kola nut, garcinia kola and alligator pepper. African Journal With regular intake, the ascorbic Mar 31, These alternative management options could easily be integrated into forest Journal of Natural Impact of certain flavonoids on lipid profiles--potential action of Garcinia cambogia flavonoids. Flavonoids from Cocos nucifera, Myristica fragrance, Saraka asoka and Garcinia cambogia exerted hypolipidaemic activity in rats. A dose response study revealed biphasic activity.

Higher doses were less effective in reducing lipid levels in serum and tissues, although devoid of toxic effects. Full Text Available Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid HCA extracted from Garcinia has been widely used.

The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature.

To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones. Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity.

This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. Species of genus Garcinia belonging to family Clusiaceae are traditionally known for the treatment of ulcer, gonorrhea, leucorrhoea and abdominal pain. This genus is also reported to be a rich source of xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, biflavonoids and triterpenes showing significant pharmacological activities.

Garcinia mangostana L. The fruits of G. This study aimed to evaluate the bark and fruit extracts of G. Total phenolic contents were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent colorimetric method. Anti-hyperglycemic activity was determined using a-glucosidase and a-amylase enzymes. In quantitative phytochemical analysis, the extracts of G. Also, in antioxidant activities, G.

Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. Beijerinckia indica subsp. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii are known as kandis gajah including the Garcinia genus. This plant has been traditionally used by local communities Sarasah Bonta, Lembah Arau, West Sumatra, to treat various diseases including gout.

Aspergillus niger was isolated from the tissues of the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The fungi strain was identified base on colony and cell morphology characteristic. Media that already contains secondary metabolites are partitioned using ethyl acetate solvent in 5 L twice, followed by evaporation. Furthermore, the extract is separated by chromatographic techniques to obtain a pure compound of white crystal.

The compound was determined as phenolic 1. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed flour. Alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin B1 , Riboflavin B2 and Niacin B3 , to the amounts of Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.

Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Mangifera Indica Mango. Mangifera indica , commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods.

Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied.

These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

Studies on structure, size and ontogenic stages are important to understand which factors influence population processes, regeneration and response to disturbances of a population. This study examined thestructure of a population of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy Clusiaceae in white sands habitat of Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State. Thirty 20 x 25 m plots were selected randomly selected, and their abundance of young and adult plants was recorded, as well as trunk circumference, crown height and number of stems per plant.

The spatial distribution of young and adult population is aggregated, caused by their predisposition to form. Jul 18, IR For callus Salinity is one of the Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due. Physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of oil extracted from dry alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seeds. Full Text Available In this study, the chemical composition, physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of alhydwan Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed oil were evaluated.

The crude oil content was The oil contain a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids The relative density was 0. The color analysis showed a value of The oil also had a high relative oxidative stability. Seven phenolic acids caffeic, vanillic, galic, p-coumaric, ascorbic, cinnamic and ferulic were detected, with ascorbic acid as the predominant one 5.

In relation to the volatile composition, 48 compounds were found with ZPentadecenol These findings demonstrated the potential of alhydwan seeds to be used as a good source of quality edible oil. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of kaviiron a Garcinia kola Kolaviron is a defatted ethanol extract from the seeds of Garcinia Kola. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Kolaviron is investigated using both thermal and chemical models of pain assessment in mice and rats.

Varying doses of Kolaviron were given 30 minutes prior to the induction of Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola bitter kola Storage of Bitter kola Garcinia kola was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life.

The materials were kept moist by wetting them throughout the period of study 8 weeks. The local materials used were sandy soil, jute bag, clay pot and Xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia and their antidiabetic activity. Three new xanthones, oblongixanthone F-H 1 - 3 , along with eight known xanthones 4 - 11 , were isolated from an EtOAc extract of the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia.

Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The a This study was carried out to determine the effect of combined intake of Garcinia kola and Ascorbic acid on Intraocular pressure IOP of normotensive Nigerians. Cuscuta japonica Choisy. The influence of the aqueous extract of Japanese Dodder Cuscuta japonica on the velocity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth has been shown.

To accelerate the growth of Myc. It was found out that the complex chemical composition of the aqueous extract made of dry seeds or dry vegetative stems of the plant parasite Cuscuta japonica has a biological effect on Myc. Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored.

The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same. The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria.

The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms.

Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus Diversity in Zanonia indica Cucurbitaceae.

A revision of the monotypic genus Zanonia L. The only and widely distributed species Z. Subspecies orientalis also contains a distinct variety, var. The benefitmangosteen for human life makes it worth as commodity in International market. This aimed to knowing the influence of addition some yeast concentration for bud multiplication of mangosteen and to getting the best yeast concentration for bud multiplication of mangosteen. The research took place in Sylviculture Laboratory at Tanjungpura University for 2 month.

The data analyzed to usecompletely randomized desi The objectives of the research were to find out an effective and eco-friendly method controlling on mealybug, and technique on keeping mangosteen fruits freshness lasts longer taking the advantages of using botanical insecticides that can be used for the need of certificating mealybug-free mangosteen for export destination. Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality.

HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content.

The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa.

The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts.

However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT cell lines.

Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products. Ocular dynamics of Garcinia cola Heckel on healthy volunteers following bolus ingestion. It is a plant found in the West African subregion, mostly in moist conditions, and often in association with Cola acuminata.

The seeds are highly valued ingredients in African ethonomedicine. The seeds have several social uses and applications in folk medicine. These seeds are ordinarily chewed by the local people without prescription or restriction. In an in vivo case control study, the effects of Garcinia cola on some visual functions: pupil diameter, near point of convergence NPC, amplitude of accommodation AA, intraocular pressure IOP, visual acuity VA and habitual phoria; following bolus ingestion of 20 g was undertaken using healthy visually active volunteers.

The lateral phoria at far and near tended towards esophoria. Possibly the miotic effect and reduction in IOP could be of benefit to patients with raised IOP where conventional drugs may not be effective. Also it is possible that the effects on phoria could be exploited in oculomotor function in combination with visual training. Here we show that synthetic CGXs exhibit antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, the causative parasite of human malaria, at the intraerythrocytic stages.

Their activity can be substantially improved by attaching a triphenylphosphonium group at the A ring of the caged xanthone. CGXs affect malaria parasites at multiple intraerythrocytic stages, with mature stages trophozoites and schizonts being more vulnerable than immature rings.

Within hours of CGX treatment, malaria parasites display distinct morphological changes, significant reduction of parasitemia the percentage of infected red blood cells , and aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation. CGXs do not, however, target the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the target of the drug atovaquone and several preclinical candidates. CGXs are cytotoxic to human HEK cells at the low micromolar level, which results in a therapeutic window of around fold for the lead compounds.

In summary, we show that CGXs are potent antimalarial compounds with structures distinct from those of previously reported antimalarial inhibitors. Our results highlight the potential to further develop Garcinia natural product derivatives as novel antimalarial agents.

Gopalakrishnan, V. Manju; Srividya, T. Aqueous, light petroleum, chloroform, alcohol, benzene and acetone extracts of the leaves of Coccinia indica. Family: Cucurbitaceae were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity. Full Text Available The use of herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss is becoming increasingly common as obesity is becoming major health problem in the United States.

Despite the popularity of these natural supplements, there are no guidelines for their therapeutic doses and their safety is always a concern. It suppresses fatty acid biosynthesis and decreases appetite. However, its prolonged use in weight maintenance is unknown. Here we describe a case of acute hepatitis after the use of Garcinia cambogia for weight loss. The compound was isolated by using column chromatography and characteristic with ultra violet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR.

The indicated this compound was hegoflavon B. Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone.

The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described The plant Garcinia gardneriana Planch.

These phenolic compounds have shown anti-inflammatory activity validating the popular use of the plant. In this work was isolated from dried branches of Garcinia gardneriana the biflavonoids: morelloflavone, that Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn. Garcinia mangostana Linn, Family; Guttiferae is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh.

The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin 1 0. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature.

Conclusiones: la especie G. Garcinia cambogia hydroxycitric acid as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. Hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in the herbal compound Garcinia cambogia, competitively inhibits the extramitochondrial enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate pro-3S -lyase.

As a citrate cleavage enzyme that may play an essential role in de novo lipogenesis inhibition, G cambogia is claimed to lower body weight and reduce fat mass in humans. To evaluate the efficacy of G cambogia for body weight and fat mass loss in overweight human subjects. Twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient weight control research unit.

Subjects were randomized to receive either active herbal compound mg of hydroxycitric acid per day or placebo, and both groups were prescribed a high-fiber, low-energy diet. The treatment period was 12 weeks. Body weight was evaluated every other week and fat mass was measured at weeks 0 and Body weight change and fat mass change. Patients in both groups lost a significant amount of weight during the week treatment period P Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.

Fruit ontogeny of Garcinia gardneriana Planch. The fruit itself is consumed in natura, and juices and sweets are made from it. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological and structural aspects of fruits and seeds of this species in order to classify the fruit type and the pulpy layer which involves the seeds. The smooth, coriaceous skin consists of the lignified exocarp. The endocarp cell layers are derived from the activity of an adaxial meristem that undergoes radial elongation.

The edible sweet white pulp is formed by the endocarp, as well as the spongy mesocarp, in which the secretory ducts lose their function. The unitegmic anatropous ovules develop into anatropous exalbuminous seeds with a collapsed and undifferentiated testa. The embryo is hypocotylar. The features here described generally occur in Clusioideae-Garcinieae and Symphonieae.

Eleusine indica resistance to Accase inhibitors. The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro. The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect.

A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica , False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. There are The fruit pulp is used for seasoning, as a food component and in juices. Its fruit is regarded This has Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide.

Blanching prior to further process stabilizes these valuable compounds. The inactivation kinetics followed a monophasic first-order model with k values between 1. The decreasing trend of k values with increasing temperature indicates a faster inactivation of peroxidase from mangosteen pericarp at higher temperatures.

The activation energy Ea of The results of this research will help to design pre-processing conditions of mangosteen pericarp as a source of antioxidants. Fractionation and antioxidant activity potency of the extract of Garcinia lateriflora Blume var. Garcinia lateriflora leaves extract of the family Guttiferae has been known to have excellent antioxidant activity.

The objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant effect of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of G. The extracts were fractionated by using column chromatography. The Methanol extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with EC50 values are E13 fraction was the most active fraction from ethyl acetate extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles.

Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana G.

Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications. Anticancer activity of 7-epiclusianone, a benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis, in glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system and one of the hardest tumors to treat.

Consequently, the search for novel therapeutic options is imperative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 7-epiclusianone on proliferation, clonogenic capacity, cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in two glioblastoma cell lines UMG and UMG. Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay; for the clonogenic assay, colonies were stained with Giemsa and counted by direct visual inspection; For cell cycle analysis, cells were stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by cytometry; Cyclin A expression was determined by immunoblotting; Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and Caspase-3 activity in living cells.

Viability of both cell lines was drastically inhibited; moreover, the colony formation capacity was significantly reduced, demonstrating long-term effects even after removal of the drug. The present study demonstrates for the first time the anticancer potential of 7-epiclusianone against glioblastoma cells, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz Clusiaceae led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone 1, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2, 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone 3, 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone 4, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone 5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone 6. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy- 4, 1,6,7-trihydroxy- 5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones 6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E.

Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2 showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone 1 and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 2 were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L pericarp extract.

This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L. The control group was given 0. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice.

This study examined the structure of a population of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy Clusiaceae in white sands habitat of Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State. Insect antifeedant ryanodane diterpenes from Persea indica. The new ryanodane diterpenes cinnzeylanone, ryanodol monoacetate, and epi-cinnzeylanol have been isolated from Persea indica Lauraceae. The structure of cinnzeylanone has been determined by X-ray analysis. These compounds proveds to be antifeedants against Spodoptera litura.

Cinnzeylanol and ryanodol were the most active antifeedants of this plant, with a range of activity close to that of ryanodine. THis is the first report on the antifeedant effects of this class of diterpenes.

Their st Tamarindus indica : Extent of explored potential. Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae Fabaceae , Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases.

It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity.

Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of polymorphic markers in twelve accessions.

Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis PCoA showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.

The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions. Anti-mycobacterial activity of polyketides from Penicillium sp. According to estimates by the World Health Organization, there were 9.

There were also 1. Although there are potent anti-TB molecules, the misuse of these drugs in addition to inconsistent or partial treatment have led to the development of multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB. It is established that plants harbor microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes, which also produce metabolites. Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel and active compounds.

The present study was aimed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the crude extract and compounds isolated from Penicillium sp. Liquid culture obtained from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. Their structures were elucidated with spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry by dereplication using Antibase, and by comparison to literature data. All compounds and the crude extract from the liquid medium were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity against M.

In this study, the activity of penialidins A-C , citromycetin 4 , p-hydroxy phenyl glyoxalaldoxime 5 , and Brefeldin A 6 were tested against nonpathogenic M. Penialidin C was the most active compound with a minimum inhibitory concentration of Isolated compounds from Penicillium sp. Antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin in vitro. Malaria especially falciparum malaria still causes high morbidity and mortality in tropical countries.

Several factors have been linked to this situation and the most important one is the rapid spread of parasite resistance to the currently available antimalarials, including artemisinin. Artemisinin is the main component of the currently recommended antimalarial, artemisinin based combination therapy ACT , and it is a free radical generating antimalarial. Garcinia mangostana L mangosteen rind contain a lot of xanthone compounds acting as an antioxidant and exhibited antimalarial activity.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of mangosteen rind extract and its fractions and their interaction with artemisinin against the 3D7 clone of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Dry ripe mangosteen rind was extracted with ethanol followed by fractionation with hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water consecutively to get ethanol extract, hexane, athylacetate, buthanol, and water fractions.

Each of these substances was diluted in DMSO and examined for antimalarial activity either singly or in combination with artemisinin in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 clone. Analysis of the parasite growth in vitro indicated that IC 50 of these mangosteen rind extract, hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water fraction ranged from 0. Further study using lead compound s isolated from extract and fractions should be performed to identify more accurately their mechanism of antimalarial activities.

Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally.

This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters.

Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. Optimization of ethanol production from garcinia cambogia residues and the effects of its medicinal component on production yield.

Garcinia cambogia, a Chinese herbal medicine, was popular due to its effect for weight loss. The main medical component inside was determined to be hydroxycitric acid HCA. To realize the resource technology of garcinia cambogia residue, Optimum ethanol production from residues was investigated, and the effects of remaining HCA on the ethanol yield were investigated.

A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the significance of several influencing factors, and cellulase, yeast extract, and KH2PO4 were observed to exert important effects. The ethanol concentration obtained under optimal conditions was 4. The remained HCA in the residues showed minimal influences on ethanol fermentation and could even increase ethanol yield at low concentrations. A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica.

Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica. Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses. Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate 1 ,monotetracontane 2 ,taraxerol 3 ,stigmasterol 4 ,stearic acid 5 ,heptatriacontanoic acid 6 ,arachidic acid 7 ,ursolic acid acetate 8 ,quercetin 9 ,myricetin 10 ,myricetinO-rhamnoside 11 ,and rutoside Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

Azadirachta indica neem leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of The effect of aqueous extract of neem Azadirachta indica leaves Twenty four 24 adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp.

Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F. Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials.

The effect of M. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl DPPH , Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis- 2-methoxynitrosulfophenyl -2H-tetrazoliumcarboxanilide salt assay.

Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. Both M. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M. Virtual screening of compounds derived from Garcinia pedunculata as an inhibitor of gamma hemolysin component A of Staphylococcus aureus.

Full Text Available With the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens at alarming frequency, there has been an increase interest in the development of novel drugs from natural resources. The use of higher plants and preparations made from them to treat infections is a longstanding practice in a large part of the population, especially in the developing countries, where there is dependence on traditional medicine for a variety of ailments.

The virtual screening method was used in this study to analyze the docking and inhibitory activities of some natural bioactive compounds present within Garcinia pedunculata against hemolysin toxin of Staphylococcus aureus, gamma-hemolysin component A hlgA. The study resulted in identifying compounds 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-xanthone and garcinone D with high binding affinity towards the target protein revealing them as potent inhibitors that could be further used to create new drug source in the treatment of staphyloccocal infections.

Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy.

Full Text Available Gelombang elektromagnetik handphone dapat menyebabkan peningkatan reactive oxygen species ROS sehingga merubah struktur histopatologi testis. Untuk mengatasinya dibutuhkan senyawa antioksidan yang terkandung dalam kulit manggis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak etanol kulit manggis Garcinia mangostana L.

Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum Al tolerance among different rice Oryza sativa L. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties.

Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus and awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 japonica, Yangdao 6 indica and Wuyunjing 7 japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7.

Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7. Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors.

One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides.

Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial. Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal.

The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L.

In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. Further principal component analysis PCA of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan S The main objective of this article is to see if shorter working time takes into account the wishes of salaried workers when setting up their schedules and if so, how and to what extent.

To explore the dynamics of selected time as promoted by the hour week, we examine two dimensions : the container of working time, i. The study was carried out in a local branch of the French public healthcare system and reveals that workers are ambivalent about selected time : though they gain some power in deciding how long they will work and how to manage their schedule, they have lost control over their actual working time, i.

Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango mangifera indica l Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango mangifera indica l. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the There is need for lead compounds Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves.

The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents.

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