From early Saturday morning, people returning to Britain from the islands will have to self-isolate. A levy on international visitors would make the UK the only country in Europe to have impose such a tax. Heathrow chiefs defended the move as a fundraising measure to save jobs, as well as encouraging passengers to use public transport. The research aims to prove the effectiveness of pre-departure testing in reducing transmission while making free movement easier.
Nevertheless, her social media posts denigrating people based on their cultural and religious identities are […]. Dozens of former Republican officials, who view the party as unwilling to stand up to former President Donald Trump and his attempts to undermine U. The early stage discussions include former elected Republicans, former officials in the Republican administrations of Ronald Reagan, George H.
Bush, George W. Bush and Trump, ex-Republican ambassadors and Republican strategists, the people involved say. More than of them held a Zoom call last Friday to discuss the breakaway group, which would run on a platform of "principled conservatism," including adherence to the Constitution and the rule of law - ideas those involved say have been trashed by Trump. Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell, citing the country's push after World War Two to find jobs for returning soldiers, on Wednesday called for a broad national effort to get Americans back to work after the pandemic, particularly minorities and workers ousted from lower-paying jobs.
Recovery, Powell said, would require both "near-term policy and longer-run investments" to ensure anyone who wants a job can get one. Ladies and gentlemen, thank you for standing by, and welcome to Zynga's fourth-quarter and full-year financial results conference call. Thank you, Josh, and welcome, everyone, to Zynga's fourth-quarter and full-year earnings call. On the call with me today are Frank Gibeau, our chief executive officer; and Ger Griffin, our chief financial officer.
With me today are Christian Henry, president and chief executive officer; Susan Kim, chief financial officer; Mark Van Oene, chief operating officer; and Ben Gong, vice president of finance. In particular, the extent of COVID's continued impact on our business will depend on several factors, including the severity, duration, and extent of the pandemic, as well as actions taken by government, businesses, and consumers in response to the pandemic, all of which continue to evolve and remain uncertain at this time.
CERN earnings call for the period ending December 31, UDR earnings call for the period ending December 31, TSU earnings call for the period ending December 31, Bloomberg -- AMP Ltd. The U. De Ferrari said AMP had decided to retain the business. The business also manages infrastructure assets for third-party owners, and this is of particular interest to Ares, according to the people, who asked not to be identified as the matter is private.
The shares never traded above the Ares offer price. A representative for Los Angeles-based Ares declined to comment. The year-old AMP effectively put itself up for sale last year when a sexual harassment scandal led to its second boardroom shakeout in two years, during which the stock lost about three-quarters of its value.
Corrects scope of share-price decline in sixth paragraph. For more articles like this, please visit us at bloomberg. Some dating apps like Bumble have flourished even under COVIDrelated social distancing, as people who stay at home turn to instant messaging to seek romance. The pop superstar will appear on Good Morning America. Vice Chancellor Joseph Slights of the Court of Chancery cited the paper by Gibson Dunn attorneys in his ruling directing Facebook to turn over documents to shareholders who are trying to determine if Facebook overpaid to protect Zuckerberg.
The ITC said it was issuing a limited year exclusion order prohibiting imports into the United States of some lithium-ion batteries by SK Innovation, but would permit SK to import components for domestic production of lithium ion batteries, battery cells, battery modules, and battery packs for Ford Motor Co's EV F program for four years, and for Volkswagen of America's MEB electric vehicle line for the North America region for two years.
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No ventilation. Long delays. One traveller posting a video tweeted: "Last night from Terminal 2 at Heathrow You must have proof of a negative test and a completed passenger locator form before arriving. A spokesperson for Heathrow pointed out that immigration halls are controlled by Border Force officials - who are helping to implement new rules around negative Covid tests for passengers - and not by airports.
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News all Most Read Most Recent. Pubs Mark Robertson tipped the liquid down the car park's drain to show it is responsible for leaks in his pub as his plans to refurbish before lockdown ends are foiled. Homelessness Soup kitchen volunteer Graeme Weir compared Glasgow to an Eastern European country 'decimated by years of communist rule' after sharing a picture of more than homeless people waiting for food in the snow.
Woman found dead a week after being raped in her home by intruder who hasn't been caught Rape Angeline Phillips was raped in her home in Salford, Greater Manchester by a man who entered her home through an unlocked back door between The only issue with arbitrage betting is that it has a limited life cycle.
Bookmakers will eventually limit arbitrage bettors accounts once they see that they are not going to be profitable customers. Arbitrage betting is a great way to build up a betting or trading bankroll. Before you move on to betting or trading with exchanges and Asian bookmakers. Value betting is similar to arbitrage betting as it involves exploiting the soft bookmakers. A value bet involves looking for odds that are out of line with the sharp Asian Bookmakers or betting exchanges.
Given that the odds at sharp bookmakers and betting exchanges are quite efficient in big markets. The betting exchanges and sharp Asian bookmakers often offer close to the true odds of an event. Sometimes when there is odds movement on these events soft bookmakers will be slow to move their odds. Consistently betting on odds above the Asian bookmakers and betting exchanges has proven to be profitable. Image courtesy of Trademate Sports. The advantage that value betting has over arbitrage betting is that you generate a much higher turnover and use lower stakes which may make your accounts last longer then conventional arbitrage betting.
A lot of bookmakers will also offer value accumulators often on a weekly basis as part of odds boosts or special promotions. Again the only downside to consistently taking value bets is that soft bookmakers will eventually see that you are able to make money from them and will limit or close your account. However if you plan to make money from sports betting.
Getting banned from soft bookmakers is going to happen whichever way you choose to make money from them. The popularity of matched betting has exploded in the last few years and with good reason. Matched betting is probably one the best and easiest ways to generate a good second income online. It involves taking advantage of bookmaker offers to guarantee a profit much like arbitrage. I have covered matched betting in a lot more detail in this article below. Bookmakers will stop giving you promotions eventually.
But as discussed before this is what happens when you become a profitable sports bettor. So there you have 3 proven betting systems that are currently working in Which should also prove be profitable in the long term. Each of these betting systems involve exploiting soft bookmakers. This is really the best way to start making money from the sports betting markets and allows you to build up a nice trading bankroll or good second income. One proven betting strategy that you might not know is reacting quickly to team news.
Odds can rapidly change on the basis of team news. If you have a good knowledge of the teams that are playing, t hen you will often be able to secure yourself a value bet. Here is a good example of how odds can change when a teams lineup is announced.
In this example I have highlighted the point at which team news was announced.
There is a wide range of capacity in rail systems. At the high end, there are the metro rail systems which carry passengers every two minutes, for a total maximum capacity of 15,, passengers per hour. In contrast, many streetcars run every 6 minutes and carry a few hundred passengers, giving a maximum capacity of less than passengers per hour. It is these systems against which PRT more directly competes.
There are hundreds of these lower-density city-based applications across the world, where PRT would be a good option. Rather than turning a 2 lane street with street parking into a 5-lane arterial, as is often done in response to congestion, PRT proposes to add a narrow-guage elevated guideway smaller than a pedestrian crosswalk which will carry as much or more than the lane expansion.
Automated cars which can operate on streets are a LONG way off. And even if automated cars were here today far from it , they do not solve the congestion problem on our already-overburdened streets. For big cities, metro rail systems are highly effective at relocating much of this traffic underground, but there are hundreds of cities which are too small to justify a metro — in those cities, PRT would be the cheapest and most effective way of moving traffic off the street.
What would PRT be a good substitute for, then? Grade-separated roads? I guess so. It would be a decent replacement for expressways…. I was quite weird to come across it in such a setting! I watched them for a bit circle around the track and into and out of the stations. Yes — there is a separate siding for the stations, allowing other pods to get by if not stopping there.
The cars were quite quiet — just the hum of the wheels on concrete as they passed. The cars I saw got up to maybe 20 mph I would guess , slowing as they pulled into the station. For an airport like Heathrow, it would probably work well, as the terminals are scattered across the property in a non-linear way unlike — for example — Denver International. I think they could try another exparament with that same WA system by extending it two or three miles to a major shopping center or mall and see how it handles outside of a one campus system.
But I think these systems might do well in large Office complexes or Shopping centers possibly amusement parks were you need a good local people mover system. If they had to buid a underground tunnel for this system they could use giant cement box culvert sections and put that under the streets for them to run in. I would like to see the West Virginia system exended a little.
Something like the Aerobus technology would make for cheaper elevated track, with the pod suspended from light rail track laid on suspension cable. On a PRT system rather than a LRT like system, the stop could well be at ground level with the stop siding dropping down and then under the through track. A six person capacity at 35mph with only requested stops would make for a fine local-transport and last-five-miles system, feeding into a higher capacity rail backbone.
It may be that part of the over-promising of PRT advocates comes from trying to sell it as a one-size-fits-all transport solution, even though we are still laboring under the burdens imposed by the last big assumption that a one-size-fits-all system actually exists — as the car-based system proved, yet again, that one-size-fits-all fits many poorly and never actually does fit ALL.
The last mile problem was already solved by the bus. Going 20 miles on a bus sucks. Traveling a mile or two on the bus is a breeze. Unfortunately, many people think they are too good for the bus. I think monorail is the front runner for this project, but the point is the same. People want to implement outrageous technologies such as PRT or monorail when a rapid bus can do the exact same thing for less money, and serve a hell of a lot more people.
ARTIC will feature underground bus terminals for easy transfers from high speed and regular rail. For really short distances, a moving walkway or escalator is the best choice, frankly. Hong Kong has built some huge escalator systems. I think Buses will be very good in the future even a hunderd years from now there will always be something that will be like a bus. The bus is a simple idea that works real well. I think many of the advantages of these pods could and perhaps should be incorporated into conventional transit.
Do that and it suddenly becomes much cheaper to operate express serve and local service. Instead of running trains every 6, 8 ,15 minutes, shorter trains are run requiring less cars in total because the express trains will finish their routes faster. The Dubai metro has no driver, and a couple Paris lines are also automated, with platform doors to prevent passengers from getting caught.
BART was originally designed the be automated, and probably could be with upgrades to the platforms the problem is people getting caught in doors if there is no driver to look out for them. However, many of these systems are planned for peak headways under 3 minutes. When you are running full-length trains that often in rush hour, there is no room for anything extra as you suggest.
Unfortunately, express trains require more than two tracks for safety at least near the local stations, if operated frequently. If the subway was not built that way, express trains are only possible at a low frequency, maybe every 15 minutes, depending on the length of the route.
I agree that many of the benefits of PRT can be had by bike-sharing or car-sharing programs at a fraction of the cost. Most adults know how to drive a car and ride a bike, so why build an automated, grade-separated system? For the last-mile problem, biking or driving slowly at 10 mph is plenty fast a mile is a 20 minute walk, but only 5 minute bike ride. For long-distance travel, over 5 miles or so, PRT will never have enough capacity. At airports, where walking or biking are often not possible, buses and automated light rail work well guess which is cheaper… as long as all the main destinations are more or less along one line or loop.
Taxis can be a great means of getting around in cities with few private cars and low wages. I hear that traffic is much worse now that the middle class have all bought cars. In Europe and North America, where high costs limit taxis to rare occasions or use by the rich, car-sharing is a much better alternative.
I think that one reason there is so much hostility to PRT among transit advocates, is the same reason BRT raises hackles: Many see it as a Trojan horse advocated by anti-transit forces to try and prevent effective transit from being deployed. Is that fair? Probably not. But PRT assuming that community-scale PRT systems can be efficiently built is fighting with the tried-and-true for scarce dollars or Euros or whatever in many places, and seems to be positioned as an alternative to busses or trains.
Which is unfortunate—as PRT, if feasible, would be instead an alternative to cars and roads. Right now this niche is served by the personal automobile, with the result that a acres of real estate is taken up by roads and parking spaces, and b lots of short trips involve hauling around one-ton hunks of metal burning hydrocarbons, often to transport a couple hundred kilos of human flesh, or less.
Some streets for traditional vehicles might be provided, for things like deliveries or service access, but private autos would be greatly restricted. If you wanted to own one, it would be stored elsewhere, and reachable via PRT or mass transit.
Now retrofitting an existing neighborhood with such a thing would probably be a difficult sell, but if again assuming mature technology constructing a new one around a PRT network, as opposed to a street network, were cost-effective, it might be a viable urban form. The obvious answer is that not everyone WANTS to live in high-density areas, especially ones that involve apartments or other communal living arrangements.
And once you have the auto or two, and drive to work and back, who cares about the bus? Many suburban dwellers, of course, fear that they will be left behind in a post-auto society—either abandoned, as the cities once were by suburbia, or herded at gunpoint into bloc housing such ridiculous and fantastic elements do seem to have a prominent place in right-wing anti-transit propaganda.
But the main issues with many suburbs are that a separation of housing and commerce makes even the shortest trip impractical without a vehicle of some sort, and b the low density makes mass transit a dubious proposition. Re-zoning can help with A in some cases, but b remains an issue.
If PRT is to contribute to the cities of tommorow—a big if, assuming the technology can be matured and deployed at low cost or at least comparable cost to paving everywhere —this is the niche I think it will play. PRT deployments should be neighborhood scale, not urban scale. Or university or airport scale, given the few production deployments mentioned in the lead. Discussion of an urban PRT system is wrongheaded, misleading, and foolish—instead we should discuss numerous separate PRT systems, deployed on a piecemeal basis, interconnected by traditional mass transit.
PRT requires a fair amount of infrastructure — possibly less than light rail, but not by much. But what does a low-capacity PRT serve? But where do you choose to build it? Really, what problem is PRT trying to solve? Transit infrastructure must be related to land use, and vice versa.
And how much PRT infrastructure do you need to have a comprehensive system? Until these kinds of questions are addressed, PRT is just not a serious proposal for urban transit. Standard suburbs require a fair amount of infrastructure—streets, traffic signals, parking, enforcement, souped-up drainage systems to deal with the fact that pavement does not absorb water.
Often times this cost is borne by developers and their customers homebuyers , other times it gets paid for out of general funds. Cars are PRT. Choke down your brown fear and buy a bus pass. The problem with buses is that they have to run on a schedule, and therefore are either overcrowded or underused. Another area where I think PRT is important and beats out the car is for the less urban areas with children and seniors. A well planned system, assuming a less sprawling town, would be excellent in this situation.
There are a wide range of PRT systems in development today. In other words, current generation PRT has the capacity to handle the same kinds of loads of existing light transit modes. But that is not the end of the story for PRT capacity. ULTra is wisely starting out with a light capacity version to gain real world operational experience, which will provide invaluable feedback for the eventual transition to shorter headways.
In the late s, Cabinentaxi Germany fully developed a system that ran at 2. This system was fully tested and safety-approved, and with the passenger vehicle could carry tens of thousands of passengers per hour, while still retaining the fully personal capability for off-peak travel.
Current versions are light, but still equivalent to a high frequency city bus or small streetcar; next generation versions will be on par with many light rail systems, and the future could bring PRT systems with the capacity of a low end metro. But it has to start somewhere, so light capacity systems are the current norm. I think Mike C. PRT offers the prospect of a rail network with much more flexible operation.
On one extreme it could run all scheduled transit, or on the other an optimized unscheduled service that uses past demand and real time requests to deploy vehicles as efficiently as possible. Or you could provide a hybrid approach. Bigger vehicles do offset an important advantage of PRT — the relatively lean structural requirements.
Infill is nice, if you can get your residents to agree to it. Even a highway lane could do better than 1, — when there are multiple lanes, the capacity of each lane is 1,, cars per hour. Vuchic also gives the capacity of a city bus with 4 lanes and a dedicated ROW as 15,; with articulated buses, 2 lanes are enough.
The better comparison is with an arterial lane which would run more in the neighborhood of vehicles per hour. One further point: APMs have developed a niche market around the country at airports, hospitals, and Las Vegas Resort hotels. Private developers seem to view these systems as cost effective. I would think that PRT would be the next extension of this idea — an open source version. Central Las Vegas manages to use space in innovative ways and it provides interesting lessons for the PRT crowd.
As an example, a 3-car train carrying passengers and running at 6 minute frequency is passengers per hour. In most city applications, it would be difficult to run street level rail with larger trains than this, or at higher frequency, due to the limitations of operating on the street. So capacities in the tens of thousands are possible with rail, but it requires at least semi-exclusive right-of-way, which is both expensive and disruptive.
Same with high capacity bus systems. When both costs AND capacity are taken into account, PRT is quite competitive while providing a higher level of service. Seattle has had the highest per-mile cost of any North American light rail system, because it was built with metro infrastructure. Light rail can reliably run at-grade once every 2 minutes. Before it worked all over the world. In the US they are now known as trolley suburbs.
Still works in the rest of the world. Vaporware is the current norm. Lets see what happens once they have to have pods crossing intersections in the system or peaks of passengers or both. More on light rail headways: Bordeaux runs trams every 4 minutes at rush hour, Lyon every minutes , and Paris every minutes. As for the Calgary system, it is my understanding that much of it is at grade but with an exclusive or semi-exclusive right of way.
My advocacy is for places where rail is not a good fit; e. There are plenty of cities where this applies especially in the US. The fact that a few overzealous promoters have overstated claims should not invalidate the entire concept. Calgary has exclusive rights-of-way for light rail outside downtown, in freight rail and freeway corridors. It runs light rail in a transit mall downtown in streetcar mode — again, just like Jersey City, Portland, and Los Angeles.
Calgary is also a low-density city that up until light rail opened was dominated by car culture. Besides, why does car culture make PRT such a good fit? The main rationale for car culture is that building a road is much cheaper than building a rail line.
Mike C. Never mind, in most potential cases where such PRT systems could in theory be installed, judicious placement of short new roadway segments for buses, along with major stop improvements, could provide very competitive service, usually at a capital costs an order of magnitude cheaper than a PRT system, and likely much lower operating expenses, too. But I digress. What seems to be missing here is that PRT provides superior service, and would therefore likely draw more people onto transit.
Sure a bus would be cheaper, but buses rarely draw more than a few percent out of their cars. In contrast, even PRT critics e. These features appeal to those raised in a car-dominated society. So maybe Calgary had the foresight in the s to restrict road building, limit downtown parking and set aside land for future LRT development. That has enabled them to be the exception to the rule in North America.
In these cities, PRT could provide a smooth transition to transit. For that, it should be supported by those who advocate more transit, not ridiculed. There is much misunderstanding of PRT in the comments so far. I will address a few key points: 1. The ULTra system as it is being installed at Heathrow has a theoretical capacity of 7, seats per hour. This is based on a three second headway time between T-Pods. If headways come down to one second as expected, the capacity is trebled.
Stations are off-line on sidings. If it is not your station you just go on by. All trips are non-stop. Light rail has a maximum speed of 55mph yet only averages about 20mph because of all the stops. A 25mph PRT system averages about 25mph. PRT systems are laid out in networks, not corridors, so comparisons to line haul systems are not always appropriate.
Networks cover large areas with numerous stations so PRT systems are available to more than just those living along the corridor. Network capacity can be very large even if individual guideway capacity is not.
It is by far the most sustainable solution to urban public transit that is available today. Until there is some operating experience starting with Heathrow and possibly Masdar it remains to be seen how the Dubai debacles impact Abu Dhabi , any claim about PRT is future tense, conditional on actual demonstrated performance. Or solve the problem of presenting very complex network information in a PRT network with more than a few stations to non-tech saavy humans.
In other words, solving the sorts of problems one would be aware of IF one has had decades of experience in actual transit operations too many conventional systems fail at these seemingly simple tasks, or just muddle by. Without a human staff presence, they are potentially much more problematic. Of couse if it does, I expect PRT to again be grossly over-hyped the way it has since the s.
None of these arguments makes any sense — for example, Portlanders and Calgarians had been raised with cars in , and neither Portland nor Calgary is a dense city — but they can be effective talking points when you repeat them over and over. Finally, you ask why transit supporters ridicule PRT. Alon, I have not bashed light rail in this thread, nor do I ever bash light rail. It seems that it is you who are taking an extreme position here, asserting that PRT has no role whatsoever.
Is it because I quoted typical rail transit capacity figures in making the point that PRT is competitive with those systems? Is that what you call rail-bashing? Any new technology that can make inroads into the car culture should be embraced by those who value transit and livable cities. And that includes PRT. Then why are you so critical of trials that will go a long way toward providing that proof?
If you demand proof of viability in the form of a real-world application, then you should support those efforts which will provide that proof, one way or another. Instead, you ridicule current efforts in Masdar, Heathrow, and Winona. If you are truly confident that PRT will fail, then at the very least why not throw your support behind Masdar and Heathrow, two private efforts which cost us nothing but will provide valuable information on viability?
Would that be so bad, to have yet another transit weapon to use against the ever-expanding car culture? This is the problem, Mike: you state things, often without evidence has PRT ever led to interest in mass transit? When we point out that what you state is incorrect, about train capacity and transit politics, you state the same thing again.
It only appears to go: thesis—antithesis—thesis! And in Basel, things are similar. And the total capacity of each train is taking the official numbers of seats and standees in the to people range. One condition is, however, that there are no ticket sales and ticket checks upon entry of the trains. And how much would PRT cost, which, because of automated operation would need a specifically protected right of way, which, if you operate at the 3 second intervals needed to get streetcar-level capacity, must be on another level, because it could not be crossed by anything except suicidal rats.
Hmmm… so, PRT should be considered as replacement for the private car? But then, what is the incentive to use PRT instead of my private car? But like I said above, PRT deployments—if and when the technology is ready—ought to be made on smaller scales. A neighborhood, for instance. The next challenge for PRT makers and supporters of the mode: If and when a functional PRT system is built and becomes viable, how will it scale?
The problem with PRT businesses is that it is several companies attempting to enter deals to sell a bundle of proprietary solutions to the customer. That right there ensures high costs. I doubt that PRT firms are going to agree to open-source design and technology standards. Right here is a dilemma: If the firms agree to open-source PRT standards, it becomes a commodity business where business must compete on price lower profit margins alone.
In turn, a major construction firm can easily co-opt PRT design and offer it as a solution, blowing PRT specialists out of the water. If the firms stick to proprietary technology, it keeps costs high and results highly variable.
Right here, PRT is already at a disadvantage since conventional transit system technologies both bus and rail have a forest of knowledge trees to compare costs and problems. So, yes, you can run at higher frequencies in cities like that, which are much more common in Europe than in the US, where the car culture is pervasive. People used to the freedom of their car are fiercely resistant to transit which will affect their automobile mobility. Roads are already clogged, and the mere mention of converting lanes of car traffic to rail ROW is met with hostility.
These are the best transit cities in the world, but they are the exception rather than the rule, especially when considering cities in the US. I believe their higher estimate reflects a greater proportion of elevated sections. An extended discussion of costs is here:.
For that cost, PRT would provide better service and likely lower operating costs. PRT would also be non-disruptive, both physically and culturally. There are very good reasons to assume that car-lovers would be more likely to accept a non-intrusive, convenient, car-like transit system. At worst, you have a transit system that provides circulation as well as a streetcar would, for around the same cost. Some specific improvements may be proprietary, but the fundamental idea is readily available.
There are many suppliers of rolling stock, infrastructure, design and construction services, and whatever else, for a transit authority to choose from—as Wad notes, it is a commodity market. A related point, is that it seems that most PRT literature is marketed towards politicians and voters prior to sufficient demonstration of its viability.
Most new technology is subject to intense academic and technical scrutiny, including by persons not involved in its development or promotion. To this end, the Heathrow project is a step forward. However, many of us consider the rampant promotion of the technology, especially in political contexts as opposed to professional contexts including FUD-strewn pitches to the general public , prior to a successful at-scale demonstration of the technology to be a dubious endeavor.
This is a major concern in the US political context, where Promised Future Technologies whatever their merits are readily seized upon by anti-transit interests as a reason to delay roll-outs of planned mass transit systems, using existing technology.
You want to prove your point? Or go secure grants for a pilot project through normal research funding channels. Or give Paul Allen a call—he loves to spend money on futuristic ventures like this. Your position seems to be that the risk should be borne by the public. The answer is that we can and we should.
I rather be spreading the word about successful transit strategies than fighting half-baked pod schemes that detract from the important message from Zurich, Calgary and the few other places even in Europe that have truly successful transit. Instead we get situations like Uppsala in Sweden which has been diverted so far by pipe dreams of Vectus pods, when they should be looking at Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany for a city in the same size range that has been spectacularly successful in transit AND alternative modes including bicycles.
Beware, it is in German. A bunch of pods waiting for passengers on several sidings. A train arrives and a bunch of people get off and head to the pods. Lines form at each siding of pods, and each person takes at least 15 seconds, if not a minute to get into the pod and program it appropriately. The lines might not even empty by the time the next train comes by.
This sounds completely and utterly unworkable. In fact, they might more resemble drivers who want more of their kind of infrastructure — just PRT rather than roads. So PRT not only can have 1 second average headways, but it also can take no space? And you are deluded if you think drivers will not object to space being taken away not just on one main corridor, but on an entire PRT network, and for some sci-fi pod cars, with their tax dollars.
For riders, transit is not about area covered but about destinations covered. People are easily willing to walk m to get to a station with high-quality transit simple, rapid, frequent, and comfortable. Moreover, high-quality transit alters the land use around it so that there is just more stuff around the stations or corridor. So talking about transit lines in general not covering enough area misses the land use impact of transit infrastructure and the broad geographical reach of good transit.
If you can build less because people would be willing to walk to it, you will not be able to justify building more. Unlike roads, which need to get to every last house. What this implies is that somewhat scarce PRT infrastructure will attract development around it, and it seems to me that this kind of success of a PRT system would lead to its collapse due to its fundamentally low capacity. EngineerScotty: the main problem I have is with people who object even to the privately funded efforts.
The top three active PRT systems are mostly privately funded ULTra, Vectus, 2getthere , and the two initial target applications are private. Yet the anti-PRT crowd is highly critical of even these private efforts. Why is that? Also, regarding proprietary PRT technology, there is certainly a proprietary aspect to many current systems, but the underlying theory is all well documented.
A US government sponsored research project in the early s laid down most of the theory and published it in a book, Fundamentals of Personal Rapid Transit. Others primarily Ed Anderson have published much since then. For example, cities which invest in a proprietary technology can protect themselves by including protective language in the contract which specifies the release of all system information if the company fails. If PRT is such a slam dunk failure, why do transit people feel the need to trash it with such over-the-top language?
Why not just let it fail? Michael Setty: why not let the Swedes implement their podcar systems, and if they fail miserably as you predict, PRT will be out of your hair and you can look like a genius? The amount being spent on these systems is a drop in the bucket relative to overall transit spending, and a few failed pilots in Sweden will not break the bank. But the knowledge gained from those tests will be invaluable, one way or the other?
Why the resistance? A reminder to all commenters: Personal insults are unacceptable on this website and will be deleted. Tone down the language and address issues of debate in a reasonable manner. Regarding your comment about space usage: PRT is elevated, on 3-foot diameter poles that are feet apart. Stations are mostly elevated. The space occupied is therefore almost exclusively in the air and away from existing street traffic.
This makes it fully compatible with existing street-level rights-of-way, including auto, bus, streetcar, or pedestrian. At all. This sounds to me like heavy infrastructure, in sharp contrast with light rail. Again, will people want to live and work near the thing or not? If they will, then you must seriously consider whether it will be able to handle the capacity. Instead of ditching the issue, advocates and others need to calculate the maximum density that PRT can support.
For PRT to have a chance, its cost per linear mile design and construction costs, not ROW has to be comparable to pavement. Not to metro systems or even LRT; pavement. If you want a cheaper at-grade LRT that runs in its own right of way, either BRT or rapid streetcar have lower construction costs but correspondingly lower maximum capacities and higher per-passenger operating costs , and peak capacities similar to what PRT seems to offer.
And numerous functional examples of both can be found operating today. PRT will have a difficult time competing in this space. While LRT systems operate in this space including a significant amount of trackage in Portland , other technologies handle lower-volume, lower-speed applications far more cheaply. No, the killer app for PRT, if it is to have one in urban design, is probably not competing with trams or busses, but competing with autos. And for that to work, it has to be cost-effective with auto infrastructure.
And while there might be case to be made there, considering the gazillions of dollars spent on autos and fuel, many of those costs are borne over time by end users, not up front by developers or government agencies. Those might be interesting experiments, sure. Guideways are significantly smaller than pedestrian crosswalks. Here is a the ULTra page which discusses guideways, including photos from Heathrow:. Stations are also small because service is on demand and there is no need for a platform to aggregate passengers.
Stations are also more densely distributed than other forms of transit, further lessening the need for big stations. This one is at-grade, but there would be little difference in the elevated version other than the addition of a stairway and small lift for accessibility. Those studies have been done, and ATS makers of ULTra is, in fact, targeting moderate-density cities where capacity would be manageable for the initial phases of the system, e.
Because such high demand it would indicate that people are willing to accept this public transit system as an alternative to their beloved cars. If the over-capacity problem is that bad, then you can bump fares during heavy use periods, increasing revenue which can be used for system expansion.
Alternatively, buses can run on the streets below to augment the PRT during the rush. Again, this is a nice problem to have. And while PRT will not be able to serve the most dense areas lower Manhattan is certainly not on the short list of applications for any sane PRT proponent , guideway density CAN be increased as needed, by building more guideway within an area already under service.
Now, of course, this costs money, but if the system is so popular that demand exceeds capacity, it should be uncontroversial to invest in more PRT density, and the high fare revenues should help to offset the costs. And of course, if the PRT is this successful, it opens the door to rail expansion, light or even heavy rail, that would have been much more difficult in an automobile-only environment.
Warning: the following post contains hyperbole because it pleases the author to do so. Viewer discretion is advised. Quite honestly, PRT is a bit much for this layman to swallow. In that circumstance, it may well be a choice which gives superior service to other choices which could have been made. And developers are in it to make money, not fight city hall on the behalf of others, so they end up building within the established parameters, which means road access, acreage, height restrictions, etc; all of which essentially mandates low-density development with an existing automobile infrastructure.
In your Winona paper, you claim that the absolute minimum PRT headway will be 5 seconds, and that it cannot go any lower. Now, I know you are aware of a system from called Cabintaxi which received full regulatory approval to carry passengers after several years of continuous system testing.
Cabintaxi was approved at 2. Michael, how do you account for this discrepancy? As I pointed out before in this thread, Heathrow may, or may not, provide some evidence, but it will be many years if any more for larger and more complex systems is forthcoming. For the record, I never denied that a minimum 2. Widely used numbers are that a car traveling at 60 mph will require about feet to stop, a distance it will cover just under 6 seconds.
Nevertheless, highway travel often occurs with considerable safety with tip-to-tail headways on the order of 2 seconds. Various personal rapid transit systems in the s, and more recent experiments in car trains and flocking, reduce the headways considerably. Under computer control, reaction times can be reduced to fractions of a second. Whether traditional headway regulations should apply to PRT and car train technology is debatable.
In the case of the Cabinentaxi system developed in Germany, headways were set to 1. In experiments they demonstrated headways on the order of half of a second. Based on this, the author estimates a minimum practical [e. Unlike automobiles, PRT vehicles do not have seatbelts, thus braking rates must be gradual so PRT passengers are not thrown out of their seats. Forgive my if I remain unconvinced by your arguments citing two entirely unrelated systems in your analysis.
You keep bringing up the railroads Denver baggage system as evidence, while apparently dismissing irrefutable data from an actual PRT system from the s. What you fail to understand is that increasing separations is not the only way to achieve redundancy and fail safety. PRT vehicles are engineered for aircraft-level reliability, meaning there is internal redundancy of all critical components related to safety. This means that there is only a one in 10 million chance that the follower vehicle will NOT have its brakes engaged within milliseconds of the fault in the leader.
This is essentially a guarantee within acceptable safety limits that the follower will stop as long as the vehicle separation is just a little more than the stopping distance plus the distance traveled in the initial ms. How can you imagine that their is no redundancy in railroad!!! Aircraft level safety is no better than railway level safety please …. I work in railroads and excuse me but 10 million chance of accident in a single brake action is not acceptable at all.
We usually work on a level of an accident on one billion on the system life 30 years. And remember that there are still accidents! I also confirm that safety team usually takes large safety margin to take into account unknown effects.
I doubt that a mechanical brake can activate in 50 ms. Remember also that you cannot dimension your headway with the average time but you must use defensive values that are the worst possible. For example, this means that you must suppose that : — the leader pod brake has brick wall stop because it is stuck for example — the follower pod will break at minimum emergency brake power or worst … — the reaction time is the maximum one thus counting all the different software cycle time that are used — that the ground is slippery in case it has rain or snwoed — etc ….
Transportation is not a world of amateurs. You will transport babies and pregant women in quantities. Good will and hope is not enough. You have to be sure. Moreover, a single accident or incident can definitively stop all the system if a new danger is discovered too late.
By looking at the specs mentioned by Mike C. Therefore, even in the extremely lowest-density applications, you would have to build elevated structures… with a pillar every 18 meters. And, if you want to achieve a real private transportation equivalent, that would have to exist for every house…. The vehicles proposed for Heathrow look to me like fancy golf carts. So, where would you willingly ride a golf cart? Or in holiday resort complexes which are just a little bit too big to walk.
Or in too big shopping malls, connecting some buildings. There is a rule of thumb saying when transit can get successful, and to what you have to set up the capacity: m to the next stop which translates to 5 minutes easy walk. With a decent service, households can reduce to one single car without loss of mobility.
Would PRT fit into such a scenario? Would the investment in a PRT system be worthwile for such a scenario as compared to minibus-on-demand services? Barely, IMHO. And that would have to happen with quite high precision, and require ample accelleration space. Interesting article. I agree that zoning in the US has historically been bad, but many places are working to change that. However, dependence on the car in inner suburbs is becoming more of a problem with congestion and sometimes lack of parking, but buses are impractical.
As much as I think transit is needed in more places, the densities are just not there to support it in most places in the US. Buses with the exception of those that use bus-only lanes cannot provide efficient transit. This is where I think PRT can be the best option. It would be interesting to see an experiment where they provide shuttles and PRT doing the same rounds at Heathrow and see how people use them and what their preference is.
Michael, re: PRT connecting to transit: this resembles the way some neighborhoods are served in Hong Kong and Singapore. Incompetence goes both ways. The ULTra vehicle is 3. The minimal acceleration space required can be calculated. Using 1. In that case, the 15s load time per vehicle would occur simultaneously in N separate vehicles. So consider a station with 8 parallel berths and 20 second turnaround per berth.
And the highly parallel nature of the ULTra platform means it could probably expanded to more berths if needed. And I never said US transit agencies are incompetent, far from it. The US suffers because of cultural dominance of the automobile, which is the result of various social, political and economic factors over the past years. Transit agencies were the victims of this centuries-long paradigm shift, not the cause. Alon: Interesting argument about the high-traffic areas. For one, if it was a bidirectional track, that increases your calculated capacity by a factor of 2.
For example, students from schools generally would most likely travel with friends or neighbors, and use the same spot, so more people in less time. Most offices would not have or so people leave at any one time if they did this in private cars it would be a nightmare. Hmm… that pretty much corresponds to the length of the ramps to and from a house for ground level access.
Hmm… that would give a minimum distance between individual house stops of something around 70 m with some smart intertwining of the access ramps. Now, I wonder whether a suburban area with a distance of 70 m or more between houses would be willing to accept such a wall of access ramps. Actually, it would be possible to have one long curbside, IF the vehicles are capable to operate without guide bars for a short distance, and with one single guide bar for a bit more.
Such a stop would look like a bus bay. Another aspect which must be taken into consideration for the calculation of capacity of any PRT is the number and distance of empty transfers, to or from the stop where a passenger got on or off. Nevertheless, these movements must be taken into account. Could you explain this?
Do you mean having two tracks and two platforms? If so then yes, the capacity is people per direction; the problem is that demand is often asymmetric. City buses can meet this with multiple stations on multiple streets, and rail has the capacity for this, but PRT would have queuing nightmares. About the only way I can see of making this work is dispersing demand, which means having PRT run alongside mass transit for stops.
Successful transit cities with extensive rail networs have proven that a short walk to the station is acceptable for many riders. And yes, the berths ARE stub-ends. The vehicles back out a few feet, then pull forward. See this for more info on ULTra stations. There are other PRT designs e.
In those systems, linear loading would generally be efficient, other than being susceptible to the occasional slow loading passenger. PRT empty vehicle movement is exactly analogous to trains and buses making return trips with vehicles that are much less full than the original trip, typical of rush periods. Yes, PRT designers generally envision a larger number of very small stations scattered about.
This would reduce costs and enhance service, and I would think that property owners would be eager to provide such a convenience to enhance the value of their property. My point about long lines of parallel station berths was not that it would be the norm , but rather, that it would be possible if needed. A 5-berth station is about 75 feet long, which sounds like a lot until you consider that people are no longer parking their cars near the building. One more point about PRT guideway capacity: as the network expands, overall capacity expands with it.
For example, consider a concert venue with a person capacity. That venue could be served by a number of PRT stations around the perimeter of the venue, each of which can take riders out via a different route. Mike C 57 said PRT would also be non-disruptive, both physically and culturally. Having elevated roadways running down or beside suburban streets, in front of suburban houses, and there would be no opposition? Having cars sailing along where anyone can peer into your bedroom windows or over the fence into your yard….
And will the pylons be in the centre of the road traffic obstacle, and certainly disruptive during construction or alongside? If they are alongside, where exactly, and how is that achieved? By removing parking? But as soon as you hit light rail costs, you have to have the same economics as light rail. Geoff 79 said Buses with the exception of those that use bus-only lanes cannot provide efficient transit. One of my local routes in London has appx buses per day, the majority of them articulated buses.
There are also much less dense areas served by regular services. The point is, the London buses network is bloody efficient at moving people around — some 6 million boardings every weekday — at various densities from the centre to the suburban outskirts. The guideways and stations would not necessarily serve only that venue.
What I was suggesting is that the larger the network gets in both area and density , the greater the capacity to overcome local surges. So in my example I said stations would be located around the perimeter of the venue, but they would also serve adjacent buildings, and there would have guideways going off in different directions to cover different areas. Think of a 2-dimensional grid with the concert venue at some point within that grid.
At a minimum, there would likely be guideway paths away from the venue as part of the overall network layout. These can be used in parallel to multiply traffic out of the venue. Once out of the congested area immediately surrounding the venue, vehicles can be routed efficiently down the least congested path towards their destination.
Since a concert venue is a known aggregator of potential passengers, the overall layout can be optimized to have several guideway loops converge at or near the venue, even as the primary purpose of those loops is to serve surrounding areas. PRT is expensive to build but it would provide a valuable service to the community, like any transit. And if it is heavily used by a large percentage of the public, capital costs for expansion will be less controversial.
I think the same will be true of a well-conceived PRT system if a significant percentage of the public embraces it — and I think they will once they see the high level of service it provides. Huge intersections clogged with cars, traffic signals dangling on the horizon, monstrous density-destroying parking lots and parking garages scattered about, ugly fuel stations on every other corner, formerly walkable neighborhoods bisected by busy arterial routes or worse expressways.
Those of us in car-centric cities have come to accept all this as normal, but I think it has seriously degraded the quality of life in cities. Will that PRT guideway alleviate congestion on streets? Will it provide an alternative mode that will reduce the need for more road expansion? Will it reduce the need for more density-destroying parking lots?
And, more personally, will it give me a viable transit option which I can use to get to the places I want to go without using an automobile? In my view, a mature PRT system will go a long way to resolving a lot of these issues we take for granted, and for that, a slim elevated guideway is a small price to pay. But I do acknowledge that I may be in the minority in that view; many people share your NIMBY concerns and that would need to be addressed.
They recently held a design competition for a hypothetical PRT in the historic city of Bath. The purpose of this exercise was to come up with innovative ways of integrating PRT infrastructure in even the most sensitive aesthetic environments. I think more of this research needs to be done, and I think it will be productive, because PRT infrastructure light and flexible enough that it can be integrated with little disruption. Good design could never overcome the blight of an elevated automobile expressway, which is far too big to be integrated, but it could work on PRT guideways that are significantly smaller than a pedestrian crosswalk.
PRT cannot be converted to any higher-order transit, by design. Elevated guideway, elevated stations — and so many of both that there would be likely bi-directional guideways to be found in the vicinity of one block? And you think this is somehow economically rational? Governments cannot afford to spend that kind of money on low-density areas. Costs are okay when they come with benefits to match. The costs of PRT per mile are on par with transit that has ten times the capacity.
Considering that public transit requires a subsidy, just as do roads, it is unacceptable to spend limited tax dollars on low-benefit, high-cost projects — bridges to nowhere. And yes, roads do cost a hell of a lot of money — but even those costs are an order of magnitude or two lower than PRT per trip served. Good transit projects, on the other hand, cost substantially less than does equivalent road expansion.
Mike C, 78 This means that there is only a one in 10 million chance that the follower vehicle will NOT have its brakes engaged within milliseconds of the fault in the leader. But the chances of programmer error in some part of such complex software is one in one. Is this per computer calculation or something else? Michael: a 1 in 10 million chance of failure means that some hack multiplied probabilities together so that management would not be found liable for the Challenger disaster.
Where is the money going to come from? Yes, Alon, the track record for the Shuttle program is 1. The current Mac version of Word is much better than before, but it still sucks relative to virtually all other Mac software. Have either of you taken a flight recently? Seriously, reliability engineering is a well established science. Do you think the safety of air travel is a fluke? The engineering required to reliably keep a multi-ton metal tube floating literally in thin air is extensive , and it must also be exceedingly reliable.
I would guess that a PRT vehicle has one one-thousandth the inherent complexity of a commercial airliner, yet you are skeptical that it can be made reliable enough to apply a simple mechanical brake. Meanwhile, you board planes without thinking twice. How does that mesh? And this is supposed to predict the reliability of operating golf carts at 25mph on an exclusive guideway? You misrepresent what I said, again.
On the other hand, a PRT system as a whole probably would be comparable in complexity to a Shuttle. Of course, I doubt you or any other PRTista has any clue where that point of complexity is. Also, are you saying YOU have a thorough understanding of reliability engineering? Sounds like it. Am I supposed to take your vast knowledge of aircraft reliability engineering on faith?
Oh, wait. In the s, the numbers were empirical, too — they did extensive testing, in which many pilots died, to make sure flying was safe for passengers. Alon, you beat me to the last comment I left out; e. Finally, you can contact the German regulators from who approved Cabinentaxi for passenger travel at 2. Do you not trust these respected regulatory authorities to judge the reliability of a public transport system?
Also, following up on an earlier point, do you really believe that the reliability of the space shuttle has any applicability whatsoever to moving small vehicles at low speeds on a fixed guideway? Michael, the most complex PRT system is a tiny fraction of the complexity of the space shuttle. PRT is not rocket science — literally! ULTra PRT is basically a golf cart on a guideway with a magnetic tracking system and obstacle detection. The central control is little more than simple linear trajectory calculations which have been automated since the days of ENIAC coupled with some routing and scheduling.
The fact that you believe a PRT network would be anywhere near as complex as the space shuttle reveals your fundamental lack of knowledge on the concept. Any PRTistas here know what the projections are for miles or km between roadcalls being predicted by any of the PRT systems under development? Buses are relatively simple, of course, but they still do break down, and there is a long empirical record of why and how. I read the whole thread more fool me.
This does not inspire confidence in their conclusions. I also notice that some people on this thread are very friendly towards trains and buses. As for buses, I simply hate them. They are grim, uncomfortable, and very slow.
A 30 mph operating speed on expensively reserved lanes is pretty meaningless when the vehicle is stopping three or four times a mile. On a bicycle, I can always beat the bus in my city, and often by a wide margin. I find it unbelievable that some people, including some city planners, think the future of the city is bus so-called-rapid transit.
I hope Mike C is wrong about PRT, but only in this sense: I hope he is being too reasonable, and in fact the more ambitious claims made by some PRT proponents turn out to be correct. Then buses and suburban rail will swiftly be wiped from the face of the Earth, and private car use will simultaneously dramatically be reduced, and we will enter a new transport Eutopia. PRT proponents have struggled to build a viable working model. There are a host of real-world operational issues involved that are beyond the scope of solving by silicon chips.
Setty brings up a very good point about maintenance. What will be the forecast of road calls? More importantly, who will be responsible for them? What is the funding plan to keep the pods and guideways running? Ignore the fact that there is theoretical savings from not needing drivers. Look at the costs that are there. What about the cleaning and maintenance workers?
Better yet, what is the revenue source? Even the most efficiently run systems operate at massive losses. There is more to broadcast than the faces on screen and voices on the radio. Here is how to find those jobs. How to get up to speed with shorthand: freelance journalist Mamiyo Padi shares her top tips after reaching the milestone. Isolation and Zoom lectures are not the typical idea of 'university life'. But you can still acing e-learning. Advertise your freelance services Find a freelancer Map Edit your listing.
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