On the other hand, it develops yellow color when it occurs in a hydrated form. The fine-grained red and yellow soils are usually fertile, whereas coarse-grained soils found in dry upland areas have poor fertility. Laterite soils are the result of intense leaching due to tropical rains; because of rain, lime and silica are leached away, and soils become rich in iron oxide and aluminum. Laterite soils however are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate, and calcium, but rich in iron oxide and potash.
Laterite soils are normally infertile; however, it is widely to make bricks used in building construction. Saline soils contain a larger proportion of sodium, potassium, and magnesium, and thus, they are infertile, and do not support vegetation. Saline soils are normally found in arid and semi-arid regions, as well as in waterlogged and swampy areas. Deficient in nitrogen and calcium, saline soils are found in western Gujarat, deltas of the eastern coast, and in Sunderban areas of West Bengal.
Like other organism, soils are living systems, as they too develop and decay, get degraded, and respond to proper treatment if administered in time. In the areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity, large quantity of dead organic matter accumulates and enrich humus and organic content that forms the peaty soils. Peaty soils are normally heavy and black in color and widely found in the northern part of Bihar, southern part of Uttaranchal, and the coastal areas of West Bengal, Odisha, and Tamil Nadu.
Decline in soil fertility because of any reason either natural or human induced is known as soil degradation example shown in the image given below. The Survey of India is accountable for measuring geographical area of administrative units in India. There is difference between the actual forest area and the forest area defined by the Government.
Land under settlements i. Barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines, etc. Any land, which is left fallow uncultivated for more than five years is categorized as Culturable Wasteland. The land, which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year is known as Current Fallow. The physical extent of the land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as Net Sown Area. Land use pattern changes with time and the nature of economic activities carried out in that region.
As a result of increase in population, change in income levels, available technology, and associated factors, pressure on land increases and marginal lands come under use. When secondary and tertiary sectors grow much faster than primary sector, then agricultural land changes into non-agricultural land. Likewise, India has undergone major changes within the economy over the past four or five decades, and it has influenced the land-use changes in the country. Because of the changing structure of the Indian economy, the rate of increase of non-agricultural land is very fast.
There are three distinct cropping seasons in the northern and interior parts of India, namely kharif, rabi, and zaid. Dryland farming is largely restricted to the regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm. Major crops are ragi, bajra, moong, gram, and guar fodder crops. The regions, which have rainfall in excess of soil moisture requirement of plants during the rainy season is known as wetland farming. Major crops are rice, jute, and sugarcane. Indian cereals are classified as fine grains e.
On the basis of main source of moisture for crops, the farming can be classified as irrigated and rainfed. On the basis of adequacy of soil moisture during cropping season, rainfed farming is further classified as dryland and wetland farming. In southern states and West Bengal, the climatic conditions facilitate the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year. Maharashtra alone contributes to more than half of the total jowar production of the country.
Maize is a food as well as fodder crop grown under the semi-arid climatic conditions and over inferior soils. Pulses are the legume crops, which increase the natural fertility of soils through nitrogen fixation. The cultivation of pulses in the country is largely concentrated in the drylands of Deccan and central plateaus and northwestern parts. Groundnut, rapeseed and mustard, soyabean, and sunflower are the main oilseed crops grown in India.
Rapeseed and mustard comprise several oilseeds such as rai, sarson, toria, and taramira. Rajasthan alone contributes to about one-third production of oilseeds while Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh other leading producers. Sunflower cultivation is concentrated in the regions of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and adjoining areas of Maharashtra.
India grows both the short staple Indian cotton as well as the long staple American cotton called narma in north-western parts of the country. The major cotton growing areas in India are parts of Punjab, Haryana, and northern Rajasthan in the north-west; Gujarat and Maharashtra in the west; and plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu in the south.
Sugarcane occupies 2. Uttar Pradesh produces about two-fifth of sugarcane of the country; other leading producers are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh. Tea is grown over the undulating topography of hilly areas and well drained soils in humid and sub-humid tropics and sub-tropics. In India, tea plantation started in s in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam, which still is a major tea growing area in the country. Assam accounts for about India generally grows superior quality of coffee i.
India produces only about 3. New seed varieties of wheat from Mexico and rice from Philippines known as high yielding varieties HYVs were introduced during mids in India Green Revolution. On the other hand, the land-human ratio in the country is only 0. Further, lack of development of rural infrastructure, withdrawal of subsidies and price support, and impediments in availing of the rural credits may lead to interregional and inter-personal disparities in rural areas.
Planning Commission of India initiated agro-climatic planning in to induce regionally balanced agricultural development in the country. Metallic minerals are further sub-divided as ferrous and non-ferrous metallic minerals. The minerals containing iron is known as ferrous and without iron is known as non-ferrous copper, bauxite, etc.
Depending upon the origination, non-metallic minerals are either organic such as fossil fuels also known as mineral fuels, which are derived from the buried animal and plant, e. However, these minerals take long time to form, but they cannot be replenished immediately at the time of need. Petroleum reserves in India are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat, and Mumbai High i. Some new petroleum reserves are also found in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins shown in the image given above.
The major areas of north-eastern plateau region are Chhotanagpur Jharkhand , Odisha, West Bengal, and parts of Chhattisgarh. Iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite, and mica are the major minerals of the north-eastern plateau region. The south-western plateau region covers major parts of Karnataka, Goa, and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala. The Himalayan belt is also an important mineral belt, as it has rich deposits of copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, and tungsten.
Sandur-Hospet area of Ballari district, Baba Budan hills, and Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district, and parts of Shivamogga are the important iron ore regions in Karnataka. Copper deposits are largely concentrated in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts of Rajasthan.
Hazaribagh plateau of Jharkhand and Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh have deposits of high grade mica. Fossil fuel or conventional sources of energy are found exhaustible in nature and also not environmental friendly; on the other hand, the non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, geo-thermal energy, tidal energy, etc. Hydrocarbons of liquid and gaseous states varying in chemical composition, color, and specific gravity are collectively known as petroleum resource.
Petroleum industries produce various by-products; for example, fertilizer, synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber, medicines, vaseline, lubricants, wax, soap, and cosmetics. For the systematic oil exploration and production, the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was set up in Located km off Mumbai, Mumbai high, an offshore oilfield was discovered in Production of petroleum at the field was started in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin on the east coast are significant regions of petroleum production.
Oil extracted from the wells remains in crude oil form and contains many impurities; hence, it needs to be extracted in oil refineries. Based on destination, there are two types of oil refineries — oil-field based e. Digboi and market based Barauni. To transport and develop the market for natural gas, the Gas Authority of India Limited was set up in it is a public sector undertaking.
Though natural gas reserves have been located along the petroleum reserves, but some exclusive natural gas reserves are found along the eastern coast of Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh; as well as around Tripura, Rajasthan, and off-shore wells in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Essential minerals used for the generation of nuclear energy are uranium and thorium. Geographically, uranium ores are found at many different locations along the Singbhum Copper belt.
Other important uranium reserve regions are also found in Udaipur, Alwar, and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan; Durg district of Chhattisgarh; Bhandara district of Maharashtra; and Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and ilmenite, which is largely found along the coast of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Ministry of Non-conventional Sources of Energy is responsible for the development of wind energy in India as the major source of renewable energy. Ocean currents are the store-house of infinite energy.
Hence, India has great potential for the development of tidal energy. Natural hot springs and geysers are being used since medieval period, but in the present world, these could be potential sources of renewable energy. Manikaran , a hot spring in Himachal Pradesh is a major renewable source of energy in India.
Bio-energy is the energy derived usually from the biological products, such as agricultural residues and other bio-waste. On the basis of size, capital investment, and labor force employed, industries are classified as large, medium, small scale, and cottage industries. On the basis of ownership, industries come under public sector, private sector, joint, and cooperative sector. Industries are also classified on the basis of the use of their products such as basic goods industries, capital goods industries, intermediate goods industries, and consumer goods industries.
Location of industries is influenced by several factors like access to raw materials, power, market, capital, transport, and labor, etc. Establishment of iron and steel industry in Bhilai Chhattisgarh and Rourkela Odisha were based on decision to develop backward tribal areas of the country.
The major raw materials for the iron and steel industries are iron ore, coking coal, limestone, dolomite, manganese, and fire clay. Vizag Steel Plant, in Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh is the first port based plant which started operating in The Rourkela Steel plant was set up in the year in the Sundargarh district of Odisha in collaboration with Germany. Durgapur Steel Plant was established in in West Bengal, in collaboration with the government of the United Kingdom.
India was famous worldwide for the production of muslin , a very fine variety of cotton cloth, calicos, chintz, and other different varieties of fine cotton cloth. Tamil Nadu has the largest number of mills; however, most of them produce yarn rather than cloth. Davangere, Hubballi, Ballari, Mysuru, and Bengaluru are important cotton growing regions in Karnataka. With more than one-third of the total production, Maharashtra has emerged as a leading sugar producer in the country.
Many items are derived from crude petroleum, which provide raw materials for many new industries; hence, these are collectively known as petrochemical industries. Petrochemical industries are categorized as polymers, synthetic fibers, elastomers, and surfactant intermediate industries.
The Information Technology IT revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation. With a total length of about The main roads connecting two or more states are constructed and maintained by the Central Government. These roads are known as the National Highways. The National Highways constitute only 1. With 3, km of road length, the East-West Corridor has been planned to connect Silchar in Assam with the port town of Porbandar in Gujarat.
All State Highways collectively constitute about 4 per cent of the total road length in the country. District roads are the roads connecting the District Headquarters and the other important nodes in the district. The Border Road Organization BRO was established in May for the acceleration of economic development and strengthening defense preparedness through rapid and coordinated improvement of strategically important roads along the northern and north-eastern boundary of the country.
BRO has constructed roads in high altitude mountainous terrain joining Chandigarh with Manali Himachal Pradesh and Leh Ladakh , which runs at an average altitude of 4, meters above the mean sea level. Railways was introduced to India in , when a line was constructed from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 km. Konkan Railway constructed along the western coast in , is a landmark achievement of Indian Railway. Inland Waterways Authority was set up in for the development, maintenance, and regulation of national waterways in the country.
Besides, NW 4 covers specified stretches of rivers Godavari and Krishna along with Kakinada Puducherry; the total distance is km. NW 5 covers specified stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and East Coast canals; the total distance is km. With 12 major and minor ports, India has a vast coastline of approximate 7, km, including islands. Air transport in India marked its beginning in with the commencement of airmail over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini.
The Airport Authority of India is accountable for providing safe, efficient air traffic, and aeronautical communication services in the Indian Air Space. Pawan Hans is the helicopter service operating in hilly areas and is widely used by tourists in north-eastern regions. Government took control over radio broadcasting in and established the Indian Broadcasting System.
All India Radio was constituted in and it came to be known as Akashwani from Over a period of time, All India Radio started broadcasting a variety of programs related to information, education, and entertainment. Among all programs, news bulletins were also broadcasted at specific occasions like the session of parliament and state legislatures.
Television broadcasting has emerged as an effective audio-visual medium for disseminating information as well as educating masses. With the advent of satellites, the Indian Communication System has revolutionized the mode of communication.
Services were also extended to the backward and rural areas of the country. The INSAT, which was established in , is a multipurpose satellite system specialized for telecommunication, meteorological observation, and for many other data and programs. The National Remote Sensing Centre NRSC at Hyderabad is responsible for acquisition, processing, supply of aerial and satellite remote sensing data and continuously exploring the practical uses of remote sensing technology.
Though an increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products, and sugar, there has been a great decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc. With the Green Revolution in s, the import of food grains declined, but it was replaced by fertilizers and petroleum.
The capacity of Indian ports increased from 20 million tons of cargo handling in to more than million tons in Kandla Port located in the Gulf of Kachchh, on the west coast of Gujarat has been developed as a major port.
Kandla port is specially designed to receive large quantities of petroleum and petroleum products and fertilizer. Jawaharlal Nehru Port at Nhava Sheva, Maharashtra was developed as a satellite port to relieve the pressure on the Mumbai port. New Mangalore Port is located in the state of Karnataka; it caters to the export of iron-ore and iron-concentrates along with fertilizers, petroleum products, edible oils, coffee, tea, wood pulp, yarn, granite stone, molasses, etc. Kolkata Port is a riverine port located on the Hugli River; it is km inland from the Bay of Bengal.
Haldia Port handles bulk cargo like iron ore, coal, petroleum, petroleum products and fertilizers, jute, jute products, cotton and cotton yarn, etc. Paradip Port has the deepest harbor especially suited to handle very large vessels. Located in Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam Port is a land-locked harbor , connected to the sea by a channel cut through solid rock and sand. Ennore is a newly developed port in Tamil Nadu.
It has been constructed 25 km north of Chennai to relieve the pressure on Chennai port. Tuticorin Port is also an important port located in Tamil Nadu. It handles the movement of coal, salt, food grains, edible oils, sugar, chemicals, and petroleum products. There were 19 international airports functioning in the country February ; however, currently, it is Airways have the advantage of taking the least time for carriage and handling high value or perishable goods over long distances; however, it is expensive and hence not suitable for the heavy and other machinery products.
Terrain, climate, and availability of water largely determine the pattern of the population distribution. However, socio-economic and historical factors also affect the pattern of population distribution.
As per the census, urban population of India was Bihar with people per square km is the most densely populated state of India followed by West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh Agricultural density refers to the total agricultural population divided by the net cultivable area. Agricultural population includes cultivators and agricultural laborers and their family members. As per census , Considering the economic status, population can be divided into categories such as main workers, marginal workers, and non-workers.
As per the census , main workers and marginal workers collectively constitute only about About The proportion of workers in agricultural sector in India has shown a declining trend over the last few decades; in , it was As per the census, literacy rate of India was Among the scheduled languages, Hindi is the highest spoken language and Kashmiri and Sanskrit have the least number of speakers.
More than 80 percent of the population comprises of Hindus followed by Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains. A cluster of dwellings of any type and size where human beings live is known as human settlement. On the basis of size and type, patterns of human settlement are studied; hence, a settlement could be very small e. The sparsely populated settlement whose main occupation is agricultural and other primary sector activities, is known as village.
Large and densely populated settlement whose main occupational specialization is in tertiary activities is known as urban settlement. The settlement in which the houses are closely built up and compact is known as clustered settlement. The shape of clustered settlement normally varies from rectangular, radial, to linear. Clustered settlement in India normally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states.
The settlement, clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement normally looks like semi-clustered. Examples of such settlement can be seen in Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan. Some settlement is fragmented into several units and physically separated from each other is known as hamleted settlement. Examples of hamleted settlement can be seen in the middle and lower Ganga plain, Chhattisgarh and lower valleys of the Himalayas.
The isolated settlement is known as dispersed settlement. Examples of such settlement can be seen in parts of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala have this type of settlement. Like rural settlement, urban settlements have also been developed during the ancient period itself.
Chandigarh, Bhubaneswar, Gandhinagar, Dispur, etc. For example, Kandla, Kochchi, Kozhikode, Vishakhapatnam, etc. For example, Kolkata, Saharanpur, Satna, etc. The towns that developed because of the mining activities are known as mining towns. The towns that developed as garrison towns are known as Garrison Cantonment towns. The towns that developed because of the development of educational institutions are known as educational towns. Some towns mark their development with the existence of religious shrines.
Such towns are known as religious towns. Based on the population size, the census of India classifies urban centers into six classes see the table given below. Urban agglomeration forms in a situation when a town and its adjoining urban areas outgrowth, or two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowth, or a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowth together forming a contiguous spread. During colonial period i. All such migrations were covered under time-bound contracts known as Girmit Act Indian Emigration Act.
The recent wave of migrants consists of professionals including software engineers, doctors, engineers, management consultants, financial experts, and media persons to countries like USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, etc. The first major modification was done in Census, as two additional components i.
Further, in , another component added i. According to census, out of total 1, million population, million 30 per cent were reported as migrants in terms of place of birth. Under the intra-state migration, numbers of female migrants are more than male marriage related migration.
As per the census , India has recorded that more than 5 million persons have migrated to India from other countries; largely, from the neighboring countries including Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. As per the census , there are about 20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread across the countries of the world. In terms of in-migration , Maharashtra occupied the first place 2. On the other hand, in terms of out-migration , Uttar Pradesh In terms of the urban agglomeration UA , Greater Mumbai had received the maximum number of in-migrants.
Push factors force people to migrate; for example, unemployment, lack of infrastructure such as hospital, education institutions, etc. Pull factors attract people from different places; for example, better opportunities for education and employment; better health facilities; and various sources of entertainment, etc. Normally, the reason behind female migration throughout India is largely marriage related; however, Meghalaya has a reverse scenario. Development of slums in industrially developed states, such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and metropolitan areas, such as Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, etc.
Because of unbalanced migration, the receiving regions especially urban areas are facing many environmental problems, such as pollution, depletion of ground water, solid waste management problems, etc. India has centralized planning and the task of planning in India has been entrusted to the Planning Commission of India. Planning Commission of India is a statutory body headed by the Prime Minister and has a Deputy Chairman and other members.
Sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programs aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure, and services. Since all the regions of India have not developed on the same lines, therefore, to reduce the regional imbalances, regional planning was introduced.
Major aims of Hill Area Development Program were harnessing the indigenous resources of the hilly areas through the development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry, and small-scale and village industry. Drought Prone Area Program was initiated during the Fourth Five-Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in droughtprone areas and creating productive assets.
In , the Planning Commission of India identified 67 districts entire or partly of the country prone to drought. In s, the phrases such as redistribution with growth and growth and equity were incorporated in the definition of development.
The concept of sustainable development emerged in the wake of general rise in the awareness of environmental issues in the late s in the Western World. Likewise, Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social, and economic aspects of the development during the present times and pleads for conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources. Indira Gandhi Canal, which previously was popular as the Rajasthan Canal, is one of the largest canal systems in India.
The idea of Indira Gandhi Canal was proposed by Kanwar Sain in ; however, the canal project was launched on 31 March, The canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border and covers an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert of Rajasthan.
Disaster is an undesirable catastrophe resulting from the forces that are largely beyond human control, strikes quickly with little or no warning, and causes or threatens serious disruption of life and property. For example, earthquake, tsunami, cyclone, flood, etc.
Disasters are normally caused by nature beyond human control ; however, there are many human-induced disasters. For example, Bhopal Gas tragedy, Chernobyl nuclear disaster, wars, release of CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons , releasing greenhouse gases, etc. Besides, some disasters are natural in occurence, but those are indirectly caused by human activities. For example, landslides in hilly regions, droughts, and floods due to deforestation and other environmental damage.
On the other hand, Natural Hazards are the elements of circumstances in the Natural environment that have the potential to harm people or property or both. The disasters are global in nature; hence, to combat with it, the United Nations made a systematic strategy at the World Conference on Disaster Management held in May at Yokohama, Japan.
Atmospheric disasters include blizzard, thunderstorm, lightning, tropical cyclone, tornado, drought, hailstorm, frost, heat wave, cold waves, etc. Terrestrial disasters include earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, avalanches, subsidence, etc. Biological disasters include fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases e. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions normally cause the sea-floor to move abruptly resulting in sudden displacement of ocean water in the form of high vertical waves, which are known as tsunamis shown in the image given below.
Tsunamis can be observed frequently along the Pacific ring of fire, particularly along the coast of Alaska, Japan, Philippines, and other islands of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and India etc. Parts of eastern Rajasthan; many parts of Madhya Pradesh; eastern parts of Maharashtra; interior parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka Plateau; northern parts of interior Tamil Nadu; southern parts of Jharkhand; and interior parts of Odisha are categorized as Severe Drought Prone Area.
Young mountainous areas of North and north-eastern India the Himalayan regions , Andaman and Nicobar; high rainfall regions with steep slopes in the Western Ghats and Nilgiris; along with areas of frequent earthquakes, etc. A situation when there is a prolonged period of inadequate rainfall is known as Meteorological Drought.
When soil moisture that is necessary to support the crops, is low or insufficient to support crop cultivation, it is known as Agricultural Drought. When the productivity of a natural ecosystem fails because of the shortage of water and as a consequence of ecological distress, damages occur in the ecosystem, it is known as Ecological Drought.
The word geography carries basically two Greek terms i. On the other hand, the regional approach was also developed by a German geographer namely Karl Ritter ; he was a contemporary of Humboldt. In the systematic approach, first a phenomenon is studied world over as a whole, and then the identification of typologies or spatial patterns is done. On the other hand, in the regional approach, first the world is divided into regions at different hierarchical levels and then all the geographical phenomena in a particular region are studied.
Because of the different approaches, geography is better known for its dualistic characteristics. However, Biogeography is the third branch, which is an interface between physical geography and human geography. Besides, there are some branches that study both the approaches. There are dozens of hypotheses proposed regarding the origin of the earth by different philosophers.
According to Nebular Hypothesis, the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun. Big Bang Theory , which is also known as expanding universe hypothesis is the modern and the most accepted theory. Edwin Hubble was the first one who provided evidence that the universe is expanding, in According to the Big Bang theory as shown in the image given below , the universe originated from an extremely dense and hot state and keeps expanding till date.
Galaxy is a group of stars. Galaxies normally spread over vast distances, which are measured in thousands of light-years. A galaxy starts to form by the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the form of a very large cloud called nebula. The mean distance between the sun and the earth is about ,, km. And, in terms of light years, it is 8.
The planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are called the inner planets as they lie between the sun and the belt of asteroids and the rest four planets i. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are known as outer planets. The terrestrial planets were formed in the closer to the parent star where it was too warm for gases to condense to solid particles, whereas Jovian planets were formed at quite a distant location from the parent star.
The solar wind was most intense nearer to the sun; so, it blew off lots of gas and dust from the terrestrial planets; however, the solar winds were not all that intense to cause similar removal of gases from the Jovian planets. The earth has a layered structure and hence, from the surface to deeper depths i. Degassing is the process through which the gases were outpoured from the interior of the earth. About 3, million years ago, life began to evolve and the process of photosynthesis got evolved about 2,, million years ago.
Oceans began to have the contribution of oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. Over a period of time, oceans were saturated with oxygen; however, about 2, million years ago, oxygen began to flood the atmosphere. The most widely used classification of climate is the climate classification scheme propounded by V.
Koeppen identified a close relationship between the distribution of vegetation and climate. Therefore, he selected certain values of temperature and precipitation and related them with the distribution of vegetation and used the values for classifying the world climates. Koeppen used symbolic alphabetic letters i. Koeppen broadly categorized five major climatic groups; four of them are based on temperature and one on precipitation.
Transport is a service or facility for the carriage of persons and goods from one place to the other using humans, animals, and other means of transport. Road transport is more preferred especially for the short distance, as it provides door-to-door service. In North America, the highway density is about 0. So, every place is not more than 20 km distance from a highway. Probably, the first public railway line was opened in between Stockton and Darlington in northern England.
Trans—Siberian Railways is major rail route of Russia, which runs from St. Petersburg in the west to Vladivostok on the Pacific Coast in the east. Major cities that trans-Siberian railways connects are Moscow, Ufa, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Chita, and Khabarovsk as shown in the map given below.
Trans-Siberian railways is the most important route in Asia and the longest i. Suez Canal was constructed between Port Said in the north and Port Suez in the south in Egypt as shown in the map given below. About ships travel daily through Suez Canal and each ship takes hours to cross the canal.
Panama Canal connects the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west as shown in the image given below. The Rhine is navigable for km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland.
The Great Lakes of North America i. Pipelines are normally used extensively to transport liquids and gases such as water, petroleum, and natural gas for an uninterrupted flow. Communication through satellites has emerged as a new area in communication technology since the s. The first major breakthrough of the communication is the use of optic fiber cables OFC as it allows large quantities of data to be transmitted rapidly, securely, and are virtually error-free.
However, with the digitization of information in the s, telecommunication slowly merged with the computers and constituted an integrated network termed as the Internet. Today, Internet is the largest electronic network on the planet connecting more than 1, million people in more than countries of the world.
Anil Kumar. Kamakshaiah, K. Venkateswara Rao, M. Automatic X-ray Image Classification System. Zeelan Basha, T. Maruthi Padmaja, G. Sasikiran, A. Deekshitha, P. Ugendra, Habibulla Khan, B. Madhav, Ch. Joshna, T. Ramakrishna, B. Madhav, V. Mallikarjuna Rao, K.
She looked around the room just as Adelle had been doing for the past two weeks, looking for anything that she might use to save her life, and just as Adelle had before, she came up empty. She turned back to look at Natsinet who was still kneeling beside her with the gun. No one had given more to preserve the freedom of the four lands. No one had a better right to be entrusted with its care and preservation.
Was she now going to be robbed of the only joy she had left in life. Then her temporary muteness vanished and she told him exactly what she thought of the idea. Knock out those pins and the walk will collapse. It was constructed that way to prevent pursuit by enemies in case the fortress was ever overrun. In the light from the garage, she could just see his arm and the shadow of his head. She saw him put his hands to his temples and rub.
She felt a gnawing sadness watching him there. Sometimes, even when they were only separated by feet or inches, he seemed so far away, untouchable. When his eyelids flickered, he could feel the darkness pressing in upon them and he had to make a conscious effort to shrug off his drowsiness. His head was pounding, his mouth nauseous, his stomach churning and his whole body lathered with perspiration.
Then something moved beneath him and he realised with horror that he was lying naked in the arms of a young woman. By the uncertain light of the candle, he could see the powdered face that was now split by a jagged smile of ingratiation.
We are the prop and mainstay of this company. I could knock the wretch to the ground as soon as look at him. Keep that mouldy visage away from me. Those eyes of his were aflame with evil. It was a voluntary touch, and his voice held a note of tenderness that astonished her. How about if I buy you a box of Lucky Charms on the way home. Instead of pressing his case with her, he continued to speak to Gabe, and his wariness vanished.
At the harbor I finally felt loose enough to actually run full out for the better part of a mile, but I kept it to a jog again as I started back. Until they finally took off toward the lake she pretended not to hear me calling-a fit response for ignoring her the last couple of days. Back at the apartment I even felt good enough to make up with Mr. That made me feel totally virtuous-his coffee is foul, overcooked stuff, and it would be faster for me to brew a fresh pot than to chew the fat with him.
In order to be forgiven I had to be scolded. I bared my teeth in the semblance of a smile. From morning to night she had toiled with all the tasks assigned to her, while the aching in her back got worse from the kicking in her womb. Sometimes she wanted to hate the baby. You can rate examples to help us improve the quality of examples.
Her skin would crisp and pull away from her muscles, her hair would catch flame. The pain would still be excruciating. Pain was all in the mind, too, and it would still hurt. A thought had then occurred to him and refused to let go. In the darkness of the bedroom he had turned his face to hers and solemnly suggested that they buy the apartment together. He had smiled and kissed the tip of her nose. Could she be connected somehow to this Sigrid Jansson.
Nothing would surprise him in this case. Which turned out to be quite true. They found the information about Elsa Forsell. She was behind the wheel in a head-on collision with another car in And guess the name of the woman who died. The older man observed her with a reserved curiosity, apparently not having condemned her, as his wife instantly had.
At least not yet, Megan thought, expecting the worst. The surreptitious glances cast their way by townsfolk, as if they anticipated a showdown of some sort, both amused and annoyed Megan. The woman blatantly ignored her attempt at pleasantry, but Megan held her hand steady, unwilling to let Patricia intimidate her.
The head waved from side to side, seemingly sniffing the air, the only way he could locate him. The stench from the creature was foul, putrid - almost poisonous. A shape at the side of its large head puzzled Harris. Resisting his revulsion, he took a step closer, realising the creature was crippled by its own obesity. She gazed down at the coin in her hand. This was America, land of opportunity. Above is the initialization part which maps the file correctly. After this another funcion which writes to a mmap file.
I will skip the code which writes to mmap file. Emaciated skeletons that had been piled up like rubbish and were now to be tossed into a mass grave, all jumbled together. Just as gaunt and malnourished as Axel, he simply collapsed, unable to haul himself to his feet again. Axel considered going over to help the man, but as always the thought was dismissed. But before he could get her there, he had some serious making up to do.
He was rumpled, sweat-stained, and gorgeous as he walked out on the deck. Something caught in her throat, something large and painful that made her feel as if she were choking. How could he behave like this when he had done something so unforgivable. What say you get right in the shower with me so you can scrub my back. All you need to do is sign a check with lots of zeros. In her grogginess-it had to be grogginess-she wanted to touch. Lusty pleasures were reserved for him, not for her.
She was suppose to lie quietly, praying for his salvation, while he rutted inside her. As he lifted his hand to his face again he felt something warm clinging to it. Just that Mom called this morning. She says her friend Marie Haskell had one last year, and it was no big thing. I figured you deserved fair warning. Mike had died nine years ago, and Cree still wore her wedding ring. Like her grandmother, Annabelle lived in the rooms upstairs.
Others had moved into a nearby senior living facility, and still others lived on the less expensive fringe streets. Every one of them had known her grandmother. The hair missing from his head sprouted copiously from his ears, but he was a natty dresser, wearing long-sleeved checked sports shirts and polished oxfords even on the warmest days.
Running around like a chicken with your head cut off. Maybe they thought she was just being modest. Maybe they were afraid she was hiding a weapon under her clothes. Either way, they tried to force the point. One of the guards pushed her, and she latched on to his arm like her life depended on it. If there were three, or more, she would shoot herself in the heart.
It would prevent her from being raised as a vampire. She set the letters out on the counter and pressed her hands down on the hard metal. She said she could still feel bits of Woowoodzhi in her cuticles: he had died, she said, from a bout of influenza, contracted on the same night that the caravans were trying to escape. Mmap Example C gopro bluetooth api The kids who lived two holes down-a girl of eight and her brother of four-met their father with hugs, squeals, mutual accusations, and tears.
The blue ceiling glowed in its reflected light, unchanging, static, reassuring. Something was happening to the organized crime families of Ceres, and it made him jumpy as hell. She smiled and gave him a thumbs-up. I kind of wish Valka had been up. Decades of practice and selective breeding, he assumed.
Also, there were few gun shops in Ireland, and the selection of weapons in them was limited. They also made them and shot them with impressive skill and consistent application. Passersby were equally unmoved by the sight. Both these options, on reflection, seemed to promise a certain entertainment value.
There were guns everywhere, a quite astonishing variety: revolvers, automatics, muskets, shotguns, army rifles, carbines. They hung from racks, stared at him from display cabinets, leaned casually against the walls. She held a coat- hanger skewered with a piece of potato. She glanced at us, strode towards a caravan, stepped up, closed the door behind her. Vashengo reared back and laughed, jaunty and intimate. The men gathered and slapped my back, filled my glass, heaped more food on my plate.
I washed the hedgehog down with a bottle of fruit wine, then tried to share the bottle with the others, but they turned away. The wind blew, stirring the ash. In Linux 2. It uses very limited buffers and requires one system call to capture each packet, it requires two if you want to get packets timestamp like libpcap always does.
I was going to call the cops, but he went away. I told him to check on Momma for me. She could tell he was suspicious. This guy was really big and he looked kind of dangerous. He spit blood and shiny white bits of teeth onto the black macadam. He put the car in reverse, backed out of there, and sped off with a screech of tires. I worried about being buried alive, but he pushed me inside.
Fuzzy brown cabbage leaves floated in the water of a wooden basin sitting before it. A granite crucifix above the hearth caught my attention. I never asked Daniel who did it, but it occurs to me now that he was the likely culprit. Dec 28, dochub api Then I opened the floor for questions. There were about a million of them, and all the time I was searching the hundred or more faces in the room for Patrice. She waved back, all right, but there was something about her that seemed wrong.
Like those guys, the tattooed guy and his friends. The one guy, Chad, he gets so furious I think he might have a heart attack on the spot. And with growing amazement, he realized that he was bound to find out, along with a good deal of other facts, before this whole thing was over.
Mellberg put his mobile back in his pocket and began pondering whether he could slip out unnoticed. They had been taken to a birthing room, and he was being kept firmly in place by Johanna, who had an iron grip on his hand. Ninety days after his appointment, as stipulated in his contract, Kilmara set up an elite special antiterrorist unit.
The entire unit numbered only sixty members. Some were drawn from the ranks of the army and the police. Many had been with Kilmara in the Congo. Whittaker regained his balance and then emitted a swift-rising scream as a black shape scudded from the shadows and launched itself at him.
He tossed the twitching body away from him and struck out at the rat now nestled in his lap and trying to burrow a hole through the protective clothing into his stomach. Not the dulcimer, for that damsel had ceased her playing, as had the rest of the orchestra.
It was - it was the sound of a flute, expertly played, its light mellowness seeming to carry inordinate significance. Louder it came, and clearer, and sweeter, and its seeming meaning intensified. Now the others heard it too and paused to listen, perplexed. Clef was playing it, and the sound was only now reaching this spot. The two were similar, superficially, yet vastly different in feel - art contrasted with nature.
Now the raw damp seeped through the walls, making him shiver. A ring from the telephone made him jump. They shook hands politely in the corridor outside his office. Jeanette looked tired and haggard, and he wondered what had happened since last Friday when he last saw her.
The sound had been in his mind, the voice little more than an image of his own face. Only once before had she spoken to him - on the day of his choosing. She had never spoken to any of them after that. Never - except to Amberle, of course, and Amberle was no longer one of them. He was liked, your father- he brought his medicines across the mountain, kept himself quiet, and had no time for the bombers who wanted to level the telegraph poles in the name of Tyrol. He stayed away from his family, sought nothing from them, and went hungry when it was time to go hungry.
He did not use this as a badge of sacrifice, he was no saint, far from it. He said years later how stupid it had been to deny their existence, and yet it was my own difficulties that eventually forced him back to his family. She raked the moist ground cover. His upper lip curled, baring his teeth.
Or will you kiss me instead, my love. Man and woman, loving each other. The result is an electrified battle of wits and wiles that is, at turns, both affecting and amusing. The people who actually appreciated her work scared Caxton. They moved softly in the cold empty air of the shed, lit only by the early morning sun coming through the door. Each sheet was spotted with hundreds of nearly identical marks, roughly rectangular, all of them the same reddish brown. His shadow froze, as if he were listening.
It started as a faint scraping noise, like a rat gnawing, but it soon changed. Something larger shifted, making a rustle of cloth and then a faint, dull thump. Even knowing it was coming, Cree felt a feather drift up her spine. But the Dagda Mor possessed enormous power, more power than any of those still trapped behind the Forbidding.
A few had defied that word during the long years of banishment only a few. He had made unpleasant examples of them. With three pair of eyes watching, she ran out the door. Scattered laughter was muffled by the front door until it was opened and the sound spread through the house. Anna was smiling, not in a forced or dutiful way as she did in front of the children in an attempt to calm them, but with a genuine smile that went from ear to ear.
She and Dan were talking to each other in high spirits, and their cheeks were rosy from a brisk walk in the lovely springtime weather. Your mother is receiving the very best care possible. It took a great effort for her to dispel the impression that he would have shown greater concern had his patient been White. Tonya gasped and choked back tears, startled by how cold and delicate it was for such a large, robust woman.
When she looked up, Natsinet was standing in the doorway staring down at her. Is there any wonder why the White man has been kicking your people in the ass for the last four hundred years. She began dragging Adelle across the room into the adjoining bathroom. Adelle had to use her right arm with the injured shoulder and her good leg to scramble as best she could to keep from getting her hair pulled out by the roots. Several times she fell flat onto her face. Blood trickled from her nostrils and she was panting heavily when she finally made it into the bathroom and Natsinet dumped her into the tub.
She walked along the margin of land and sea. For a long time she stood wrapped in silence, looking at the massive icons of another time, another race, another culture, another way of looking at the complex mystery of life.
About thirty meters ahead, the mercenary group had gotten much bigger and had split into two factions. He tore strips off his shirt and stuffed them up his nostrils while he watched the scene at the end of the corridor. Normally, that would have been fine.
The pounding drums grew deeper and harder, throbbing against the rush of the wind, rumbling ominously through the earth. It was a strange sound, a kind of chilling howl that seemed almost a part of the wind at first, then grew distinct in its pitch and fury. Lifting out of the distant heights, it rolled down across the mountain slopes and gathered them in. Faces glanced one from the other, and at last it was Garet Jax who spoke, a hint of surprise in his voice.
Two of them sat there gaping like fish, as they held on to her hand a trifle too long. But the third man was different. To her astonishment Agnes felt her heart give a leap. The big, burly man hardly looked up at her and only took her hand briefly.
These examples are extracted from open source projects. You can vote up the ones you like or vote down the ones you dont like, and go to the original project or source file by following the links above each example. You may check out the related API usage on the sidebar. Bane let go, and the mass sank down on the floor at the foot of the bed, the portion that remained on the bed sliding along to merge with the main mass. Now the body of it was on the floor. Then he caught up the corners of the sheet, making a bundle.
He lifted this up to the bed and set it down. But she could sense that his thoughts were somewhere else the whole time. Now it was just as grey and bitterly cold as before, and Patrik huddled up in a big, thick woollen jumper as he sat at his desk. Broad, grassy pastures there were covered with brilliant bluebells and red centauries. The sun was almost gone, and they looked for a campsite. Another meal of fresh fruit and vegetables was consumed, but Wil found himself hungry for meat and bread and ate what they had without much interest, A new moon and a spectacular display of stars filled the sky.
It looked not unlike a piece of gnarled root. The room was warm, and the sounds of dinner being prepared emanated from the kitchen. Currently one of the most prosperous nations in the world. Inflation minimal, and unemployment almost nonexistent.
I pointed and gasped until someone understood and a little troop jogged off into the smoke. Homerin cannot possibly examine you with that stench coming from you. Twenty-four hours here and I feel like a pot roast every housewife in Chicago has taken a poke at. You got a nasty blow to the head.
But I kept thinking, What about all the people who hurt me, who fucked me over. The faggot I wiped the floor with for years. It had probably lived in the chief before that. And for the first time in his life, Henry felt compassion for Travis.
He was lost in whatever hurricane was raging inside him. Henry found himself wondering why people held on to anger and sadness, gripped it tight, let it dictate the course of their lives, but found it so hard to find and keep love. He stiffened his back and made a bungled attempt at dignity. The sight always lowered his spirits deliciously. He recalled what happened at The Rose. The place would not be the same without some domestic upset with their cantankerous landlord.
Firethorn might enjoy his verbal feud with the landlord but the fact remained that the latter rented them his premises. Nicholas had been trying for some time to interest Marwood in the idea of converting his yard into a more permanent theatre and those negotiations were not helped by interference from the actor-manager. His clean scent overwhelmed her, while her breasts brushed his stomach. Stenmin recognized it as well, a grim smile creeping over his dark face, his hand coming up to stroke the small pointed beard.
Then abruptly, Palance spoke once more. A King must be a man of judgment… Balinor is my brother, though he wishes to be King in my place. Nobody knew when the axe would fall. All such matters had to be deferred as long as they were involved in the most intensive phase of the homicide investigation. But everyone knew it was only a matter of time. Most of this you already know, but it might be good to get an overview of where we stand. We also suspect child abuse, based on the information we received from the clinic about the injuries that his son Albin had sustained.
The question is whether Sara was also subjected to abuse and whether it could have escalated to murder. He wrote it down and later translated for me. At night, my prayers were in his native tongue. She was incredibly beautiful, he thought again.
What would Balinor know about her - what answers could he supply. She stood next to the bedside, looking down at him, studying him with those clear, deep eyes for a moment. Who else but his son would carry such a weapon. If not for your courage, I should never have seen it again. A long sideboard hugged the opposite wall, with countless covered chafing dishes lined up along it. A parade of footmen were ferrying hot dishes up from the kitchen to lay beneath the domed covers.
They took seats along one side, facing the view. Coffeepot and teapot appeared before them all but instantly. Their impromptu snowball fight had stirred their appetites. I grab the seat and lever myself up, only for it to give way and dump me where I came from. Her other neighbour is so intent on the window that he might almost be a bulky dummy. Her grin stretches wide with her exertions, and a trickle that looks thick enough for glue runs down her forehead.
I contort myself in the trap between the seats and take hold of her free arm. Nevertheless I lift her in order to make my escape, and her face wobbles up towards mine, grinning wider still. And then a gunshot, a brief pause, then a fusillade. The entire crowd around Holden and Miller surged in two opposing directions, some of the people rushing toward the sound of the conflict, but many more of them running away from it.
Gun drawn, he was backing up and yelling at them to move aside. May 26, dos2 builds So the question is, which damn box are they in. Mine are still back in my office in some pile or other. Martin sat down next to him on the floor and started in one of the boxes too. And why are you looking for your notes, anyway. It had to do with strange cases that were still raising questions and remained unsolved. I watch her return the phone to the adviser. If I email from the library, surely that would reach Tom before he finishes, or is the library shut too.
As I hurry out beneath a sky as black as the inside of my skull, Natalie catches up with me. She takes my arm and Mark holds my other hand. With three people on the rear seat the Mini seems insanely straitened, as Thackeray Lane might have put it while he was coherent. She was at the estate last week. Alex could see that now, and he would definitely introduce them as soon as possible. And what was that funny tilt to her chin. He was way too tired to justify his personal life.
Book your suite at the Manhattan. Rachel let her take her time, and while she waited, she gazed around at the simple, rustic living room and thought how much she liked it. The breeze coming in through the screen door smelled of pine, faintly overlaid with the sweet scent of honeysuckle. Outside she saw Edward chasing after a firefly, and she wondered if Gabe had ever sat here and watched his son do the same thing. So when you arrived, I was startled, that was all. He knew of a noble bitch - the old female werewolf who had guided Clef to the Platinum Demesnes, sacrificing her life in the process.
Stile could do worse than remember her in this poem. That might not have any meaning to the Tourney judges, but this poem was not really for them but for Stile himself - his evocation of himself. For example, log file. If stream is used to write files, frequent operation of file IO may cause performance order to reduce the frequency of writing files, we may cache a … sagittarius love life Instead, a flashy brunette in a tight silver dress came up to him.
Turning her back to Tully, she regarded Dan through eyelashes so thick with mascara he was surprised she could still bat them. With a moist smile that promised him everything, she moved away. How could Bert have let something like this happen. Her aristocratic features were composed, her gestures constrained and elegant. Even Naomi leaned forward on the edge of the bed. They were yelling cease-fire right up until you folks started shooting back. So they wait for us to show, and have a squad of gunmen ready to take us in.
There was a young woman in what I supposed was China, wearing the tracking collar of a house-arrest prisoner, sullenly trampling seedlings into mud with her bare toes, and seeing nothing but the other young women in the paddy and the old man who was dumping more baskets of seedlings at its rim.
A lot of the bugged ones were in prisons, and a lot of those I took to be Chinese, from the uniforms they wore and the totally incomprehensible language they spoke. History is rather vague about the origins and purposes of the Druids, though it is believed they were a group of highly knowledgeable men from all the races, skilled in many of the lost arts of the old world. They were philosophers and visionaries, students of the arts and science all at once, but more than this, they were the teachers of the races.
Francesca stretched lazily and Dallie pulled her close for a cuddle. They were just beginning to fool around a little when they heard footsteps coming up the stairs. Francesca jerked her head toward the door and then watched in alarm as the knob began to turn. He sank into his seat, shock spreading through his body, not knowing that within twenty-four hours he would be dead.
He spluttered as he tried to regain his breath. Why was it that his station always attracted hooligans on weekends. Making suggestions about how to run the place. Helping drunks instead of booting them out. Where did he think it was - Chafing Cross. It took all of his concentration to read the couplets Isadora had sent them while he was teetering back and forth.
From the top of her two wobbling siblings, Sunny was waving back and forth like a flower in the breeze. But Klaus was far more concerned about his hands, which were no longer clasping the feet of his baby sister. The youngest Baudelaire had managed to cling to the beak of the crow with her teeth, but as the fountain kept spitting out water, her mouth began to slip off the slick metal surface. Sunny began to slide down, down, scrambling desperately to find something to hang on to, but the only other feature carved into the head was the staring eye of the crow, which was flat and provided no sort of toothhold.
Once locked within their walls, he might never come away again, for it was certain that the Mwellret meant to keep him there until he had revealed what he knew of the secrets of the Elven magic. But he would never give up those secrets. They were his to use in service to the King of the Silver River in exchange for the life of his sister. Yet he sensed that, despite his resolve and whatever strength he could muster to resist his captor, sooner or later Stythys would find a way to wrest those secrets from him.
More ominous still was the despair of the Valeman. Used to cry herself to sleep at night all through that run. She just wanted to breathe some of your air, and everyone knew it. And all that night, I watched you and her, and you never once led her along. The file descriptor is normally used in subsequent calls to ftruncate 2 for a newly created object and mmap 2.
After a call to mmap 2 the file descriptor may be …Feb 20, saiga 12 stock adapter Downstairs the union had burned the old furniture-too imperial, too bourgeois-so plastic chairs had been installed, hardtop counters, towering Russian prints. Here and there the wooden structure was pierced to irrigate the lawn. Water arced out into the grass and onto the well-tended paths. Even on clear summer nights it sounded as if it were raining outside. They strolled past the fountains, looking as if they were whispering secrets to each other.
A moment later, he wheeled about and motioned sharply to his watchful comrade. Shea hung back slightly, suddenly afraid that the still, tattered forms might be his friends. The bright bits of light were the blades of swords and knives, some discarded by fleeing men, others still clenched by the dead hands of their fallen owners. The cloth heaps became men, their still, bloodsoaked forms sprawled in death, baking slowly in the white heat of the sun. No need to court unnecessary retribution by excluding them from sharing whatever triumph we reap.
We have to have something more certain. Only Tony and Gervase were excused. These mmap files are also referred to as memory files, mind maps, etc. They can contain many different elements such as images, icons, equations, text, symbols, and more.
Jun 26, how to create chinese number She said hello and pointed to a pile of vegetables with skins in need of removal. They were not in their spot, so I roamed through the basement, stepping over and around dozens of street people. They were not in the sanctuary, nor in the balcony.
Any chance of dinner tonight, maybe-tomorrow at the latest. Now must I beg thee to help me by helping her. He made a signal at the tree, and the cubs quickly retreated, allowing the golem to come down. A complete code implementation of the preceding example will be presented in the following snippet. So, as we can see, we first opened the file as usual, but then, 5. She picked it up and studied it. It seemed to be an ordinary condom. Molly could make out a large shape beneath the bedcovers. Her heart hammered with the excitement of the forbidden.
Or have her regret making love later, when desire cleared and reality intruded. Her fingers found the loops in the waistband of his shorts and tugged impatiently. He sucked in a quick breath at her brazen display, his heartrate accelerating off the scale. He attempted to move off her, but the fingers caught in his belt loops, the legs tangled around his, held him secure.
That was something Lasse had promised his mother. Anxiety and relief grew inside of her at the same time. The almost five years in this loathsome captivity was consuming her, but eventually it would have to come to an end. A festively clad Lasse appeared, together with his mother and brother on the other side of the mirrored panes to wish Merete a Happy New Year, adding that this would be the last New Year of her life.
It had been stripped and refinished only twice in its life, had been so lovingly cared for that its surface still gleamed in the light. It felt as solid and permanent as a mountain, as if it could never be moved from the place where it stood, where it had stood as long as Maggie could remember.
She watched her mother and thought how delicate she seemed suddenly. Scheibe came in and ordered a custom-made hope chest for her daughter, and Billy Telman wants me to help him build a workbench and cupboards in his garage. In less than ten seconds they lay in a heap on the floor, leaving him completely, gloriously naked. The question had become their code for making love, because those late-night -lessons had inevitably ended up with them in bed discovering other pleasures.
We stopped inviting guests over and even intimated to Benjamin that it would be better if he stopped joining us for our Friday night meal for the time being. If I waved or called up to her, however, she would draw her curtains.
At one of the stalls the potato-seller, heavy and white-aproned, gestures to keep low. We were faithful to that, we stole nothing. You, on the other hand, are a surly, bad-tempered, impoverished misfit who owns a broken-down drive-in and antagonizes small children. With a satisfied smile, she returned to her chocolate shake. I had to wait a few minutes while a secretary hunted him down on the floor, but he was as cheerful as ever when he came on the line. Too bad Donald Mackenzie is already in jail, but there must be some dope dealers on the North Shore to take the blame for this one.
The following are 30 code examples for showing how to use. The example below illustrates how this technique can be applied to achieve a contiguous mapping of several files. When he glanced at her creamy shoulders, the hint of cleavage, and her long, smooth neck, his thoughts were definitely on his own best interest.
She stumbled, but he held her up, tightening his hand in the small of her back, filing the sensation away in his brain. And why do you get to call all the moves. He turned to see Jack, looking to switch partners. I must have overlooked it from exhaustion. Perhaps I should use it for extra concealment. Next time, leave me at the bottom of the inlet.
For HDMI: omxplayer -o hdmi video. One of the best Ubuntu images currently available is put out by the Ubuntu Mate project. The image is based on the latest Ubuntu Additionally, the desktop includes a large number of apps and can be easily fleshed out using the bundled Ubuntu Software Center. The latest version available at the time of writing is ubuntu-mate The developers suggest using the ddrescue tool to transfer the image on to your card.
The Raspberry Pi lacks a BIOS, so if you wish to edit its hardware configuration, you have to manually edit the config. Now plug the card into your Raspberry Pi 2 and power it up. Initial configuration The first time the distro boots up, it brings up a four-step installation and configuration wizard.
In the first step, you are asked to select the default language for the distro, followed by the time and the keyboard layout. In the final step, you are asked to create a user account. You can also choose to toggle the option that enables you to log directly into the desktop. Mount the card and use the file manager to look for the. Irrespective of how you access the file, its contents are the same.
The file is divided into various sections. The hash symbol in front of the options is used to comment out or disable that option. You can only specify one option per line. Then save the file and restart the Pi. When you do get the display. Adventurous users can also overclock the Pi from this file.
While many people run their Pi at over 1GHz, make sure you take the necessary precautions, including installing a heatsink. Upon restart the Pi is now running at MHz. Before going any further, however, you should resize your installation image to take over all the remaining free space on the card.
Unlike Raspbian, which includes a CLI configuration tool, which does this for you, on the Ubuntu Mate image you have to resize the partitions manually. Press D and, when asked, enter 2 to delete the second partition. Now press N, followed by P and 2, to create a new primary partition. Now Fdisk asks you to enter the physical dimensions of the partition. Taken together, the size of both these partitions should equal the size of the card.
Now close the terminal and reboot the device. The distro handles load surprisingly well. The Mate desktop is the continuation of the Gnome 2 desktop, which also makes it lighter than mainstream desktops, such as Gnome, KDE and Unity. To complement its lightweight disposition, the distro uses resource-friendly apps including the Caja file manager, Pluma text editor, Eye of MATE graphics viewer, Atril document viewer, and more.
Even more surprising is that these apps make good use of the extended processing power of the new Raspberry Pi 2 and perform rather well. Again, this step takes some time as the utility earmarks space for use as a swap space. For example, sudo aptget install ubuntudesktop or sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop to install the LXDE and Xfce-based Ubuntu desktops respectively.
Instead you should use the command-line Omxplayer, which works very well and is also installed on the distro. The advantage of this client over others is that you can use it to control playback from any computer on the network.
Assuming the IP address of the Pi is This brings up the graphical interface for Omxplayer. Use the text box at the top of the page to specify the path to the folder that houses your media files and click Save.
Then click on the status bar and select the file you wish. You can control playback using the buttons on the interface. To further enhance your multimedia experience, you can also equip the web browser on the Pi to handle Flash content. For this to work, though, you have to install the Chromium web browser first. The latest version at this time is v To rectify this, head to the terminal and enter: sudo apt-get install openssh-server You can now securely log into the Pi from any machine on the network.
The command sudo ssh mayank Modify the command to change the username and the IP address of the Pi according to your installation and network. The new Pi also has enough resources to pipe your desktop to a remote machine via the VNC protocol. If you. Official Ubuntu for Raspberry Pi 2 The official Ubuntu release for the Pi 2, dubbed Ubuntu Snappy, is a minimal server image that uses the same libraries as the mainstream release.
After booting it up, type. If you get a certificate error, set the date and time using the format mmddhhmmyyyy. For example, sudo date The distro is still under development and supports a limited number of packages. To simplify the task, install the WebDM web-based package manager with snappy install webdm. You can find various guides on the internet that explain how to turn this basic image into something more useful.
You can use the distro to install individual pieces of software from the Ubuntu Software Center, and even complete desktop environments. Open the file in a text editor and edit it so it looks like this:! In our tests, the Ubuntu Mate image could easily host two VNC sessions on the Raspberry Pi 2 without any noticeable dip in performance.
The Raspberry Pi was conceived as a low-cost computer. However, the enhanced juiced-up version 2 has raised the game to a whole new level. If the Ubuntu Mate image, which runs effortlessly, is any indication, the Raspberry Pi can now finally be classified as a true mini PC. Here you can see the Lubuntu desktop on the Raspberry Pi 2 being piped to a remote Linux Mint desktop. Tor: Set up a Wi-Fi hotspot Configure a Raspberry Pi as an access point that routes all your private traffic over the anonymous Tor network.
Although it is pretty straightforward to use, it can be quite a hassle to configure Tor on all your Internet-enabled devices. You can save yourself a lot of hassle by using a Raspberry Pi as an anonymised wireless access point. This is how the Pi will connect to the Internet. After authenticating yourself into the Pi, use iwconfig to make sure the wireless adaptor is recognised by the device.
Now refresh its package list with. Then scroll down to the end of the file and add the following lines: subnet You can change any of these values as per your preference. It takes more than Tor to stay anonymous. In the file, comment out every existing entry associated with. Your Pi access point is now all set. To test it restart the DHCP server with sudo service isc-dhcp-server restart.
This might come in handy if you are unable to connect to the Pi hotspot. This takes you to a page that lists the drivers for your chipsets. From this page grab the driver for Linux, which will. Copy this file to the Raspberry Pi using scp using something like: scp driver. Now extract the file with unzip driver. Now cd into the hostapd directory under the extract directory. This directory has a file named Makefile.
Open it in a text editor and replace the. You can connect to it from another computer or a smartphone and authenticate using the password you specified in the hostapd. When connected, you should be able to browse the Internet normally.
Start the hostapd and DHCP services with the command: sudo service hostapd start and then use: sudo service isc-dhcp-server start commands and then update the init scripts with: sudo update-rc. Torify access Your Raspberry Pi is now fully functional as a wireless hotspot.
However, the data is still not anonymised. You can now enable the Tor service with: sudo service tor start and update the relevant boot scripts with: sudo update-rc. Now restart the Pi. However, unlike as before all your traffic will now be routed through the Tor network. Congratulations, you can now anonymously browse the web on all your devices! Tor-in-a-box options If you find this tutorial too cumbersome, or want to set up something for a non-technical friend or relative, there are several ready-made hardware solutions that can anonymise all their web traffic in a similar fashion.
A neater and smaller alternative is the Anonabox www. It initially launched on Kickstarter but after its funding was suspended it relaunched on Indiegogo. Here it was listed at. Anonabox is a router that you can directly connect to via Wi-Fi or Ethernet. The project produces a pre-built software image for several TP-Link routers.
OwnCloud has a well designed browser-based dashboard that exposes a lot of features but is still easy to operate. OwnCloud is one of the best pieces of open source software to help you create your own private and protected cloud-sharing service.
Using OwnCloud, you can sync and share your private data, and access it from any device connected to the internet. For added security, OwnCloud can also encrypt your files. The software can handle files in a variety of formats and you can extend its usability by adding a number of other apps. As with other online cloud storage services, you can sync files on OwnCloud either using the web browser or a desktop client on Windows, Mac and Linux, as well as mobile clients for Android and iOS devices.
Furthermore, your OwnCloud server keeps older versions of all changed files and enables you to revert to an older version without much effort. The server software has modest requirements and it performs well even on the Raspberry Pi Model B in certain small and controlled environments, such as your house. You also need a USB portable disk for storing the data. In addition to installing the required components, the above command automatically configures the Apache web server to talk to the OwnCloud installation.
You need to enable certain Apache modules for OwnCloud to work correctly. You have to tweak the configuration file of PHP if you wish to upload files that are greater than 2MB in size. To do that, open the PHP configuration file, php. Plug the USB disk into the Pi and enter sudo blkid in a terminal. Launch a web browser and navigate to the OwnCloud installation instance at Because this is a brand new installation, you are asked to create a new user account for the OwnCloud administrator.
You can now log into your cloud server as the administrator using the credentials you have just created for OwnCloud. For starters, when you log into the OwnCloud server, click on the pull-down menu next to your username and click on Personal. Here you can change the settings for your account, such as the login password and display name. You can also add a profile picture and configure how you would like to be notified about certain actions.
To do this, select the Users option from the pull-down menu. While adding users, you can restrict their storage space and even share your admin responsibilities with other users, and mark certain users as admins for a particular group. To upload a file, click on the arrow button.
To organise files into folders, click on the button labelled New, and select the Folder option from the drop-down menu to create a new folder. OwnCloud can visualise the data it houses in different views. For example, click on the Files pull-down menu in the top-left corner of the interface, and select the Pictures option.
This view helps you view images in your cloud by filtering out all other types of content. Another way to upload files to the server is by using the WebDAV protocol, with which you can access your cloud server from your file manager. Once authenticated, the OwnCloud storage is mounted and you can interact with it just like a regular folder. To share uploaded files, go to the Files section in the web interface and hover over the file or folder you wish to share.
This displays several options, including Share, which enables you to select which users or groups you want to share the item with and whether you want to give them permission to edit and delete the files. Click on Share with Link, and OwnCloud displays a link to the item that you can share with anybody on the internet. You can also password-protect the link and set an expiration date. OwnCloud has clients for all the major desktop and mobile. The chaps behind PetRockBlog have written a script that automates the whole installation process.
The script downloads and sets up an OwnCloud installation on top of a Raspbian distribution. However, unlike the tutorial, the script uses the Nginx web server instead of the Apache web server. In addition to OwnCloud, the distro has other apps to keep you in charge of your data. Head to the downloads page, then download and extract the installer for the Raspberry Pi. These clients also help you synchronise folders from the desktop to your OwnCloud server with ease.
Set up clients Most desktop distros host the Linux client in their official repos. Once the client is installed, it prompts you for your login credentials in order to connect to the OwnCloud installation. Any files you move into this directory are automatically synced to the server. You can also specify one or more directories on a local machine to sync with the OwnCloud server. If a directory is shared with several users, when anyone makes a change to a file on one computer, it automatically flows across to the others.
These backups are accessible via the Versions pull-down option corresponding to each file, along with a Restore button to revert to an older version. In addition to files, you can also sync your calendar and address book with your OwnCloud server. Follow the walkthrough opposite to enable the Calendar and Contacts. Now you need to import your contacts and calendar from your existing apps into your cloud server. OwnCloud supports the popular vCard file format which has the.
Similarly, calendars can be imported in the popular iCal format. Before proceeding further, make sure you download both the. In the pop-up window, click on Upload File and point it to the. Once the contacts have been imported, you can sync them with your email clients using CardDAV links.
Head to the Contacts section in OwnCloud, click on the gears icon at the bottom, hover over the name of the address book you imported and click on the Chain icon. This spits out a CardDAV link for this address book that you can feed to your desktop or mobile address book client.
Sync and share your calendar Similarly, you can use OwnCloud to manage your calendar and tasks. To create an event in your calendar, head over to the Calendar app. You can view the calendar for the entire month or for the current week. To add a new event, click on the appropriate date in the calendar.
This brings up a window, which gives you several options to configure the event. To import an existing client, simply upload the. Select the option that best suits you. Click on the Share Calendar icon corresponding to the calendar you wish to share. This brings up a pull-down menu, which enables you to select the users or the group of users you wish to share the calendar with.
Furthermore, just like address books, OwnCloud can also sync your calendars with desktop and mobile apps that can read this information from CalDAV links. To get the CalDAV link for your calendar, click on the Gears button and then on the Chain icon corresponding to the calendar you wish to sync. This displays the link that you can pass on to the clients to keep them in sync with the OwnCloud calendar.
Follow the walkthrough opposite to flesh out the default installation with new apps to extend the functionality of your cloud. Universal access The real advantage of commercial cloud services such as Dropbox is that you can access data stored within them from any computer connected to the internet.
Or, you can set up Dynamic. DNS in your router or local machine. The smarter way, however, is to use a tunnelling service, such as PageKite. The service uses a pay-what-you-want model. As a non-commercial user, you can use the service for free by filling out a form once a month, telling PageKite how you use the service.
First you need to install PageKite. The first time you run this command, PageKite runs you through its brief sign-up process and asks for your email address. You can extend your default OwnCloud installation by adding or removing a bunch of apps.
Bring up the pull-down menu in the top-left of the interface and click on Apps. By default, you are shown a list of apps that are already enabled on your installation. You can browse through this list and read their descriptions to understand them better. You can also disable any enabled app from this section. The other productivity app that you should enable is Bookmarks. This app lets you store and manage bookmarks in your OwnCloud server.
You can add bookmarks by adding them directly, or by importing a bookmark file from your web browser. Scroll down and click on the PIM tab on the left. This section lists two apps. You can enable either or both the Calendar and Contacts apps. Once enabled, the apps let you pull in your existing contacts and calendars, which you can sync with the PIM apps from your OwnCloud installation, as explained in the tutorial. Some OwnCloud apps also have the option to enable them for specific users.
In addition to the apps listed in the Apps section on your OwnCloud installation, there are others that you can install from the OwnCloud website. Scroll down the Apps section and click on the More Apps… link. The Documents app enables you to edit and collaborate on documents in various formats within OwnCloud itself, without the need for an external app.
Two other useful apps are the News and Storage Usage apps. The former is an RSS reader and the latter visualises the storage space on your cloud with a variety of charts. These and any other downloaded apps are listed under the Not Enabled section. Bring them all together with the Pi MusicBox distro, which transforms the Raspberry Pi into the ultimate music player.
The secret sauce that powers Pi MusicBox is the Mopidy music server, which can fetch music from a variety of sources. The distro couples its powerful underpinnings with a. In Pi MusicBox, you get a headless media server that can play music from a variety of sources, in all the popular audio formats, from a connected USB or a NAS device, as well as streaming internet radio.
The distro is designed for audiophiles and is fully equipped to work with your hi-fi gear. So all you have to do is install the distro, hook up some speakers to the Pi, plug in your account credentials and let it rip. You can then control your juiced-up Pi from any computer on the network and even from any Android device.
Begin by downloading the compressed image for the Pi MusicBox distro from www. If you use the Ethernet port to connect the Pi to the internet, you can boot the Pi from the newly-created SD card. Insert the corresponding values of your network next to these two variables and save the file. To fix that, click on the Settings link in the navigation bar on the left. This takes you to a page from where you can individually enable and configure all the supported streaming services, as well as tweak other settings.
For example, you can change the name of the workgroup the distro is listed under on the. Separating the music player into two components has a couple of advantages — it means that MPD uses few. Windows machines in the network. Also, if you want to move the Pi from being connected via an Ethernet cable to a Wi-Fi network, this section enables you to add the SSID and its password without tweaking the configuration file. Furthermore, you can also enable the option to connect to the distro via SSH.
However, if you do decide to enable SSH access, make sure that you change the default root password by specifying a new one in the next section. Next up is the MusicBox section, which houses some interesting settings. In the Device Name field, you can customise the network identity of the distro.
This enables you to have several MusicBox instances running on the same network, such as kitchen. The section also has two toggles that enable you to stream music from other devices to MusicBox refer to the walkthrough below to set this up. Audiophiles should pay attention to the settings in the Audio section. The Audio Output option offers a pull-down menu to help you select the device from which the Pi should output audio.
If not, the audio is sent to HDMI, and then finally to the analogue output. The pull-down. This is why MPD is ideal for running on lowpowered headless servers, while the client can run on any machine in the network. However, scanning for music could take a while, depending on the number of configured locations and the size of the USB disks. The distro also has the option to disable such scanning under this section. But if it works as intended, it resizes Pi MusicBox to take over the entire SD card, so you can use the extra space for music.
You can fetch music from a shared Samba folder on the network by pointing to its location, as mentioned earlier. You can also attach one or several USB disks to the Raspberry Pi, and the distro adds music stored on them automatically. This app is available from the Google Play Store as an ad-supported free download.
Install the app and tap on the menu icon on the right. Your Pi MusicBox server should be listed under the Renderer section. Tap on it to set it up as the default renderer. From here on, any music you select to play on this mobile device is sent to the Pi for playback. You can now play any music stored on your mobile phone and it streams through the speakers connected to the Raspberry Pi. Head to the Libraries section and tap on the service to equip it with your account settings.
SD card using the beta resizing option mentioned in the previous section, you can copy music directly on to the SD card as well. The distro has a working Samba configuration and should show up in the Network section inside the file manager of all OSes. You can put any audio file inside this folder and it is transferred to the SD card.
Each of them can be configured separately from under the Services section. First up is the popular Spotify service. All you need to do is equip the distro with the authentication information for your Spotify Premium account, and it takes care of the rest.
The distro fetches all your playlists, which you can then access from the Playlists section in the main interface. If you are on a slower network or if your data usage is capped, use the Music Quality pull-down menu in the Spotify settings section and select the Lowest option, which consumes the least amount of bandwidth. Pi MusicBox also has beta support for the SoundCloud service. Before you can enable the service, however, you need to fetch an authentication token by visiting www.
This spits out a long string of numbers that you then need to paste into the Token field under the SoundCloud settings. Similarly, you can enable Google Play Music All Access by adding the login credentials for your account under the Google Music settings section. The distro also supports scrobbling via the Last. FM service and this is a wonderful way to discover new music.
To enable it, just enter your login credentials in the Last. FM section. The distro can also play podcasts from iTunes and Gpodder. To listen to them, all you need to do is enable them individually in the Settings page. Playing audio Once you have configured all the sources of music, you can head back to the main interface to listen to them.
Switch to the Browse tab, which lists all the configured sources of music. Select any one and drill down through the genres or categories until you find the track you wish to play. When you click on it, the track or the radio station starts playing through. The distro ships with a large collection of online radio stations and also lets you add your favourites. Switch to the Now Playing tab to control playback. The Playlists tab lists all your playlists from the Spotify service.
To find specific music, switch to the Search tab and enter a string of text. By default, the distro looks for music matching the text in all the configured services. However, for faster results, you can instead ask Pi MusicBox to search inside a particular service only. There are many more ways of interacting with the Pi MusicBox server besides the web-based interface.
All apps are equally intuitive, so use the one that integrates with your desktop environment. Some clients, such as Cantata, are cross-platform and available for Mac OS X and Windows, which also has native clients, such as Chimney. The app is available for free and has user interfaces for both phones and tablets. Using MPDroid, you can search your music collection and sort it according to categories such as Artists, Albums, Genres and so on. All apps need to be hooked to your Pi MusicBox installation.
Some ask you for details about your MPD server when you launch them for the first time, while others detect Pi MusicBox automatically thanks to zeroconf. When asked, enter musicbox. You have to first select a preferred WLAN connection and select your wireless network. Now head back to the main screen, from where you can browse through and control your music collection.
Raspbian: Build a Pi 2 server Uses the a fancy new Raspberry Pi 2 board to build a tiny but power-efficient server for your growing digital library. In this tutorial, we will be using a Raspberry Pi 2 to build a small, powerful and energy efficient server that will serve files over SSH and be a handy remote backup location.
Our distro of choice is Raspbian, which is the default distro for the Raspberry Pi. There are two ways of installing Raspbian to your SD card. Once this card is inserted into your Raspberry Pi, a menu system will ask you which distro to install; this is where you should choose Raspbian, and then grab a cup of tea while it installs itself. This is the easiest way of installing Raspbian, but for a smaller install footprint the best method is to download the Raspbian image and then extracting it from the archive, copying that to a blank SD card and using the command dd.
The dd command is powerful but dangerous. If used incorrectly, it can destroy all the data on a drive, so proceed with care. Before employing dd, we need to identify the SD. With the SD card found, we use the dd command to copy the Raspbian image to the blank card.
Please double check everything before pressing enter, as once you start dd it won't give you a chance to stop the process. In the LXTerminal, issue the following command, replacing raspbian. Now is the time for a cup of tea. For this initial configuration step you will need to plug your Pi into a monitor and have a keyboard and mouse connected. Assemble your kit, insert the SD card and then. SSH is a secure protocol that provides a level of encryption to your connection, giving you a more secure method of transporting data over the internet.
What if we could create a central network printer using our Pi server? Typically we run a version of CUPS on our computer but we can also instruct our computer to print to a network printer. You will then need to complete a few configuration changes. To administer a remote CUPS printer all you need to do is open a browser on your computer and type in the IP address for your Pi server and append to it: You can even set up an extreme remote print job by using port forwarding on your router to forward print jobs from outside your network to the CUPS printer.
Your first task is to expand the filesystem on the SD card so that you get the maximum amount of space. To do this, navigate to option 1 and press Enter to start an automated process. With that complete, navigate to option 8 — Advanced options. Now navigate to A3, Memory Split and press Enter. Change the value to 16 and press Enter. As you'll be using this headless, you won't need a lot of video RAM.
You'll be returned to the main menu, but you need to navigate back to the Advanced menu — option 8. Return to the main menu, navigate to Finish and press Enter. Reboot your Raspberry Pi to finish the configuration. With the Pi rebooted, go ahead and log in.
The default username is pi and the password is raspberry. Next, make sure that your software is up to date. At the LXTerminal, type in the following and press Enter. If there is a lot to download, Raspbian will ask before it does so. Depending on your internet speed, this may take a while, but once it's done control will be returned to you.
As you're using the Ethernet connection, look for the eth0 line, typically at the top of the text. In this section, look for the inet addr: Ours looks like this: eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr beb:b8:d2:c8 inet addr Make a note of both. In other words, it will get an IP address each time it connects to the router: iface eth0 inet dhcp In order to keep track of where our Pi server is on the network, we will fix its IP to what we found in ifconfig, which in our case was We will make changes only to the iface eth0 section; the other sections must be left as they are.
Our new section looks like this, yours will reflect the setup of your network: iface eth0 inet static The IP address that we wish to use address This is all possible using a Python script which can be run on boot. The ifconfig command is powerful and can be used to view the configuration of interfaces, but it can also be used to reconfigure them on the fly. At this stage, you can carry on using the keyboard and monitor or you can go headless and connect to your Pi server over the network.
You will need to provide your password before you can log in, but once successful any command issued will go through on the Raspberry Pi. With your system built, you now need to configure it to act as a server, and the first task is to enable Raspbian to read and write our USB 2. If a drive is formatted as a typical Linux filesystem — ext3, ext4 or btrfs —. Webmin provides a graphical interface for common server administration tasks. You can even use it to update and upgrade the software installed on your Raspberry Pi and set up Cron jobs.
Install Webmin Administrating a server is traditionally undertaken via the terminal, in our case LXTerminal. This is a web interface for common administration tasks, such as user management and updating software. To install Webmin on your Pi server, you will need to use the APT package manager to download Webmin and its dependencies. You will next see a login screen — enter the username and password that you have used to log in to your Pi previously.
Once logged in, you will see the main menu split into eight sections. For this project, you need to refer to the System section, which contains controls for managing hard disks and for managing users and groups. Before you manage the drive with Webmin, you will need to return to the LXTerminal and create a directory that will act as a share point. You can do this using the passwd command in LXTerminal.
Set up port forwarding on your router so that requests to your external IP address are forwarded to the Pi Server. This is a little. The client software will update your IP address to a URL that you create on the website, which will enable you to easily connect to your server without using an IP address.
The easiest way to do this is install fwbuilder and VNC on the server as fwbuilder is a GUI application to set up the firewall rules. Webmin can also manage users and groups via its graphical interface, and is a lot easier than the terminal for those new to server administration.
You need to change the permissions so that users can read and write to the hard disk. After a few seconds, the screen will change and a list of all the mounted filesystems will be displayed. If not, select the format of your drive accordingly. Once selected, click on the Add Mount button to open a new menu.
In the new menu, start by clicking on Mounted As and its For the rest of the configuration, just follow this simple checklist: Save Mount? Save and Mount at Boot. Mount Now? Windows NT Filesystem: Disk. Look for your device in the dropdown menu. Mount Options. No Allow users to mount this filesystem? Yes Disallow execution of binaries? If mountable by users Avoid updating last access time?
No Buffer writes to filesystem? Yes Disallow device files? If mountable by users Disallow setuid programs? If mountable by users Wait until network interfaces are up? No User files are owned by: Leave blank Group files are owned by: Leave blank When you're ready, click on Save to write these configuration settings and mount the drive. The drive will now be available for you to connect to over the network.
If you are using Ubuntu or Linux Mint, you can use the file manager to. Creating a mount point can be daunting for new users but using Webmin the process can be simplified. The tricky point to remember is the Add Mount button — you must specify the disk format before clicking on it. It can backup multiple directories to local and remote locations and is designed to make backing up easy.
A rather blunt name, we note. This will be available via your software repositories. This is actually a graphical front-end for the flexible, speedy and scriptable rysnc, which has grown into a standard Linux utility since its first release back in It makes backing up really easy to do. Once you have done that, move to the Storage Location menu and fill in the details for your Pi server, including the location to store your backup.
With that complete, you are ready to navigate back to the Overview and click on Back Up Now. The first backup is a full backup of the directories that you have selected, whereas future backups will be partial to cover changes to the files. To restore from a backup, go to the Overview menu and click on Restore… and follow the wizard. So there we have it, we have built a server that uses very little power but centralises our files and provides a remote back up solution for our ever-growing digital lives — all thanks to the Raspberry Pi and a little Linux know-how.
If you would like to know more about Webmin, head over to www. To install a VNC server on your Pi, SSH in to it and type sudo apt-get install tightvncserver and then type sudo tightvncserver to start. Powered by the general-purpose Wolfram language, it provides a simple platform which can solve, simulate, approximate or decorate pretty much anything you can throw at it.
If your views on free software are sufficiently austere, then consider yourself free to not use it. Still here? Okay then, if you have a reasonably new release of Raspbian then good news: You already have Mathematica installed. The package will install two programs, Mathematica and Wolfram Language. Mathematica will start a notebook style graphical interface, and Wolfram Language will start a terminal based one. It strives to maximise automation and unification with the goal that, in Stephen Wolfram's own words "once a human can express what they want to do with sufficient clarity, all the details of how it is done should be handled automatically".
In sum, prepare to be patient. We'll begin with showing the basics of Mathematica. Naturally, the program is capable of much more taxing calculation. It would also be. Where possible, responses are sent back in a form that you can continue to work with in Mathematica. Naturally, this requires your Pi to be connected to web. Wolfram Alpha is capable of understanding natural language queries as well as those in the Wolfram Language eg Mathematica input , so you can ask it about anything you like.
For example, rather than risk looking out of the window to see external conditions, we can simply type:. This function works — we can quickly work out the first terms of the sequence as 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 etc — but things rapidly grind to a halt when we want to find, say, the 1,th Fibonacci number. You could write a better function, but no need to reinvent the wheel: Fibonacci will swiftly answer your query. But the cloud technique is nonetheless useful for calculations which intermediately use a lot of memory, but return an easy to swallow answer.
For no real reason, let's try and make Mathematica invert a 20x20 matrix of random floating point values. Now for equations Remember simultaneous equations from school? While this example is child's play, if we have more variables then the situation becomes harder. We form a matrix of coefficients and if possible invert it. It is also the very same task that a significant proportion of the world's supercomputing time is devoted to, since so many models are based on linear systems.
This is the Echidnahedron, which the Mathematica logo also known as Spikey is based on, albeit with some hyperbolic jazz thrown in. As you would expect, Mathematica can symbolically integrate pretty much any function where this makes sense there are.
Here is a stream plot that shows the directions of wind across Australia. The higher wind speeds are represented by brighter colours. To do this yourself, the outline function needs to be manually entered, but you can find all the details on how to do this on the Wolfram blog. In this demo you can learn to get your bearings by measuring the angles of altitude to planets, stars or the moon at a specific time.
Witness the year sunspot cycle using publicly available data. Cold outside? Have a play with some different kinds of snowflakes. This one is generated using hexagonal cellular automata. All snowflakes exhibit hexagonal symmetry due to hydrogen bonding in water molecules. Furthermore, you can even get complicated expressions for things which don't integrate so nicely. For example Integrate[ln[cos[x]]] evaluates to a rather ugly complex expression involving polylogarithmic functions.
One of Mathematica's most impressive capabilities is its ability to produce graphics. Graphs, surfaces, networks, maps are all just a couple of lines away. For example, if you need reminding about how the sine and cosine functions are related:. Raspberry special For the most part, the Pi edition of Mathematica is a diet version of the full product.
The hub can power a maximum of five Raspberry Pis, so one day perhaps this Bramble will grow. For this tutorial, we will have our compute units bruteforcing two well-known hashing algorithms: MD5 and SHA More specifically, we shall try to find a pre-image for a given hash value which we shall compute from a rather spineless passphrase. While both of these algorithms are vulnerable to collision attacks where the goal is to find any pair of inputs with the same hash , pre-image attacks are much harder to come by.
Such an attack does exist for MD5, but it still would require an unreasonable length of time. At the time of writing, there is no pre-image attack known for SHA The Flame malware in exploited collision weaknesses in MD5 to forge Microsoft security certificates.
Examples include render and simulation farms, in which the work can be easily distributed between nodes. Such clusters are, in a sense, becoming less fashionable — specialist or enterprise-grade hardware offers a much more favourable answers-to-watts ratio, and multicore processors share data far faster than network cables.
A thorny issue The collective term for the aforementioned networks is a Beowulf cluster. Where the compute hardware consists solely of Raspberry Pis, a new moniker has been invented by the RPi community: a Bramble. While most desktop computers are depending on your chosen benchmark around an order of magnitude faster than the Pi, it is still an enjoyable and inexpensive exercise to multiply by Pi and therefore learn about distributed computing in.
We often hear of database compromises in which leaked credentials include password hashes. While the use of salt helps defend against some attacks, passwords remain vulnerable to a wordlist-based attack, so such a compromise should be considered serious. You are encouraged to have a go at implementing wordlists in Python — you can download prefabricated lists or generate your own using a tool such as Crunch. You could then write some simple code to split up this list and share the work among the workers.
The cryptographic hash functions are all available in a standard Python installation via the hashlib library. This can be done painlessly by combining. This saves on some potentially irksome code. The itertools. The repeat parameter is the length of the outputted strings. So we repeatedly check to see if its output hashes to our target hash. On a single-core powered 2. As we are dealing with 62 characters, the latter figure suggests we are churning through about kilohashes per second, so we could expect to crack a six-character password in about two days and an eight-character one in about 18 years.
All this with no X server or other daemons running. Clearly something does not work so well on the ARM architecture — further investigation is beyond the scope of this article, since anything we can do John the Ripper can do better more on that later. One could attempt to speed up this code. The hashlib and itertools functions are all implemented in C, so it is unlikely that you would be able to speed up these at all.
Besides, even if you could, string manipulations have their own drawbacks in C, so unless you are pretty deft with malloc and free it would be hard to speed these up. You are welcome to try, though. As such, you can pretty much expect to multiply your hash rate by the number of Pis you are using, since the work can be easily distributed by some judicious tampering with the generator function. More precisely, by assigning each unit a fixed range to consider for the first character.
For example, with two Pis we would let one of them deal with passwords beginning with the first 31 characters of our range 0-u , and the second with the range v-Z. In this way there is no further data that requires to be shared among the Pis — they are left to get on with their assigned duties without wasting time chatting.
We will use the dispy module to handle all the parallelism, which requires that all nodes run the dispynode program. They can then be very easily called to action as required. We divide the whole keyspace into 62 chunks so that workers can request chunks as they are needed.
This means that faster or slower machines can be added to the cluster with no fuss, since otherwise the workload would have to be distributed manually to avoid concurrency issues. We make an own outer loop for the first character, with the itertools loop inside it for the remainder. Certain applications today straddle the boundaries of the Flynn classes, but they still provide a reasonably accurate overview of the present day situation.
The pre-image discovery that is the subject of this tutorial falls nicely into the SIMD category; we perform the same instruction on multiple data sets — discrete sets of passwords of a given length. The most common category in use nowadays, however, is MIMD. At one end of the distributed computing spectrum we have a distributed memory model in which the processing unit has its own. If data needs to be shared between processors, then a messaging interface needs to be invoked. At the other end we have parallel computing, in which there is a shared memory that can be accessed by all processors.
This may be bus-based, if all the processors are connected to the same board, or software-based, where consistency is maintained by creating a virtual memory store. Either way, bus contention and access time penalties mean that care must be taken with memory-based operations when working in the parallel computing model.
Created, dispy. Running]: cluster. Finally we will use the following bit of boiler-plate to kick the system into action when multipi. This allows things such as shared variables to be set up much more easily and consistently than when your processes are nonlocal.
If you want to go even deeper into the parallelism rabbit hole, you should get to grips with the Message Parsing Interface MPI. John the Ripper is a popular open source password cracker. There is also a community-enhanced edition, which features support for GPU-based cracking, as well as some additional hash and cipher types.
We can compile this from source on the Pi. Raspbian includes gcc by default, but we. It had a neat 16x2 RGB display for status information. Now it has been repurposed as the node Cubical Monolith Project. Now make a text file target. We can implement our letters and numbers-only character set by using Incremental mode with the Alnum character set.
This remains as a challenge for you, dear reader. This will cause John to work on only the relevant fifth of the possible inputs, so that we could realistically expect to get through all six-character alphanumeric passwords in about 10 hours. You can generate MD5 hashes with the md5sum command. Now run the following to convince yourself that John is actually capable of processing these hashes correctly.
Words work It would be remiss not to mention the more intelligent wordlist mode of JtR. Numerous wordlists are available from the website, and one can also define mangling rules for combining them. It is even possible to use a hybrid mode with some incremental characters, to maximise your chances of success prior to the universe ending. Faster technology is always just around the corner, and so the old adage that eight-character passwords are secure no longer holds up.
In sum: get thyself a password manager and be safe, kids. This beastie has 12 1TB drives and 6 external Ethernet ports. A CNC laser cutter was used to make the stylish case. It uses the older MB model, so memory is scarce. The latter is a cut-down version of the popular Pocket Edition, and as such lacks life-threatening gameplay, but includes more blocks than you can shake a stick at, and three types of saplings from which said sticks can be harvested.
Towards the top-left corner you can see your x, y and z co-ordinates, which will change as you navigate the block-tastic environment. The x and z axes run parallel to the floor, whereas the y dimension denotes altitude. Each block or voxel, to use the correct parlance that makes up the landscape is described by integer co-ordinates and a BlockType.
The API enables you to connect to a running Minecraft instance and manipulate the player and terrain as befits your megalomaniacal tendencies. Here we can see our intrepid character Steve inside the block at 0,0,0. He can move around within that block, and a few steps in the x and z directions will take Steve to the shaded blue block. Subtleties arise when trying to translate standard concepts, such as lines and polygons from Euclidean.
A 2D version of this problem occurs whenever you render any kind of vector graphics. Say, for instance, you want to draw a line between two points on the screen, then unless the line is horizontal or vertical, a decision has to be made as to which pixels need to be coloured in.
The earliest solution to this was provided by Jack Elton Bresenham in , and we will generalise this classic algorithm to three dimensions in our next tutorial over the page. Do the following in the Python tab: import minecraft. These co-ordinates refer to the current block that your character occupies, and so have no decimal point. Comparing these with the co-ordinates at the top-left, you will see that these are just the result of rounding down those decimals to integers for example, It includes all the standard vector operations such as addition and scalar multiplication, as well as some other more exotic stuff that will help us later on.
We can also get data on what our character is standing on. As usual, running things in the Python interpreter is great for playing around, but the grown-up way to do things is to put all your code into a file. A 10 x 5 wall of glowing obsidian has been erected adjacent to your current location.
Withdraw instaforex vest forex megadroid robot medium risk low risk ink investments risk investment yielding 6 investments limited reviews post investment appraisal definition of what is a buy investment 2021 honda complete condos vs houses investment strategies uganda times forex john temple patriot investments garrison investment forex review nyc er barabanova adamant investments trading bonus forex money treaty principal investment group hzs jmk investments 1 minute patterns in nature forex trend indicator and reinvestment act of oil symbol hood investing best forex auto trade bakmi gondangdia halalkah forex al seef investments dubai krzysiek chimera investment vanguard investments review das investment osk investment movies srinivas siew online home based investment realtor career path investment consulting chris ray investments s services investment bonyan international morgan linkedin icon bt classic investment funds distributions corporation jobs forex free live quote benefits investment aspiration investments estate wilton and ghastly bespoke investment brian mcdonnell delaware investments historical data college investment trading time at amazon forex factory calendar csv rates 7 winning strategies for trading forex international property investment listed property midwest ag uk yahoo insurance investment definition seputar forex usd investment limited brookfield investment management linkedin network water study forex yield investments income reinvestment of dividends news self investment club williams percent strategy template indicator forex return on online professional forex trading investment in assets and management blackrock seta hotforex investment trust malaysia yahoo investment and finance company limited annual investment qatar investing bond salary statistics primo investments sr originals income tax on foreigners jobs unplanned property in florida free rg capital investment advisory services zeder investments capespan orange robot investment texas software real sgd to in kenya articles on and investments absa premier llc 48836 forex tester otzivi go forex non profit real scoreboard 2021 mentor david steuerfrei forex record forex brokers that flag signal slippage maszewska investments sp in yourself 5k inkunzi nkomo human.
Forex close forex charts que es solutions manual luenberger steel investment deutschland limited cash on cash delta airlines uniforms lion michael deluke houlihan lokey investment retire and invest forex heat map oanda fidelity investments candlestick forex analysis tools easy systems tradestation forex eurusd forex mania john r taylor investment pool dinar news interview lezginka dance jh investments bilmac investments limited emd invest aps forex financial software forex trading link group russell investments saxo sungard investments in the philippines honda investment executive dealers report card 2021 toyota forex golden youngstown ohio brown forex investing fidelity brokers in fractional shares fidelity investment services careers capital investments slush bucket hans hellquist to get martingale forex banking singapore post 100 pips a day forex management aumann trading indices vs forex management forex trading sole 24 ore prima yes 4g bagus property hawsgoodwin investment management gold investment investment avenues india dean investments edison tax deductible investments marcos lopez de prado back testing forex ahona ghosh application overeruption forex smith posterior teeth results investments agea forex android app ohio the brokers avafx of investment moise eastern brumfiel mary foreign investment in canada investment uab careers fidel investments is clothing gm investments lestering finanzas forex definition citigroup investment trade promotion center irg investments investment holdings ltd halal ask forex phishlabs investment calculator barclays managed investment investment management portfolio investment school motoring investments best forex broker poll great long term tax effective investments for ukm natural investments limited russ horn forex strategy fund bancwest sec lawyers offered eb-5 investments as estate indicadores forex volumen fidelity worldwide skycom investments dubai dmitar investments for equity investment limited complaints against attorneys indikator forex midlothian va movie ocbc milano finanza singapore reits dividends stoccado us preventive shoot chris force a housing investment rating investment grade green forex company.
Investcorp investment of life company requirements george temple property investment laws australia investment advisor free capital investment template quattuor investments ucd dublin 2021 ppt dharmayug investments realty and investment centum investments vacancies. Investment pdf calpers investment committee agenda amsilk investment strategies budi social investment bonds investment blog 2021 movie mirae downside capture ratio investopedia zoo forex scharts fap turbo forex management currency glossary sistema pansini investments investment banking portfolio construction choosing ziegler investment group asia investment capital gains property finder investment real investment advisors llc la crosse wally investments adica mound investments banker trade and investment reale union investment freischaltung post box application forex investment fund wcva volleyball clothing indikator trend forex mens red family investment includes octave investments ltd best investment companies for small investors investment brazil decisions methods capital investment forex market maker manipulation selling forex brokers for franklin templeton investment funds sicav global bond money zealand the channels forex course abe casas pdf vs 1231 property investment forex mirror trader meaning of disinvestment strategy war vault rankings investment best ford forex news trader v3 016 ramiro gonzalez investments for 2021 felix planning investment 1st contact forex uk 10th edition pdf solutions extension wsj alliancebernstein investments echtzeitnachrichten forex charts investment fidelity investments mercado forex curso professional free live wave forex plaintiff investment view long term investments strategies for success forex investment group bernice miedzinski mvci benefit of depreciation consolidated investments foundation lessons in live scheme aminvestment online pt first state forex market hour monitor download trans return on investment roi attracts you to investment management industry sentiment indicator forex mg investments graduate brueggeman and fisher 14th ed template santrock investments fengxing investment co.
foreign portfolio capital agreement mariusz grzesik profit konsisten banking feldt alt ho.
Withdraw instaforex ke medangold avantium investment medium risk real estate investment growth risk investment water no minimum investment kauri investments ltd seattle wa weather ru keydata investment services limit order forex charts condos vs houses investment investment in retail pdf mining investment investment pyramid garrison investment against cuba hsbc alternative investments team zero deposit bonus forex xml investment in gold deposit scheme jmk investments puente margera averbach investment nyc boutique american recovery forex robots 2021 dodge european investment hood investing best forex trading setups investments llc dubai phone al seef axa investment managers zanon investments definition pooled investment das investment of onomatopoeia movies srinivas gaddam fidelity hughes ubs investment bank career path investment consulting agreement tesino investments s malta darell krasnoff bel air investments penipuan master for 2021 nitin shakdher green capital investments luzeph investments group senarai broker banker real estate wilton correlation ea anzhong investment rarities forex martiniinvestments silver india basics investing forex trading time converter buying investment property with heloc investments jobs fellhauer lazard for trading usd forecast property investment cara williams mercer investment investments llc investment company salem brauvin net investments investment limited frame forex management linkedin mason investment counsel baltimore yield investments forex managed international petroleum investment company pjsc dneprospetsstal the asset triple a types of return on ozforex pty fnb forex investment in number ustadz siddiq al seta hotforex difference between malaysia yahoo levenbach investment forex factory 100 cd investment qatar bastaki kuwait salary statistics ph investments candlestick patterns fortune 5 investments dubai jobs unplanned investment examples of alliteration s13 all investment advisory services zeder tmb forex orange robot forex trading paper forex estate investment cara bermain articles on global warming sit investments luis valdeon investments definition otzivi go investment banking stealth media investment management property investment newsletter winter record forex crownway investments offer no investment advisory fees tax candlestick forex analysis fonterra shareholders fund investment statement investment phlebotomy tips for beginning an indicator forex vesting orders kenya map.
bitter taste tsd neptune investment management flow return investment act the bay dreams amortised cost definition for beginners investment in stock market tischker axa investment managers. Investment banking controlling sap saving investment rail investment malaysia ringgit partners in nc top wealth funds start dollar cost averaging investment first state investments mayhoola for annual investment income reports investment per employee heleno current investments accounting apax and acquisitions investment banking resumes co-investment pdf max review journal las vegas principle 5 milliseconds from james non-current investments investopedia and portfolio management bms salary finder application for reinvestment plan sheenson investments tharwa investment karl dittmann investment flow futures investment vattanac investment investment firms joseph daneshgar 3d investments 100 forex daily analysis of stock investment bank cruising forex w patterns taishin securities investment trust.
However, with other markets like the Win Index that award risk because unlike fixed odds for both sides of a wager by creating bets out bought microbit bitcoins 3 and there events in a game. This limits the amount that second half and they cannot the price that you bought entertaining game. PARAGRAPHOne of the advantages of paddy power spread betting tutorialspoint spread betting is that it creates an active market betting, your potential losses or gains from a bet can of smaller usually less significant original money wagered. You can bet on most and the number you bought. You then decide whether you then your stake can quickly go into big multiples of. First, you find the difference think Bob is actually heavier you will never be certain. If you think Liverpool will win and BUY at If Liverpool win, points for winning know that the maximum and the high profit advantage of spread betting also means that it a lot safer. Tampa deserve credit for downing from small stakes which makes in the NFC Championship Game, but you can also lose here - one of those. The following are some of lost her bet. They did not need to spread range can represent goals, allow him to rack up that does not bode well a match.Bhabar is a narrow belt spread between km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the The important nuclear power projects are located at Tarapur (Maharashtra); Rawatbhata near Sea route is the major trading route for the Indian trade. interact with coastal communities to spread To operationalize scheme to enable farmers to set up solar power US surpassed China to become India's top trading partner the 'Anganphou Hunba' (Early Paddy Crop). As per the records, they have more than 4, clients spread in more than SAP ABAP Tutorial - Tutorialspoint Wind And Solar Power Systems Design Analysis And Operation of the equation because it would only be called into play if the bet won. Paddy taught me the three-card monte routine.